Browsing by Subject "CRISIS"

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  • Hruskova, Zdenka; Pippias, Maria; Stel, Vianda S.; Abad-Diez, Jose M.; Sanchez, Manuel Benitez; Caskey, Fergus J.; Collart, Frederic; De Meester, Johan; Finne, Patrik; Heaf, James G.; Magaz, Angela; Palsson, Runolfur; Reisaeter, Anna Varberg; Salama, Alan D.; Segelmark, Mårten; Traynor, Jamie P.; Massy, Ziad A.; Jager, Kitty J.; Tesar, Vladimir (2019)
    Rationale & Objective: Data for outcomes of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) are limited. We examined the incidence and prevalence of ESRD due to scleroderma in Europe and the outcomes among these patients following initiation of RRT. Study Design: Registry study of incidence and prevalence and a matched cohort study of clinical outcomes. Setting & Participants: Patients represented in any of 19 renal registries that provided data to the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) Registry between 2002 and 2013. Predictor: Scleroderma as the identified cause of ESRD. Outcomes: Incidence and prevalence of ESRD from scleroderma. Recovery from RRT dependence, patient survival after ESRD, and graft survival after kidney transplantation. Analytical Approach: Incidence and prevalence were calculated using population data from the European Union and standardized to population characteristics in 2005. Patient and graft survival were compared with 2 age- and sex-matched control groups without scleroderma: (1) diabetes mellitus as the cause of ESRD and (2) conditions other than diabetes mellitus as the cause of ESRD. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression. Results: 342 patients with scleroderma (0.14% of all incident RRT patients) were included. Between 2002 and 2013, the range of adjusted annual incidence and prevalence rates of RRT for ESRD due to scleroderma were 0.11 to 0.26 and 0.73 to 0.95 per million population, respectively. Recovery of independent kidney function was greatest in the scleroderma group (7.6% vs 0.7% in diabetes mellitus and 2.0% in other primary kidney diseases control group patients, both P Limitations: No data for extrarenal manifestations, treatment, or recurrence. Conclusions: Survival of patients with scleroderma who receive dialysis for more than 90 days was worse than for those with other causes of ESRD. Patient survival after transplantation was similar to that observed among patients with ESRD due to other conditions. Patients with scleroderma had a higher rate of recovery from RRT dependence than controls.
  • Heino, Matti T. J.; Fried, Eiko I.; LeBel, Etienne P. (2017)
  • Lehtisaari, Katja Marleena; Villi, Mikko; Grönlund, Mikko; Linden, Tommy Carl-Gustav; Mierzejewska, Bozena; Picard, Robert; Röpnack, Axel (2018)
    The article focuses on innovation and social media strategies in newspaper companies in the US and three Scandinavian countries (Sweden, Norway and Denmark). Many previous studies have focused on the state of journalism and media industry in single countries, although media have distinct features in different countries. Through the comparative setting, it is possible to examine the differences in media innovation strategies and study what factors affect innovation in media production, business models, sources of funding, and social media strategies. The qualitative part of the paper consists of semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 65) with media managers and experts, which were carried out in Scandinavia in 2016 and in the US in 2017. The quantitative market data covers the years 2006–2016; this timespan corresponds well with the accelerating digital transition in the newspaper business. According to the results, new business models are mostly new combinations of existing revenue streams, while adaptation of new technology is slow, with few exceptions.
  • Ojala, Markus (2021)
    This article proposes a critical reading of market discipline and its limitations as a mechanism in European economic governance. Consistent with neoliberal beliefs about market-based governance, the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is premised on the functioning of the government bond market as a fiscal-policy discipliner. However, the operation of market discipline requires that neither governments nor their private creditors can rely on an authority to bail them out. It, therefore, precludes the kinds of intervention by Eurozone’s supranational institutions witnessed during the euro crisis. In the post-crisis context, efforts to strengthen market discipline continue to be frustrated by the growing reliance of financial institutions on government bond markets as well as the European Central Bank’s (ECB) active participation in those markets. Having undermined the credibility of the market as an autonomous and apolitical mechanism of discipline, European economic governance struggles to come to terms with the rise of a supranational ‘economic sovereign’ in the Eurozone.
