Browsing by Subject "CROP"

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  • Wang, Shunbin; Guo, Peng; Li, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Minggen; Overmyer, Kirk; Liu, Shenkui; Cui, Fuqiang (2020)
    Sporadic and unpredictable extreme hot weather events associated with global warming have been an increasingly serious problem and are difficult to test under natural field conditions. In this study, we used subtropical summer to mimic extreme hot weather under realistic field conditions to test for heat tolerance in the cold-adapted emergent oil crop, Camelina sativa. Utilizing a forward genetic screen, Camelina was screened for heat-adapted genotypes, resulting in the identification of three subtropical summer tolerant (sst) mutants. The sst mutants were late flowering and exhibited altered expression of the key flowering genes FLOWER LOCUS C and FLOWER LOCUS T. With RNA-seq assay, it was found that redox and defense related genes were significantly enriched in the up-regulated genes of the sst mutants. Consistently, reduced hydrogen peroxide production and enhanced resistance to a fungal pathogen were observed. Overall, our results suggested that to breed temperate crops to adapt to the subtropics, flowering time, antioxidant ability, and defense signaling could be the potential targets.
  • Lammel, Daniel R.; Barth, Gabriel; Ovaskainen, Otso; Cruz, Leonardo M.; Zanatta, Josileia A.; Ryo, Masahiro; de Souza, Emanuel M.; Pedrosa, Fabio O. (2018)
    Background: pH is frequently reported as the main driver for prokaryotic community structure in soils. However, pH changes are also linked to "spillover effects" on other chemical parameters (e.g., availability of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu) and plant growth, but these indirect effects on the microbial communities are rarely investigated. Usually, pH also co-varies with some confounding factors, such as land use, soil management (e.g., tillage and chemical inputs), plant cover, and/or edapho-climatic conditions. So, a more comprehensive analysis of the direct and indirect effects of pH brings a better understanding of the mechanisms driving prokaryotic (archaeal and bacterial) community structures. Results: We evaluated an agricultural soil pH gradient (from 4 to 6, the typical range for tropical farms), in a liming gradient with confounding factors minimized, investigating relationships between prokaryotic communities (16S rRNA) and physical-chemical parameters (indirect effects). Correlations, hierarchical modeling of species communities (HMSC), and random forest (RF) modeling indicated that both direct and indirect effects of the pH gradient affected the prokaryotic communities. Some OTUs were more affected by the pH changes (e.g., some Actinobacteria), while others were more affected by the indirect pH effects (e.g., some Proteobacteria). HMSC detected a phylogenetic signal related to the effects. Both HMSC and RF indicated that the main indirect effect was the pH changes on the availability of some elements (e.g., Al, Fe, and Cu), and secondarily, effects on plant growth and nutrient cycling also affected the OTUs. Additionally, we found that some of the OTUs that responded to pH also correlated with CO2, CH4, and N2O greenhouse gas fluxes. Conclusions: Our results indicate that there are two distinct pH-related mechanisms driving prokaryotic community structures, the direct effect and "spillover effects" of pH (indirect effects). Moreover, the indirect effects are highly relevant for some OTUs and consequently for the community structure; therefore, it is a mechanism that should be further investigated in microbial ecology.
  • Epie, Kenedy E.; Santanen, Arja; Makela, Pirjo S. A.; Stoddard, Frederick L. (2018)
    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) produces substantial shoots not used as food. To test its potential as a sustainable bioenergy crop, we studied the effects of synthetic fertilizer and intercropped legumes as nitrogen (N) sources on the growth, aboveground biomass dry matter yield and energy qualities of this crop. Plant height, leaf area index (LAI), SPAD-value, biomass yield, ash content and mineral element composition were determined. Mean aboveground biomass yields were not significantly affected by N source (legume intercrops and synthetic fertilizer) and ranged from 13 to 17 t ha(-1). Remarkably, plants given no fertilizer yielded equally to plants given 90 N kg ha(-1). These results confirm that Jerusalem artichoke, compared to other energy crops, have less need for N and can potentially be sustained by N fixing legumes in an intercropped system. This could reduce or eliminate production and environmental cost in cultivation of biomass feedstock for energy use.
