Browsing by Subject "CRITICALLY-ILL"

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  • Lankelma, Jacqueline M.; Belzer, Clara; Hoogendijk, Arie J.; de Vos, Alex F.; de Vos, Willem M.; van der Poll, Tom; Wiersinga, W. Joost (2016)
    OBJECTIVES: Broad-spectrum antibiotics disrupt the intestinal microbiota. The microbiota is essential for physiological processes, such as the development of the gut immune system. Recent murine data suggest that the intestinal microbiota also modulates systemic innate immune responses; however, evidence in humans is lacking. METHODS: Twelve healthy young men were given oral broad-spectrum antibiotics (ciprofloxacin 500 mg bid, vancomycin 500 mg tid and metronidazole 500 mg tid) for 7 days. At baseline, 1 day, and 6 weeks after antibiotics, blood and feces were sampled. Whole blood and isolated mononuclear cells were stimulated with selected Toll-like receptor agonists and heat-killed bacteria. Microbiota diversity and composition was determined using bacterial 16S rDNA sequencing. RESULTS: One day after the antibiotic course, microbial diversity was significantly lower compared with baseline. After antibiotic therapy, systemic mononuclear cells produced lower levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha after ex vivo stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This diminished capacity to produce TNF-alpha was restored 6 weeks after cessation of antibiotic therapy. In whole blood, a reduced capacity to release interleukin (IL)-1 beta and IL-6 was observed after LPS stimulation. Antibiotic treatment did not impact on differential leukocyte counts, phagocytosis, and cell surface markers of neutrophils and monocytes. CONCLUSIONS: In this proof-of-principle study of healthy subjects, microbiota disruption by broad-spectrum antibiotics is reversibly associated with decreased systemic cellular responsiveness towards LPS. The implications of these findings in a clinical setting remain to be determined.
  • Pettilä, Ville; Kyhälä, Lea; Kylänpää, Marja-Leena; Leppäniemi, Ari; Tallgren, Minna; Markkola, Antti Thor Olavi; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Repo, Heikki; Kemppainen, Esko (2010)
  • Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Coccolini, Federico; Ansaloni, Luca; Roberts, Derek J.; Tolonen, Matti; McKee, Jessica L.; Leppaniemi, Ari; Faris, Peter; Doig, Christopher J.; Catena, Fausto; Fabian, Timothy; Jenne, Craig N.; Chiara, Osvaldo; Kubes, Paul; Manns, Braden; Kluger, Yoram; Fraga, Gustavo P.; Pereira, Bruno M.; Diaz, Jose J.; Sugrue, Michael; Moore, Ernest E.; Ren, Jianan; Ball, Chad G.; Coimbra, Raul; Balogh, Zsolt J.; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.; Dixon, Elijah; Biffl, Walter; MacLean, Anthony; Ball, Ian; Drover, John; McBeth, Paul B.; Posadas-Calleja, Juan G.; Parry, Neil G.; Di Saverio, Salomone; Ordonez, Carlos A.; Xiao, Jimmy; Sartelli, Massimo (2018)
    Background: Severe complicated intra-abdominal sepsis (SCIAS) has an increasing incidence with mortality rates over 80% in some settings. Mortality typically results from disruption of the gastrointestinal tract, progressive and selfperpetuating bio-mediator generation, systemic inflammation, and multiple organ failure. Principles of treatment include early antibiotic administration and operative source control. A further therapeutic option may be open abdomen (OA) management with active negative peritoneal pressure therapy (ANPPT) to remove inflammatory ascites and ameliorate the systemic damage from SCIAS. Although there is now a biologic rationale for such an intervention as well as non-standardized and erratic clinical utilization, this remains a novel therapy with potential side effects and clinical equipoise. Methods: The Closed Or Open after Laparotomy (COOL) study will constitute a prospective randomized controlled trial that will randomly allocate eligible surgical patients intra-operatively to either formal closure of the fascia or use of the OA with application of an ANPTT dressing. Patients will be eligible if they have free uncontained intra-peritoneal contamination and physiologic derangements exemplified by septic shock OR a Predisposition-Infection-Response-Organ Dysfunction Score >= 3 or a World-Society-of-Emergency-Surgery-Sepsis-Severity-Score >= 8. The primary outcome will be 90-day survival. Secondary outcomes will be logistical, physiologic, safety, bio-mediators, microbiological, quality of life, and health-care costs. Secondary outcomes will include days free of ICU, ventilation, renal replacement therapy, and hospital at 30 days from the index laparotomy. Physiologic secondary outcomes will include changes in intensive care unit illness severity scores after laparotomy. Bio-mediator outcomes for participating centers will involve measurement of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, procalcitonin, activated protein C (APC), high-mobility group box protein-1, complement factors, and mitochondrial DNA. Economic outcomes will comprise standard costing for utilization of health-care resources. Discussion: Although facial closure after SCIAS is considered the current standard of care, many reports are suggesting that OA management may improve outcomes in these patients. This trial will be powered to demonstrate a mortality difference in this highly lethal and morbid condition to ensure critically ill patients are receiving the best care possible and not being harmed by inappropriate therapies based on opinion only.