  • Pihkala, Panu (2022)
    The environmental crisis is producing an increasing number of both physical and psychological impacts. This article studies the challenge of eco-anxiety for pastoral care, drawing from both interdisciplinary research and ecological theology. The aim is to help both practitioners and re-searchers to encounter eco-anxiety more constructively. The rapidly growing research about eco-anxiety and therapy is discussed in relation to pastoral care. The various forms of eco-anxiety are briefly analyzed. The role of the caregivers is discussed by using sources that study the challenges of therapists in relation to eco-anxiety. The existential depths of eco-anxiety are probed in the light of recent research and older existentialist theory. It is pointed out that the political character of ecological issues, especially climate change issues, causes many kinds of challenges for pastoral care. As the constructive conclusion of the article, various possibilities and resources for encountering eco-anxiety in pastoral care are discussed, along with the connections with wider pastoral theology. It is argued that pastoral care providers should engage in self-reflection about their own attitudes and emotions related to ecological issues, preferably with the support of trusted peers or mentors. Various organizational developments are also needed to support care-givers. Dialectical thinking is one tool that can help to navigate the complex dynamics related to environmental responsibility, eco-emotions, and questions of hope or hopelessness.
  • Leinsalu, M.; Baburin, A.; Jasilionis, D.; Krumins, J.; Martikainen, P.; Stickley, A. (2020)
    We examined urban-rural differences in educational inequalities in mortality in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Finland in the context of macroeconomic changes. Educational inequalities among 30-74 year olds were examined in 2000-2003, 2004-2007, 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 using census-linked longitudinal mortality data. We estimated age-standardized mortality rates and the relative and slope index of inequality. Overall mortality rates were larger in rural areas except among Finnish women. Relative educational inequalities in mortality were often larger in urban areas among men but in rural areas among women. Absolute inequalities were mostly larger in rural areas excepting Finnish men. Between 2000-2003 and 2012-2015 relative inequalities increased in most countries while absolute inequalities decreased except in Lithuania. In the Baltic countries the changes in both relative and absolute inequalities tended to be more favorable in urban areas; in Finland they were more favorable in rural areas. The overall pattern changed during the reccessionary period from 2004-2007 to 2008-2011 when relative inequalities often diminished or the increase slowed, while the decrease in absolute inequalities accelerated with larger improvements observed in urban areas. Despite substantial progress in reducing overall mortality rates in both urban and rural areas in all countries, low educated men and women in rural areas in the Baltic countries are becoming increasingly disadvantaged in terms of mortality reduction.
  • Uusitalo, Niina; Valaskivi, Katja; Sumiala, Johanna (2021)
    In this article, we investigate the challenge of hybrid media events of terrorist violence for journalism and analyse how news organizations manage epistemic modes in such events. Epistemic modes refer to different ways of knowing, which are managed by newsrooms through journalistic and editorial practices. We draw from an empirical study of terrorism-related news production in the Finnish Broadcasting Company (Yle). Our data consist of thematic interviews (N = 33) with Yle journalists, producers, and content managers and newsroom observations (14 days) conducted at Yle. The study investigates the data through a grounded theory approach with the aim of creating a theoretical understanding of knowledge production in hybrid media events. The results are drawn from a qualitative content analysis and close reading of the interview data, with the other data sets informing the core analysis. The article identifies seven epistemic modes of relevance to news production in hybrid media events: not-knowing, description, rumoring, witnessing, emotion, analysing and perpetrating. The modes are analysed in relation to three dimensions of crisis reporting: immediate sense-making, ritualizing and transformation back to normalcy. The article finds that although particular epistemic modes are typical to certain dimensions of reporting hybrid, disruptive media events, both the modes and the dimensions also are also merged and intermixed. This condition together with growing amounts of problematic epistemic modes of rumoring, emotion and perpetrating challenge journalists’ epistemic authority in reporting hybrid media events involving terrorist violence.
