Browsing by Subject "CRITERIA"

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  • Ranta, Jukka; Airaksinen, Manu; Kirjavainen, Turkka; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Stevenson, Nathan J. (2021)
    Objective To develop a non-invasive and clinically practical method for a long-term monitoring of infant sleep cycling in the intensive care unit. Methods Forty three infant polysomnography recordings were performed at 1-18 weeks of age, including a piezo element bed mattress sensor to record respiratory and gross-body movements. The hypnogram scored from polysomnography signals was used as the ground truth in training sleep classifiers based on 20,022 epochs of movement and/or electrocardiography signals. Three classifier designs were evaluated in the detection of deep sleep (N3 state): support vector machine (SVM), Long Short-Term Memory neural network, and convolutional neural network (CNN). Results Deep sleep was accurately identified from other states with all classifier variants. The SVM classifier based on a combination of movement and electrocardiography features had the highest performance (AUC 97.6%). A SVM classifier based on only movement features had comparable accuracy (AUC 95.0%). The feature-independent CNN resulted in roughly comparable accuracy (AUC 93.3%). Conclusion Automated non-invasive tracking of sleep state cycling is technically feasible using measurements from a piezo element situated under a bed mattress. Significance An open source infant deep sleep detector of this kind allows quantitative, continuous bedside assessment of infant's sleep cycling.
  • Berntson, Lillemor; Nordal, Ellen; Fasth, Anders; Aalto, Kristiina; Herlin, Troels; Nielsen, Susan; Rygg, Marite; Zak, Marek; Ronnelid, Johan; Nordic Study Grp Pediat Rheumatolo (2014)
  • Weichert, I.; Romero-Ortuno, R.; Tolonen, J.; Soe, T.; Lebus, C.; Choudhury, S.; Nadarajah, C. V.; Nanayakkara, P.; Orru, M.; Di Somma, S. (2018)
    What is known and objectiveDrugs with anticholinergic properties increase the risk of falls, delirium, chronic cognitive impairment, and mortality and counteract procholinergic medications used in the treatment of dementia. Medication review and optimisation to reduce anticholinergic burden in patients at risk is recommended by specialist bodies. Little is known how effective this review is in patients who present acutely and how often drugs with anticholinergic properties are used temporarily during an admission. The aim of the study was to describe the changes in the anticholinergic cognitive burden (ACB) in patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of delirium, chronic cognitive impairment or falls and to look at the temporary use of anticholinergic medications during hospital stay. MethodsThis is a multi-centre observational study that was conducted in seven different hospitals in the UK, Finland, The Netherlands and Italy. Results and discussion21.1% of patients had their ACB score reduced by a mean of 1.7%, 19.7% had their ACB increased by a mean of 1.6%, 22.8% of DAP naive patients were discharged on anticholinergic medications. There was no change in the ACB scores in 59.2% of patients. 54.1% of patients on procholinergics were taking anticholinergics. Out of the 98 medications on the ACB scale, only 56 were seen. Medications with a low individual burden were accounting for 64.9% of the total burden. Anticholinergic drugs were used temporarily during the admission in 21.9% of all patients. A higher number of DAPs used temporarily during admission was associated with a higher risk of ACB score increase on discharge (OR=1.82, 95% CI for OR: 1.36-2.45, P What is new and conclusionThere was no reduction in anticholinergic cognitive burden during the acute admissions. This was the same for all diagnostic subgroups. The anticholinergic load was predominantly caused by medications with a low individual burden. More than 1 in 5 patients not taking anticholinergics on admission were discharged on them and similar numbers saw temporary use of these medications during their admission. More than half of patients on cholinesterase-inhibitors were taking anticholinergics at the same time on admission, potentially directly counteracting their effects.
  • Muukkonen, Hanni; Lakkala, Minna; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Ilomäki, Liisa; Karlgren, Klas; Toom, Auli (2020)
    The necessity to learn competence for collaborative knowledge work during higher education (HE) is accepted widely, but continued work is required to explicate how to define and assess such competence. In this article, the development and validation of a questionnaire for assessing the development of collaborative knowledge work competence is based on object-bound collaborative knowledge creation practices. In total, 546 students responded to a questionnaire on Collaborative Knowledge Practices (CKP). The data were analysed for measurement invariance for two groups of HE students in media engineering and life sciences. Seven scales of the CKP were found to measure course-related learning of collaboration, integration of personal and collective efforts, development through feedback, persistent development of knowledge objects, understanding of different disciplines and related expertise, interdisciplinary collaboration, and using digital technology. The CKP questionnaire scales can be used as a generic self-evaluation tool for students on course-based learning outcomes.
