Browsing by Subject "CROSS-LINKING"

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  • Liu, Xiaonan; Salokas, Kari; Tamene, Fitsum; Jiu, Yaming; Weldatsadik, Rigbe G.; öhman, Tiina; Varjosalo, Markku (2018)
    Protein-protein interactions govern almost all cellular functions. These complex networks of stable and transient associations can be mapped by affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) and complementary proximity-based labeling methods such as BioID. To exploit the advantages of both strategies, we here design and optimize an integrated approach combining AP-MS and BioID in a single construct, which we term MAC-tag. We systematically apply the MAC-tag approach to 18 subcellular and 3 sub-organelle localization markers, generating a molecular context database, which can be used to define a protein's molecular location. In addition, we show that combining the AP-MS and BioID results makes it possible to obtain interaction distances within a protein complex. Taken together, our integrated strategy enables the comprehensive mapping of the physical and functional interactions of proteins, defining their molecular context and improving our understanding of the cellular interactome.
  • Ruutila, M; Fagerholm, P; Lagali, N; Hjortdal, J; Bram, T; Moilanen, J; Kivela, TT (2021)
    Purpose: To refine the diagnostic criteria for Terrien marginal degeneration (TMD) based on experience in 3 Nordic countries. Methods: This is a retrospective, multicenter, hospital-based cross-sectional study of 49 eyes of 29 white patients in tertiary referral centers in Finland, Sweden, and Denmark from 1998 to January 2018. The median follow-up was 3 years. Symptoms, best corrected visual acuity, astigmatism, corneal thickness, curvature and cavities, stage, and progression were analyzed. Results: TMD was diagnosed equally likely between 15 and 86 years of age (median, 47 years). Twenty patients (69%) had bilateral disease, and 62% were men. Seventeen patients (59%) had symptoms including blurred vision and ocular surface disease symptoms without inflammatory signs. Eight patients (28%) had slightly reduced corneal sensitivity. Median best corrected visual acuity was 20/25 (range, 20/16-20/200) and astigmatism was 2.6 diopters (D) (range, 0-10) with a mean progression of 0.41 D per year (range, 0-5.4). Age and astigmatism were not correlated. All eyes had peripheral vascularization, lipid deposits, and hyperreflectivity throughout thinned peripheral stroma and its anterior edge. The thinning progressed in 15 patients (52%). Of 26 patients, 8 (31%) had single or confluent paralimbal intrastromal cavities, most commonly superiorly. By Suveges classification, the stage was 2 (92%) or 3 (8%). Minimum corneal thickness and corneal curvature were loosely associated, leading to different stages in Wang classification in 34 eyes (69%). Conclusions: TMD is defined by peripheral corneal thinning, superficial neovascularization, lipid deposition at the leading edge, absence of ulceration and inflammation, and frequently cavitation. The most sensitive way to follow its progression is anterior segment optical coherence tomography.
  • Liu, Chang; Damodaran, Srinivasan; Heinonen, Irma Marina (2019)
    The potential use of microbial transglutaminase (MTG)-treated faba bean protein isolate (FBPI) as emulsifiers to maintain physical and oxidative stability of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion was investigated. MTG-treated FBPIs (MTG-FBPIs) were prepared by incubating with MTG for 60, 120 or 240 min. O/W emulsions were stabilized by 3% (w/v) of MTG-FBPIs or control-FBPI (treated with inactive MTG) and stored at 37 degrees C for 7 days. MTG treatments induced cross-linking in FBPI, raised the protein net surface charges by 5%-8%, and increased the emulsion particle size by 19%-135%. MTG treatment for 120 and 240 min but not 60 min induced excessive surface hydrophobicity, resulting in decreased emulsifying activity and physical stability of emulsion. By day 7, all MTG-treated FBPIs showed similar inhibiting effects against lipid oxidation in emulsion, indicated by less conjugated dienes and hexanal production. MTG-FBPIs moderately promoted protein oxidation (120 min > 240 min approximate to 60 min). Thus, prolonged MTG treatment should be avoided to prevent accelerated protein oxidation and droplets coalescence. MTG treatment for 60 min makes FBPI a potential emulsifier to maintain physical stability while improving lipid oxidative stability in emulsion, potentially attributed to thicker interfacial layer, larger droplet size, and protective effect of protein.