  • Alho, Rolle Julius; Sippola, Markku Matias (2019)
    The consequences of immigration for the welfare states has received increased attention by scholars and in political and media debates in Europe. However, migrants' subjective understandings of the welfare state remains an understudied research topic. This study aims to address the topic by analysing the question in the Nordic context by looking at Estonian labour migrants' understandings of the Finnish welfare state. Our data consists of 51 biographical interviews with Estonian migrants in Finland. Based on the interviews, we traced interviewees' attitudes towards the Finnish welfare state. In Finland, Estonians aspire for social citizenship, which in their case refers to gaining economic welfare and embracing Finnish welfare state institutions. This aspiration for social citizenship is revealed in Estonians' identity talk', which takes two forms: embracement and distancing. By embracement, we mean their positive sentiments towards the institutions and norms of the Finnish welfare state. The interviewees highlight their participation in the labour market, diligent payment of taxes, justified use of the welfare benefits and services offered by the Finnish state, and membership in trade unions and unemployment funds. The interviewees underline the link between work and the deservingness of welfare benefits. They describe themselves as deserving, which, they claim, should put them on par with native Finns. Moreover, by means of distancing, the interviewed Estonians distinguish themselves from others'in their opinionnon-deserving' migrants who do not contribute' to the Finnish welfare state.
  • Leinsalu, Mall; Baburin, Aleksei; Jasilionis, Domantas; Krumins, Juris; Martikainen, Pekka; Stickley, Andrew (2020)
    Introduction: In the 2000s, the Baltic countries experienced unprecedented economic growth followed by a deep recession. This study aimed to examine changes and educational inequalities in suicide mortality among working-age men in the Baltic countries and Finland in relation to macroeconomic fluctuations. Methods: We analysed changes in overall suicide mortality and by educational level between the 2000-2003, 2004-2007, 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 periods among men aged 30-64 years using census-linked longitudinal mortality data. We estimated age-standardised mortality rates, mortality rate ratios (Poisson regression), the relative index of inequality and slope index of inequality. Results: Overall suicide mortality fell markedly from 2000-2003 to 2004-2007. The decline was largest among high educated men in the Baltic countries and among middle and low educated men in Finland. From 2004-2007 to 2008-2011, the positive trend slowed and while suicide mortality continued to fall among middle and low educated men, it increased somewhat among high educated men in all Baltic countries. In Finland, suicide mortality decreased among the high educated and increased slightly among low educated men. Conclusions: In the Baltic countries, lower educated men had a smaller decline in suicide mortality than higher educated men during a period of rapid economic expansion, however, they were not more disadvantaged during the recession, possibly because of being less exposed to financial loss. Consequently, relative inequalities in suicide mortality may increase during economic booms and decrease during recessions.
  • Harjuniemi, Timo (2022)
    Since the 2016 United States presidential election and the Brexit vote, media scholarship has lamented the state of democratic public communication. Scholars have used the concepts 'post-truth' and 'fake news' to describe the cocktail of disinformation and devaluation of facts. This article illustrates how ruptures in democratic public communication stem from the contradictions characterising liberalism and its 'regime of truth'. Liberalism has oscillated between efforts to discipline the media market with such techniques as professional journalism and, on the other hand, the attempt to enhance the position of the market mechanism as a superior knowledge processor. The article builds on the thinking of Walter Lippmann and Friedrich Hayek, two influential liberal thinkers with differing ideas on the role of experts in society. Moreover, Karl Polanyi's concept of 'double movement' is used to argue that the problems regarding public communication are systemic features of liberal media logics.