  • Polkowska, Aleksandra; Räsänen, Sirpa; Nuorti, Pekka; Maunula, Leena; Jalava, Katri (2021)
    Seven major food- and waterborne norovirus outbreaks in Western Finland during 2014-2018 were re-analysed. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of outbreak investigation tools and evaluate the Kaplan criteria. We summarised epidemiological and microbiological findings from seven outbreaks. To evaluate the Kaplan criteria, a one-stage meta-analysis of data from seven cohort studies was performed. The case was defined as a person attending an implicated function with diarrhoea, vomiting or two other symptoms. Altogether, 22% (386/1794) of persons met the case definition. Overall adjusted, 73% of norovirus patients were vomiting, the mean incubation period was 44 h (4 h to 4 days) and the median duration of illness was 46 h. As vomiting was a more common symptom in children (96%, 143/149) and diarrhoea among the elderly (92%, 24/26), symptom and age presentation should drive hypothesis formulation. The Kaplan criteria were useful in initial outbreak assessments prior to faecal results. Rapid food control inspections enabled evidence-based, public-health-driven risk assessments. This led to probability-based vehicle identification and aided in resolving the outbreak event mechanism rather than implementing potentially ineffective, large-scale public health actions such as the withdrawal of extensive food lots. Asymptomatic food handlers should be ideally withdrawn from high-risk work for five days instead of the current two days. Food and environmental samples often remain negative with norovirus, highlighting the importance of research collaborations. Electronic questionnaire and open-source novel statistical programmes provided time and resource savings. The public health approach proved useful within the environmental health area with shoe leather field epidemiology, combined with statistical analysis and mathematical reasoning.
  • Puolakkainen, T.; Vahasilta, L.; Bensch, F.; Narjus-Sterba, M.; Wilson, M. L.; Thoren, H.; Snall, J. (2021)
    Current knowledge of blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVIs) in craniomaxillofacial fracture (CMF) patients is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of BCVIs in patients with all types of CMF. This retrospective study included CMF patients in a level 1 trauma centre during a 3-year period. Patients who were not imaged with computed tomography angiography and patients with mechanisms other than blunt injury were excluded. The primary outcome variable was BCVI. A total of 753 patients were included in the analysis. A BCVI was detected in 4.4% of the patients screened. BCVIs occurred in 8.7% of cranial fracture patients, 7.1% of combined craniofacial fracture patients, and 3.1% of facial fracture patients. The risk of BCVI was significantly increased in patients with isolated cranial fractures (odds ratio (OR) 2.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18?5.50; P = 0.017), those involved in motor vehicle accidents (OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.63?7.17; P = 0.001), and those sustaining high-energy injuries (OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.57?6.40; P = 0.001). BCVIs in CMF patients are relatively common in highenergy injuries. However, these injuries also occur in minor traumas. Imaging thresholds should be kept low in this patient population when BCVIs are suspected.