  • Laine, Merjo Piia Päivikki; Rütting, Tobias; Alakukku, Laura Elina; Palojärvi, Ansa; Strömmer, Rauni Hannele (2018)
    No-till is considered an agricultural practice beneficial for the environment as soil erosion is decreased compared to ploughed soils. For on overall evaluation of the benefits and disadvantages of this crop production method, understanding the soil nutrient cycle is also of importance. The study was designed to obtain information about gross soil nitrogen (N) process rates in boreal no-tilled and mouldboard ploughed spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) fields after autumn harvesting. In situ soil gross N transformation process rates were quantified for the 5 cm topsoil in 9 days' incubation experiment using N-15 pool dilution and tracing techniques and a numerical N-15 tracing model. Gross N mineralization into ammonium (NH4+) and NH4+ immobilization were the most important N transformation processes in the soils. The gross mineralization rate was 14% and NH4+ immobilization rate 64% higher in no-till than in ploughing. Regardless of the faster mineralization, the gross rate of NH4+ oxidation into nitrate (NO3-) in no-till was one order of magnitude lower compared the ploughing. The results indicate that the no-tilled soils have the potential to decrease the risk for NO3- leaching due to slower NH4+ oxidation.
  • Niskanen, Olli; Iho, Antti; Kalliovirta, Leena (2020)
    Livestock production in developed countries has undergone profound changes in recent decades and this development seems to continue apace. One consequence is that manure is being - and will be - produced on fewer but larger farms. Data on the bulk of manure nutrients from each country are published by Eurostat, but it is not known how manure is distributed across farms of different sizes. This study 1) puts forward an estimate of the distribution of main manure nutrients between farms of different sizes, 2) estimates how this distribution will change in the near future and 3) discusses the land use effects of this development. Results suggest that by the year 2030 farms housing > 500 livestock units will produce more than two-thirds of all manure phosphorus, whereas the proportion in 2010 was one-third. With the Nitrates Directive limiting the use of organic nitrate of manure, growing farms need to acquire, or conclude contracts for the use of, 4.9 million hectares from exiting farms or the open market in order to comply with manure spreading requirements. This shift will involve 64% of the total spreading area of 2010 and 15% of the total utilized agricultural area of the regions studied. In light of these predictions, international nutrient policies should consider the evolution of farm structure in general and manure phosphorus agglomeration in particular. Also salient is improved co-operation beyond the single farm level to ensure the functionality of crop-livestock systems.
  • Aubriot, Xavier; Knapp, Sandra; Syfert, Mindy; Poczai, Péter; Buerki, Sven (2018)
    • While brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is the second most important solanaceaous vegetable crop, we lack firm knowledge of its evolutionary relationships. This in turn limits efficient use of crop wild relatives in eggplant improvement. Here, we examine the hypothesis of linear step-wise expansion of the eggplant group from Africa to Asia. • We use museum collections to generate nuclear and full-plastome data for all species of the eggplant clade. We combine a phylogenomic approach with distribution data to infer a biogeographic scenario for the clade. • The eggplant clade has Pleistocene origins in northern Africa. Dispersions to tropical Asia gave rise to Solanum insanum, the wild progenitor of the eggplant, and to Africa distinct lineages of widespread and southern-African species. Results suggest that spread of species to southern Africa is recent and was likely facilitated by large mammal herbivores feeding on Solanum fruits (African elephant, impala). • Rather than a linear ‘Out Of Africa’ sequence, our results are more consistent with an initial event into Asia, and subsequent wide dispersion and differentiation across Africa driven by large mammalian herbivores. Our evolutionary results will impact future work on eggplant domestication and use of wild relatives in breeding of this increasingly important solanaceous crop.