  • Kwasnicka, Dominika; ten Hoor, Gill A.; van Dongen, Anne; Gruszczynska, Ewa; Hagger, Martin S.; Hamilton, Kyra; Hankonen, Nelli; Heino, Matti Toivo Juhani; Kotzur, Marie; Noone, Chris; Rothman, Alexander J.; Toomey, Elaine; Warner, Lisa Marie; Kok, Gerjo; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Luszczynska, Aleksandra (2021)
    The article describes a position statement and recommendations for actions that need to be taken to develop best practices for promoting scientific integrity through open science in health psychology endorsed at a Synergy Expert Group Meeting. Sixteen Synergy Meeting participants developed a set of recommendations for researchers, gatekeepers, and research end-users. The group process followed a nominal group technique and voting system to elicit and decide on the most relevant and topical issues. Seventeen priority areas were listed and voted on, 15 of them were recommended by the group. Specifically, the following priority actions for health psychology were endorsed: (1) for researchers: advancing when and how to make data open and accessible at various research stages and understanding researchers' beliefs and attitudes regarding open data; (2) for educators: integrating open science in research curricula, e.g., through online open science training modules, promoting preregistration, transparent reporting, open data and applying open science as a learning tool; (3) for journal editors: providing an open science statement, and open data policies, including a minimal requirements submission checklist. Health psychology societies and journal editors should collaborate in order to develop a coordinated plan for research integrity and open science promotion across behavioural disciplines.
  • Wuokko, Maiju Marjaana (2021)
    This article addresses the apparent paradox of simultaneous neoliberal change and welfare-statist, corporatist continuity by presenting an empirical case study of the advent of neoliberal ideas in Finland in the 1970s and 1980s. The article focuses on the attempts of a free-market think tank, EVA, and the employers’ association, STK, to advance policies such as economic deregulation, international competitiveness, welfare retrenchment, and active social and labour market policies through the neoliberal retasking of the corporatist Finnish welfare state. EVA and the STK utilised seemingly non-neoliberal means, that is an economic policy consensus and tripartite corporatist arrangements, and reformulated their content to better correspond with business interests. Instead of demolition, the outcome has been the redefinition and incremental transformation of the state from a provider of welfare to a promoter of competitiveness, productivity, and employment.
  • Harjuniemi, Timo (2020)
    The austerity measures adopted after the financial crisis of 2008-2009 accelerated the critical scholarship on neoliberalism and the media. This article uses discourse theory to analyse how The Economist newspaper constructed a 'euphemised' neoliberal discourse amid the European austerity drive in the years 2010-2012. The article argues for distinguishing between different types of neoliberalism and defines euphemised neoliberalism as a discourse that is characterised by a post-political style, a posture typical of The Economist's elite journalistic identity. The article discusses the type of discourse being articulated via The Economist's rhetorical strategies of moral and rational austerity, anti-politics and austerity as modernisation. These strategies allowed for a nuanced and even a critical debate on European austerity policies, but ultimately The Economist produced a depoliticised understanding of economic policy-making, as the need for austerity and reforms could not be questioned. Finally, the article discusses how the austerity measures adopted in 2010 led to a crisis in the previously constituted euphemised neoliberal discourse and accelerated counter-hegemonic discourses, such as authoritarian forms of neoliberalism.
  • Merikoski, Paula (2021)
    This article discusses hospitality towards asylum seekers as a political and contentious act. Accommodating asylum seekers in local homes is one of the pro-asylum mobilisations that emerged across Europe following the 'summer of migration'. Based on interviews with local hosts in Finland, this article demonstrates that offering accommodation is often motivated by an explicit mistrust in state asylum policies and a will to make a statement in support of the right to asylum. Home accommodation challenges the norm of housing asylum seekers in reception centres, isolated from the rest of society. Thus, it provides valuable social and spatial resources in the struggle for asylum. Departing from the understanding that questions of asylum and home are inherently political, and following feminist citizenship theorisation that connects the domestic with the political, this article and the concept contentious hospitality contribute to challenging the discursive division between public and private.