  • Puolakkainen, T; Thoren, H; Vahasilta, L; Narjus-Sterba, M; Wilson, ML; Brinck, T; Snall, J (2021)
    Evidence supports the notion that craniofacial fractures are significant predictors of cervical spine injuries (CSIs), but some debate remains on the injury mechanism of co-existing CSIs in craniofacial fractures and the relationship between CSI and specific facial fractures. In this retrospective study, we aim to assess the incidence rates of specific facial fracture types as well as other important variables and their relationship with CSIs. The primary outcome variable, CSI, and several predictor variables, including facial fracture type, were evaluated with logistic regression analyses. Of 2919 patients, the total CSI incidence rate was 3.0%. Rates of CSI in patients with isolated mandibular fractures (OR 0.26 CI 0.10, 0.63; p = 0.006) were lower than those previously reported, whereas isolated nasal fractures were strongly associated with CSI (OR 2.67 CI 1.36, 5.22; p = 0.004). Patients with concomitant cranial injuries were twice as likely to have CSI (OR 2.00, CI 1.22, 3.27; p = 0.006). Even though there is a strong occurrence rate of CSIs in patients with cranial injuries, clinicians should be aware that patients presenting with isolated facial fractures are at significant risk for sustaining CSIs also. (C) 2021 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Celikkayalar, Ercan; Puustinen, Juha; Palmgren, Joni; Airaksinen, Marja (2021)
    Purpose: Collaborative medication reviews (CMR) have been shown to reduce inappropriate prescribing (IP) in various settings. This study aimed at describing a CMR practice in an emergency department (ED) short-term ward in Finland to investigate IP in pre-admission medications. Patients and Methods: Pre-admission medications were collaboratively reviewed for all the adult ED admissions within a 5-month study period in 2016. Types of IP were inductively categorized, and descriptive statistics were used to show the incidence and type of IP events. Results: The pre-admission medications of 855 adult ED patients were reviewed by the pharmacist, with 113 IP events identified in 83 (9.7%) of the patients. The majority (81%, n=67) of these patients were older adults (>= 65 years). Of these 94 IP events identified in 67 older patients, 58 (62%) were confirmed by the ED physicians. The following 3 main categories were inductively developed for the types of identified and confirmed IP events: 1) Misprescribing (prescription of medications that significantly increase the risk of adverse drug events); 2) Overprescribing (prescription of medications for which no clear clinical indications exist); and 3) Underprescribing (omission of potentially beneficial medications that are clinically indicated for treatment or prevention of a disease). Misprescribing was the most common type of IP identified (79% of the identified and 72% confirmed IP events). Benzodiazepines (29%) and antidepressants (28%) were involved in 33 out of 58 (57%) confirmed IP events. Medications with strong anticholinergic effects were involved in 19% of the confirmed IP events. Conclusion: The CMR practice was able to identify IP in pre-admission medications of about one-tenth of ED patients. Older patients using benzodiazepines and drugs with strong anticholinergic effects should be paid special attention to ED admissions.
  • Toivo, Terhi; Dimitrow, Maarit; Puustinen, Juha; Savela, Eeva; Pelkonen, Katariina; Kiuru, Valtteri; Suominen, Tuula; Kinnunen, Sirkka; Uunimäki, Mira; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa; Leikola, Saija; Airaksinen, Marja (2018)
    Background: The magnitude of safety risks related to medications of the older adults has been evidenced by numerous studies, but less is known of how to manage and prevent these risks in different health care settings. The aim of this study was to coordinate resources for prospective medication risk management of home care clients >= 65 years in primary care and to develop a study design for demonstrating effectiveness of the procedure. Methods: Health care units involved in the study are from primary care in Lohja, Southern Finland: home care (191 consented clients), the public healthcare center, and a private community pharmacy. System based risk management theory and action research method was applied to construct the collaborative procedure utilizing each profession's existing resources in medication risk management of older home care clients. An inventory of clinical measures in usual clinical practice and systematic review of rigorous study designs was utilized in effectiveness study design. Discussion: The new coordinated medication management model (CoMM) has the following 5 stages: 1) practical nurses are trained to identify clinically significant drug-related problems (DRPs) during home visits and report those to the clinical pharmacist. Clinical pharmacist prepares the cases for 2) an interprofessional triage meeting (50-70 cases/meeting of 2 h) where decisions are made on further action, e.g., more detailed medication reviews, 3) community pharmacists conduct necessary medication reviews and each patients' physician makes final decisions on medication changes needed. The final stages concern 4) implementation and 5) follow-up of medication changes. Randomized controlled trial (RCT) was developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the procedure. The developed procedure is feasible for screening and reviewing medications of a high number of older home care clients to identify clients with severe DRPs and provide interventions to solve them utilizing existing primary care resources.