  • Rasilainen, S. K.; Mentula, P. J.; Leppaniemi, A. K. (2016)
    Background and aims: The goal after open abdomen treatment is to reach primary fascial closure. Modern negative pressure wound therapy systems are sometimes inefficient for this purpose. This retrospective chart analysis describes the use of the components separation' method in facilitating primary fascial closure after open abdomen. Material and methods: A total of 16 consecutive critically ill surgical patients treated with components separation during open abdomen management were analyzed. No patients were excluded. Results: Primary fascial closure was achieved in 75% (12/16). Components separation was performed during ongoing open abdomen treatment in 7 patients and at the time of delayed primary fascial closure in 9 patients. Of the former, 3/7 (43%) patients reached primary fascial closure, whereas all 9 patients in the latter group had successful fascial closure without major complications (p=0.019). Conclusion: Components separation is a useful method in contributing to successful primary fascial closure in patients treated for open abdomen. Best results were obtained when components separation was performed simultaneously with primary fascial closure at the end of the open abdomen treatment.
  • Annane, Djillali; Fuchs-Buder, Thomas; Zoellner, Christian; Kaukonen, Maija; Scheeren, Thomas W. L. (2018)
  • Vanhala, Heidi; Junttila, Eija; Kataja, Anneli; Huhtala, Heini; Luostarinen, Teemu; Luoto, Teemu (2022)
    Background Anemia might contribute to the development of secondary injury in patients with acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). Potential determinants of anemia are still poorly acknowledged, and reported incidence of declined hemoglobin concentration varies widely between different studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of severe anemia among patients with moderate to severe TBI and to evaluate patient- and trauma-related factors that might be associated with the development of anemia. Methods This retrospective cohort study involved all adult patients admitted to Tampere University Hospital's emergency department for moderate to severe TBI (August 2010 to July 2012). Detailed information on patient demographics and trauma characteristics were obtained, including data on posttraumatic care, data on neurosurgical procedures, and all measured in-hospital hemoglobin values. Severe anemia was defined as a hemoglobin level less than 100 g/L. Both univariate and multivariable analyses were performed, and hemoglobin trajectories were created. Results The study included 145 patients with moderate to severe TBI (male 83.4%, mean age 55.0 years). Severe anemia, with a hemoglobin level less than 100 g/L, was detected in 66 patients (45.5%) and developed during the first 48 h after the trauma. In the univariate analysis, anemia was more common among women (odds ratio [OR] 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-7.15), patients with antithrombotic medication prior to trauma (OR 3.33; 95% CI 1.34-8.27), patients with cardiovascular comorbidities (OR 3.12; 95% CI 1.56-6.25), patients with diabetes (OR 4.56; 95% CI 1.69-12.32), patients with extracranial injuries (OR 3.14; 95% CI 1.69-12.32), and patients with midline shift on primary head computed tomography (OR 2.03; 95% CI 1.03-4.01). In the multivariable analysis, midline shift and extracranial traumas were associated with the development of severe anemia (OR 2.26 [95% CI 1.05-4.48] and OR 4.71 [95% CI 1.74-12.73], respectively). Conclusions Severe anemia is common after acute moderate to severe TBI, developing during the first 48 h after the trauma. Possible anemia-associated factors include extracranial traumas and midline shift on initial head computed tomography.
  • Ritmala-Castren, Marita; Axelin, Anna; Richards, Kathy C.; Mitchell, Marion L.; Vahlberg, Tero; Leino-Kilpi, Helena (2022)
    Background: Sleep is vital to our wellbeing. Critically ill patients are vulnerable with effects of sleep deprivation including weakened immune function, decreased glucose tolerance, and increased sympathetic activity. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients' sleep evaluation is difficult and often not reliable. The most commonly used instrument for assessing ICU patients' perspective of their sleep, Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire (RCSQ), has not been reported to have undergone knowngroup construct validity testing or concurrent validity testing with the criterion measure of feeling refreshed. Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the construct validity of the RCSQ with knowngroups technique and concurrent validity with the criterion measure of feeling refreshed on awakening. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey study using the RCSQ was conducted on people sleeping at home (n = 114) over seven nights. The results were compared with the RCSQ sleep scores of nonintubated alert oriented adult ICU patients (n = 114). Home sleepers were also asked to rate how refreshed they felt on awakening. The study was executed and reported in accordance with the STROBE checklist for observational studies. Findings: RCSQ construct validity was supported because home sleepers' and ICU sleepers' sleep evaluations differed significantly. Home sleepers rated their sleep significantly better than ICU patients in all five sleep domains of the RCSQ. Concurrent validity was supported because the item "feeling refreshed on awakening" correlated strongly with all sleep domains. Conclusions: Sleep quality may be accurately measured using the RCSQ in alert people both in the ICU and at home. This study has added to the validity discussion around the RCSQ. The RCSQ can be used for sleep evaluation in ICUs to promote wellbeing and recovery. (c) 2021 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • PLOT-ICU Investigators; Nine-I Study Grp; Anthon, Carl Thomas; Pene, Frederic; Perner, Anders; Hästbacka, Johanna; Russell, Lene (2022)