  • Robson, T. Matthew; Pieriste, Marta; Durand, Maxime; Kotilainen, Titta K.; Aphalo, Pedro J. (2022)
    Societal Impact Statement The effective management of light is beneficial for growers of plants in greenhouses, polytunnels and under cloches. The materials and structures used to construct these environments often create light-limited conditions for crops and change the spectral composition of sunlight they receive. Combining practical measures, drawn from knowledge of plant photobiology, allows growers to monitor, forecast and optimise conditions in their growing environment according to its geographical location and the crop grown. Improved management of light through these measures could be expected to improve food quality and yield, and potentially reduce use of energy, water and pesticides. Horticultural production in greenhouses and in polytunnels expands the viable geographic range of many crop species and extends their productive growing season. These semi-controlled growing environments buffer natural fluctuations in heat, cold and light and hold potential to improve food security with a low environmental footprint. Over the last decade, technological advances in cladding materials, smart filters, photo-electric cells for energy production and LED lighting have created opportunities to improve the light environment within these structures. In parallel, there have been large advances in plant photobiology, underpinned by progress in identifying the mechanisms of photomorphogenesis and photoprotection, mediated by plant photoreceptors and their interactions, across regions of the spectrum. However, there remains unexploited potential to synthesise and transfer knowledge from these fields to horticulture, particularly with respect to tailoring the use of sunlight to specific locations and production systems. Here, we systematically explain (1) the value of modelling and monitoring patterns of sunlight to allow for informed design of the growth environment; (2) the means of optimising light conditions through selection of materials and structures; (3) the requirements of different crop plants in terms of the amount and spectral composition of light that will benefit yield and food quality; (4) the potential to combine this knowledge for effective management of the sunlight; and, finally, (5) the additional benefits these actions may bring to growers and society at large, beyond the crops themselves, in terms of water use and energy efficiency.
  • Ekroos, Johan; Tiainen, Juha; Seimola, Tuomas; Herzon, Irina (2019)
    Context The current Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union includes three greening measures, which are partly intended to benefit farmland biodiversity. However, the relative biodiversity effects of the greening measures, including joint effects of landscape context, are not well understood. Objectives We studied the effects of increasing crop diversity, proportions of production grasslands and fallows, corresponding to CAP greening measures, on open farmland bird diversity, whilst controlling for the effects of distance to forests, field edge density and proportion of built-up areas. Methods We surveyed open farmland birds using territory mapping in Southern Finland. We modelled effects of greening measures and landscape structure on farmland birds (7642 territories) using generalised linear mixed models. Results Increasing proportions of grasslands increased farmland bird species richness and diversity in open farmland, whereas increasing proportions of fallows increased bird diversity. Increasing crop diversity benefited individual species, but not species richness or diversity. Increasing field edge densities consistently increased the species richness of all farmland species, in-field nesters and non-crop nesters, as well as total farmland bird diversity. The relative effect of edge density was much stronger compared to the three greening measures. Conclusions Our results show that promoting fallows and grasslands, in particular grazed grasslands and various types of semi-natural grasslands, has the highest potential to benefit farmland bird diversity. Maintaining or increasing field edge densities, currently not supported, seems to be of even more benefit. In open farmland, with little or no field edges, fallows and grasslands are particularly beneficial.
  • Dianatmanesh, Marziye; Kazemeini, Seyed A.; Bahrani, Mohammad J.; Shakeri, Ehsan; Alinia, Mozhgan; Amjad, Syeda F.; Mansoora, Nida; Poczai, Peter; Lalarukh, Irfana; Abbas, Mohamed H. H.; Abdelhafez, Ahmed A.; Hamed, Mahdy H. (2022)
    Incorporation of crop residues into agricultural system has become a worldwide efficient practice for enhancing crop production. The main objectives of this experiment was to investigate the major role of incorporating wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) residues and nitrogen (N) fertilizers rates under different water requirements (WR) on growth, seed yield and yield components of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The results showed that seed yield under 80% WR in retained crop residue plots was & SIM;11% higher than WR treatment with no residue incorporation. Seed yield was not significantly different between residue retention and removal treatments in 2016, whereas it was higher (12% and 17%) under residue retained plots compared to removed ones in subsequent years. Seed yields responded to N up to 170 and 225 kg ha(-1) in removed and retained residue treatments, respectively in 2017 and 2018. Annual increment of seed yield in residue retained plots (36%) was 2.11 times higher than the residue removed ones (17%). There was higher soil N content in 50% residue retention with 225 kg N ha(-1) under both water deficit treatments in all years. The highest soil organic carbon (SOC) was achieved with normal irrigation in retained residue plots with 225 kg N ha(-1) in all years. Overall, wheat residue incorporation into the soil and N-supply substantially contributed to counteracting yield declines of common bean under water deficit conditions.& nbsp;(c) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).