  • Rantsi, Mervi; Pitkälä, Kaisu H.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Hyttinen, Virva; Kankaanpää, Eila (2022)
    Background Educational interventions can reduce potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use in older people. Their effectiveness has been measured mainly as changes in PIM use. In this economic evaluation, we analyse the impact of an educational intervention in terms of costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Methods The educational intervention consisted of activating and interactive training sessions for nursing staff and consulting physicians, and was compared with treatment as usual (TAU). Participants (n = 227) in a cluster randomised trial (cRCT) were residents living permanently in assisted living facilities (n = 20 wards). For economic evaluation, participants' healthcare service use costs and costs for the intervention were estimated for a 12 month period. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were estimated for QALYs per participant. Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from a healthcare perspective. A bootstrapped cost-effectiveness plane and one-way sensitivity analysis were undertaken to analyse the uncertainty surrounding the estimates. Results The educational intervention was estimated to be less costly and less effective in terms of QALYs than TAU at the 12 month follow-up [incremental costs -euro1,629, confidence interval (CI) -euro5,489 to euro2,240; incremental effect -0.02, CI -0.06 to 0.02]. The base case ICER was >euro80,000/QALY. Conclusion The educational intervention was estimated to be less costly and less effective in terms of QALYs compared with TAU, but the results are subject to some uncertainties. Reduction in PIM use or benefits in quality of life did not seem to translate into improvements in QALYs. Our findings emphasise the need for better understanding of the impact of decreasing PIM use on health outcomes.
  • Uutela, Toini I.; Kautiainen, Hannu J.; Häkkinen, Arja H. (2018)
    Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation has a detrimental effect on muscle strength. Our objective was to analyse the association between muscle performance and different disease activity levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Method A total of 199 consecutive outpatients were subject to cross-sectional assessment. Measurements of grip strength, endurance of the upper and lower limbs and trunk strength were combined as a muscle performance composite score (MPCS), using a standardised method. The disease activity for 28 joints (DAS28), radiographs of small joints (Larsen score), rheumatoid factor, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities and anti-rheumatic drugs were verified. Patients questionnaires included sociodemographic information, pain level, global disease activity, the Beck Depression Inventory, the mental and physical component scores of Short Form-36 and physical activity level. Results Of the 199 patients, 36%, 17% and 47% patients had remission, low/moderate and high DAS28, respectively. The patients in remission had significantly shorter disease duration, better parameters in terms of pain, physicians assessment, Larsen, Beck or physical component score of Short Form-36, and they were more physically active than other patients. After adjustments for age, sex, RA duration, radiographs and BMI, the decreasing MPCS associated linearly with the increasing DAS28 activity levels (linearity, P Conclusion Poorer MPCS is clearly associated with higher disease activity in patients with RA. Muscle performance is a modifiable risk factor. The findings suggest evaluating muscle performance in clinical practice as a part of patient care.
  • Knaster, Peter; Estlander, Ann-Mari; Karlsson, Hasse; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kalso, Eija (2016)
    Background Diagnosing depression in chronic pain is challenging due to overlapping somatic symptoms. In questionnaires, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), responses may be influenced more by pain than by the severity of depression. In addition, previous studies have suggested that symptoms of negative self-image, a key element in depression, are uncommon in chronic pain-related depression. The object of this study is to assess the relationship of the somatic and cognitive-emotional items of BDI with the diagnosis of depression, pain intensity, and disability. Methods One hundred consecutive chronic pain patients completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID) for the diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) according to DSM-IV. Two subscales of BDI (negative view of self and somatic-physical function) were created according to the factor model presented by Morley. Results In the regression analysis, the somatic-physical function factor associated with MDD, while the negative view of self factor did not. Patients with MDD had higher scores in several of the BDI items when analysed separately. Insomnia and weight loss were not dependent on the depression diagnosis. Limitations The relatively small sample size and the selected patient sample limit the generalisability of the results. Conclusions Somatic symptoms of depression are also common in chronic pain and should not be excluded when diagnosing depression in pain patients. Regardless of the assessment method, diagnosing depression in chronic pain remains a challenge and requires careful interpretation of symptoms.