    Introduction Thrombocytopenia is frequent in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and has been associated with worse outcome. Platelet transfusions are often used in the management of ICU patients with severe thrombocytopenia. However, the reported frequencies of thrombocytopenia and platelet transfusion practices in the ICU vary considerably. Therefore, we aim to provide contemporary epidemiological data on thrombocytopenia and platelet transfusion practices in the ICU. Methods We will conduct an international inception cohort, including at least 1000 acutely admitted adult ICU patients. Routinely available data will be collected at baseline (ICU admission), and daily during ICU stay up to a maximum of 90 days. The primary outcome will be the number of patients with thrombocytopenia (a recorded platelet count < 150 x 10(9)/L) at baseline and/or during ICU stay. Secondary outcomes include mortality, days alive and out of hospital, days alive without life-support, the number of patients with at least one bleeding episode, at least one thromboembolic event and at least one platelet transfusion in the ICU, the number of platelet transfusions and the indications for transfusion. The primary and secondary outcomes will be presented descriptively. In addition, we will assess risk factors for developing thrombocytopenia during ICU stay and the association between thrombocytopenia at baseline and 90-day mortality using logistic regression analyses. Conclusion The outlined international PLOT-ICU cohort study will provide contemporary epidemiological data on the burden and clinical significance of thrombocytopenia in adult ICU patients and describe the current platelet transfusion practice.
  • Tietäväinen, Johanna; Mäkelä, Satu; Huhtala, Heini; Pörsti, Ilkka H; Strandin, Tomas; Vaheri, Antti; Mustonen, Jukka (2021)
    Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) causes a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome characterized by thrombocytopenia, increased capillary leakage, and acute kidney injury (AKI). As glucosuria at hospital admission predicts the severity of PUUV infection, we explored how plasma glucose concentration associates with disease severity. Plasma glucose values were measured during hospital care in 185 patients with PUUV infection. They were divided into two groups according to maximum plasma glucose concentration: P-Gluc < 7.8 mmol/L (n = 134) and P-Gluc >= 7.8 mmol/L (n = 51). The determinants of disease severity were analyzed across groups. Patients with P-Gluc >= 7.8 mmol/L had higher hematocrit (0.46 vs. 0.43; p < 0.001) and lower plasma albumin concentration (24 vs. 29 g/L; p < 0.001) than patients with P-Gluc < 7.8 mmol/L. They presented with higher prevalence of pulmonary infiltrations and pleural effusion in chest radiograph, higher prevalence of shock and greater weight change during hospitalization. Patients with P-Gluc >= 7.8 mmol/L were characterized by lower platelet count (50 vs. 66 x 10(9)/L; p = 0.001), more severe AKI (plasma creatinine 272 vs. 151 mu mol/L; p = 0.001), and longer hospital treatment (8 vs. 6 days; p < 0.001) than patients with P-Gluc < 7.8 mmol/L. Plasma glucose level is associated with the severity of capillary leakage, thrombocytopenia, inflammation, and AKI in patients with acute PUUV infection.
  • Wiersema, Renske; Jukarainen, Sakari; Vaara, Suvi T.; Poukkanen, Meri; Lakkisto, Päivi; Wong, Hector; Linder, Adam; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Pettilä, Ville (2020)
    Background The pathophysiology of septic acute kidney injury is inadequately understood. Recently, subphenotypes for sepsis and AKI have been derived. The objective of this study was to assess whether a combination of comorbidities, baseline clinical data, and biomarkers could classify meaningful subphenotypes in septic AKI with different outcomes. Methods We performed a post hoc analysis of the prospective Finnish Acute Kidney Injury (FINNAKI) study cohort. We included patients admitted with sepsis and acute kidney injury during the first 48 h from admission to intensive care (according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome criteria). Primary outcomes were 90-day mortality and renal recovery on day 5. We performed latent class analysis using 30 variables obtained on admission to classify subphenotypes. Second, we used logistic regression to assess the association of derived subphenotypes with 90-day mortality and renal recovery on day 5. Results In total, 301 patients with septic acute kidney injury were included. Based on the latent class analysis, a two-class model was chosen. Subphenotype 1 was assigned to 133 patients (44%) and subphenotype 2 to 168 patients (56%). Increased levels of inflammatory and endothelial injury markers characterized subphenotype 2. At 90 days, 29% of patients in subphenotype 1 and 41% of patients in subphenotype 2 had died. Subphenotype 2 was associated with a lower probability of short-term renal recovery and increased 90-day mortality. Conclusions In this post hoc analysis, we identified two subphenotypes of septic acute kidney injury with different clinical outcomes. Future studies are warranted to validate the suggested subphenotypes of septic acute kidney injury.