  • Bao, Yulong; Ertbjerg, Per (2019)
    Protein oxidation readily occurs in postmortem muscle during storage and processing. Over the past decade new analytical methods have been developed and new aspects of protein oxidation in meat have been studied, such as the reaction mechanism, and impacts on eating quality and nutritional value. It is now evident that amino acid side chains in myofibrillar proteins undergoes modifications due to oxidative stress. In turn this will lead to formation of new protein-protein cross-links in structural proteins, however, also the overall level of fixed-charge groups attached to the peptide backbones is modified. Meat texture and water-holding are important quality attributes and they are affected by the oxidation of structural proteins. Different mechanisms have been suggested to explain the oxidation-induced quality changes, focusing mainly on reduced proteolysis and formation of cross-links. This review explores the current understanding of protein oxidation in fresh meat in relation to texture and water-holding. The consequences of protein oxidation at molecular level in relation to oxidation-induced cross-linking and changes in net charges of myofibrillar proteins, and the impacts on texture and water-holding are discussed.
  • Friedmann, Andrea; Goehre , Felix; Ludtka, Christopher; Mendel, Thomas; Meisel, Hans-Joerg; Heilmann, Andreas; Schwan, Stefan (2017)
    Degeneration of intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue is characterized by several structural changes that result in variations in disc physiology and loss of biomechanical function. The complex process of degeneration exhibits highly intercorrelated biomechanical, biochemical, and cellular interactions. There is currently some understanding of the cellular changes in degenerated intervertebral disc tissue, but microstructural changes and deterioration of the tissue matrix has previously been rarely explored. In this work, sequestered IVD tissue was successfully characterized using histology, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to quantitatively evaluate parameters of interest for intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) such as delamination of the collagenous matrix, cell density, cell size, and extra cellular matrix (ECM) thickness. Additional qualitative parameters investigated included matrix fibration and irregularity, neovascularization of the IVD, granular inclusions in the matrix, and cell cluster formation. The results of this study corroborated several previously published findings, including those positively correlating female gender and IVD cell density, age and cell size, and female gender and ECM thickness. Additionally, an array of quantitative and qualitative investigations of IVD degeneration could be successfully evaluated using the given methodology, resin-embedded SEM in particular. SEM is especially practical for studying micromorphological changes in tissue, as other microscopy methods can cause artificial tissue damage due to the preparation method. Investigation of the microstructural changes occurring in degenerated tissue provides a greater understanding of the complex process of disc degeneration as a whole. Developing a more complete picture of the degenerative changes taking place in the intervertebral disc is crucial for the advancement and application of regenerative therapies based on the pathology of intervertebral disc degeneration. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Salonen, Johanna; Ronnholm, Gunilla; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Vihinen, Mauno (2013)
  • Salminen, Linda; Karjalainen, Erno; Aseyev, Vladimir; Tenhu, Heikki (2021)
    This article introduces butyl acrylate-based materials that are toughened with dynamic crosslinkers. These dynamic crosslinkers are salts where both the anion and cation polymerize. The ion pairs between the polymerized anions and cations form dynamic crosslinks that break and reform under deformation. Chemical crosslinker was used to bring shape stability. The extent of dynamic and chemical crosslinking was related to the mechanical and thermal properties of the materials. Furthermore, the dependence of the material properties on different dynamic crosslinkers-tributyl-(4-vinylbenzyl)ammonium sulfopropyl acrylate (C4ASA) and trihexyl-(4-vinylbenzyl)ammonium sulfopropyl acrylate (C6ASA)-was studied. The materials' mechanical and thermal properties were characterized by means of tensile tests, dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The dynamic crosslinks strengthened the materials considerably. Chemical crosslinks decreased the elasticity of the materials but did not significantly affect their strength. Comparison of the two ionic crosslinkers revealed that changing the crosslinker from C4ASA to C6ASA results in more elastic, but slightly weaker materials. In conclusion, dynamic crosslinks provide substantial enhancement of mechanical properties of the materials. This is a unique approach that is utilizable for a wide variety of polymer materials.
  • Kaartinen, Mari T.; Arora, Mansi; Heinonen, Sini; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. (2020)
    Transglutaminases TG2 and FXIII-A have recently been linked to adipose tissue biology and obesity, however, human studies for TG family members in adipocytes have not been conducted. In this study, we investigated the association of TGM family members to acquired weight gain in a rare set of monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for body weight, i.e., heavy-lean twin pairs. We report that F13A1 is the only TGM family member showing significantly altered, higher expression in adipose tissue of the heavier twin. Our previous work linked adipocyte F13A1 to increased weight, body fat mass, adipocyte size, and pro-inflammatory pathways. Here, we explored further the link of F13A1 to adipocyte size in the MZ twins via a previously conducted TWA study that was further mined for genes that specifically associate to hypertrophic adipocytes. We report that differential expression of F13A1 (Delta Heavy-Lean) associated with 47 genes which were linked via gene enrichment analysis to immune response, leucocyte and neutrophil activation, as well as cytokine response and signaling. Our work brings further support to the role of F13A1 in the human adipose tissue pathology, suggesting a role in the cascade that links hypertrophic adipocytes with inflammation.