  • Leimi, Lilli; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Olkinuora, Helena; Meri, Seppo; Vettenranta, Kim (2022)
    Treatment-related mortality and morbidity remain a challenge in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this retrospective, single-center study, we analyzed endothelial damage as a potential, common denominator and mechanism for the adverse effects. We evaluated the prevalence of key vascular complications and graft-versus-host disease among 122 pediatric patients with an allogeneic HSCT between 2001 and 2013. The spectrum and frequency of acute adverse events emerging
  • Aaltonen, Kalle; Heinonen, Arto; Joensuu, Jaana; Parmanne, Pinja; Karjalainen, Anna; Varjolahti-Lehtinen, Tuire; Uutela, Toini; Puurtinen-Vilkki, Maija; Arstila, Leena; Blom, Marja; Sokka, Tuulikki; Nordström, Dan (2017)
    Background and objectives: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-inhibitors are used to treat psoriatic arthritis (PsA), but only a limited number of observational studies on this subject have been published thus far. The aim of this research was to analyze the effectiveness and drug survival of TNF-inhibitors in the treatment of PsA. Methods: PsA patients identified from the National Register for Biologic Treatment in Finland (ROB-FIN) starting their first, second, or third TNF-inhibitor treatment between 2004 and 2014 were included. Effectiveness was measured using ACR and EULAR response criteria and modeled using ordinal logistic regression. Treatment persistence was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The study comprised 765 patients and 990 TNF-inhibitor treatment courses. EULAR moderate treatment responses at 6 months were achieved by 68% and 37% of the users of the first and the second or the third biologic, respectively. The probabilities of discontinuing the treatment within 12 and 24 months were 20% and 28%, respectively. Adjusted treatment responses to all TNF-inhibitors were similar; however, co-therapy with conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) was not associated with better effectiveness. Adalimumab [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CD: 0.44-0.88] was superior to infliximab in drug survival while etanercept (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.55-1.1) and golimumab (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.46-1.2) did not differ from it. Co-medication with csDMARDs did not statistically improve drug survival. Conclusion: All available TNF-inhibitors showed similar treatment responses with or without csDMARDs. Adalimumab was associated with better drug survival when compared to infliximab. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Kurppa, Kalle; Rasanen, Tiia; Collin, Pekka; Iltanen, Sari; Huhtala, Heini; Ashorn, Merja; Saavalainen, Paivi; Haimila, Katri; Partanen, Jukka; Maki, Markku; Kaukinen, Katri (2012)
  • Zhou, Guangyu; Hotta, Jaakko; Lehtinen, Maria K.; Forss, Nina; Hari, Riitta (2015)
    The choroid plexus, located in brain ventricles, has received surprisingly little attention in clinical neuroscience. In morphometric brain analysis, we serendipitously found a 21% increase in choroid plexus volume in 12 patients suffering from complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) compared with age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. No enlargement was observed in a group of 8 patients suffering from chronic pain of other etiologies. Our findings suggest involvement of the choroid plexus in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Since the choroid plexus can mediate interaction between peripheral and brain inflammation, our findings pinpoint the choroid plexus as an important target for future research of central pain mechanisms.
  • PPNN Study Group; Boertien, Jeffrey M.; Murtomäki, Kirsi; Pereira, Pedro A. B.; van der Zee, Sygrid; Mertsalmi, Tuomas H.; Levo, Reeta; Nojonen, Tanja; Mäkinen, Elina; Jaakkola, Elina; Laine, Pia; Paulin, Lars; Pekkonen, Eero; Kaasinen, Valtteri; Auvinen, Petri; Scheperjans, Filip; van Laar, Teus (2022)
    Gut microbiota alterations in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been found in several studies and are suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. However, previous results could not be adequately adjusted for a potential confounding effect of PD medication and disease duration, as almost all PD participants were already using dopaminergic medication and were included several years after diagnosis. Here, the gut microbiome composition of treatment-naive de novo PD subjects was assessed compared to healthy controls (HC) in two large independent case-control cohorts (n = 136 and 56 PD, n = 85 and 87 HC), using 16S-sequencing of fecal samples. Relevant variables such as technical batches, diet and constipation were assessed for their potential effects. Overall gut microbiome composition differed between PD and HC in both cohorts, suggesting gut microbiome alterations are already present in de novo PD subjects at the time of diagnosis, without the possible confounding effect of dopaminergic medication. Although no differentially abundant taxon could be replicated in both cohorts, multiple short chain fatty acids (SCFA) producing taxa were decreased in PD in both cohorts. In particular, several taxa belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae were decreased in abundance. Fewer taxonomic differences were found compared to previous studies, indicating smaller effect sizes in de novo PD.
  • Grunnet, Louise Groth; Hjort, Line; Minja, Daniel Thomas; Msemo, Omari Abdul; Moller, Sofie Lykke; Prasad, Rashmi B.; Groop, Leif; Lusingu, John; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Christensen, Dirk Lund (2020)
    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes and increased long-term risk of metabolic diseases for both mother and child. In Tanzania, GDM prevalence increased from 0% in 1991 to 19.5% in 2016. Anaemia has been proposed to precipitate the pathogenesis of GDM. We aimed to examine the prevalence of GDM in a rural area of Tanzania with a high prevalence of anaemia and to examine a potential association between haemoglobin concentration and blood glucose during pregnancy. The participants were included in a population-based preconception, pregnancy and birth cohort study. In total, 538 women were followed during pregnancy and scheduled for an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at week 32-34 of gestation. Gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed according to the WHO 2013 guidelines. Out of 392 women screened, 39% (95% CI: 34.2-44.1) had GDM, the majority of whom (94.1%) were diagnosed based solely on the fasting blood sample from the OGTT. No associations were observed between haemoglobin or ferritin and glucose measurements during pregnancy. A very high prevalence of GDM was found in rural Tanzania. In view of the laborious, costly and inconvenient OGTT, alternative methods such as fasting blood glucose should be considered when screening for GDM in low- and middle-income countries.
  • Puustinen, Lauri; Barner-Rasmussen, Nina; Pukkala, Eero; Farkkila, Martti (2019)
    Background: Epidemiological studies of autoimmune hepatitis are scarce and often based on single centre registries. Aims: We conducted a nationwide register study of incidence, prevalence, survival, and causes of death of autoimmune hepatitis patients in Finland. Methods: Autoimmune hepatitis cases 1995-2015 were retrieved from the national database of special reimbursements for drugs costs. Data on causes of death were retrieved from Statistics Finland. Results: After incomplete registration of AIH during the first years, the incidence of autoimmune hepatitis stabilised to 1.1/100,000 person-years (1.6 in women and 0.52 in men) in 2008-2015. The prevalence of autoimmune hepatitis at the end of 2015 was 14.3/100,000, 23.0/100,000 in women and 6.6/100,000 in men. The all-cause standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of autoimmune hepatitis patients was 1.81 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47-2.20). The SMR was increased in all age groups and in both sexes. The SMR for hepatocellular carcinoma was 20.6 (95% CI 10.3-36.8), and for digestive diseases in overall 13.5 (95% CI 8.2-20.8), constituting mainly from autoimmune hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. Conclusion: Incidence of autoimmune hepatitis has remained stable, with clear female predominance. Autoimmune hepatitis is associated with a markedly increased risk of death with hepatocellular cancer forming the greatest risk. (C) 2019 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Boertien, Jeffrey M.; Pereira, Pedro A. B.; Aho, Velma T. E.; Scheperjans, Filip (2019)
    Gut microbiota have been studied in relation to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) due to the early gastrointestinal symptomatology and presence of alpha-synuclein pathology in the enteric nervous system, hypothesized to ascend via the vagal nerve to the central nervous system. Accordingly, sixteen human case-control studies have published gut microbiome composition changes in PD and reported over 100 differentially abundant taxa covering all taxonomic levels from phylum to genus or species, depending on methodology. While certain findings were replicated across several studies, various contradictory findings were reported. Here, differences in methodologies and the presence of possible confounders in the study populations are assessed for their potential to confound the results of gut microbiome studies in PD. Gut microbiome studies in PD exhibited considerable variability with respect to the study population, sample transport conditions, laboratory protocols and sequencing, bioinformatics pipelines, and biostatistical methods. To move from the current heterogeneous dataset towards clinically relevant biomarkers and the identification of putative therapeutic targets, recommendations are derived from the limitations of the available studies to increase the future comparability of microbiome studies in PD. In addition, integration of currently available data on the gut microbiome in PD is proposed to identify robust gut microbiome profiles in PD. Furthermore, expansion of the current dataset with atypical parkinsonism cohorts, prodromal and treatment naive de novo PD subjects, measurements of fecal microbial concentrations and multi-omics assessments are required to provide clinically relevant biomarkers and reveal therapeutic targets within the gut microbiome of PD.