Browsing by Subject "CROSS-SECTIONS"

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  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    A detailed study of pseudorapidity densities and multiplicity distributions of primary charged particles produced in proton-proton collisions, atv root s = 0.9, 2.36, 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV, in the pseudorapidity range vertical bar n vertical bar<2, was carried out using the ALICE detector. Measurements were obtained for three event classes: inelastic, non-single diffractive and events with at least one charged particle in the pseudorapidity interval vertical bar n vertical bar
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Forthomme, L.; Kirschenmann, H.; Österberg, K.; Voutilainen, M.; Brucken, E.; Garcia, F.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Karimäki, V.; Kim, M. S.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampen, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T.; Viinikainen, J.; Pekkanen, J.; Tumasyan, A. (2020)
    The polarizations of promptly produced chi(c1) and chi(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at root s = 8 TeV. The chi(c) states are reconstructed via their radiative decays chi(c) -> J/psi gamma, with the photons being measured through conversions to e(+)e(-), which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the chi(c2) to chi(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/psi -> mu(+)mu(-) decay, in three bins of J/psi transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the hclicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum.
  • Goharipour, Muhammad; Khanpour, Hamzeh; Guzey, Vadim (2018)
    We present GKG18-DPDFs, a next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD analysis of diffractive parton distribution functions (diffractive PDFs) and their uncertainties. This is the first global set of diffractive PDFs determined within the xFitter framework. This analysis is motivated by all available and most up-to-date data on inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering (diffractive DIS). Heavy quark contributions are considered within the framework of the Thorne-Roberts (TR) general mass variable flavor number scheme (GM-VFNS). We form a mutually consistent set of diffractive PDFs due to the inclusion of high-precision data from H1/ZEUS combined inclusive diffractive cross sections measurements. We study the impact of the H1/ZEUS combined data by producing a variety of determinations based on reduced data sets. We find that these data sets have a significant impact on the diffractive PDFs with some substantial reductions in uncertainties. The predictions based on the extracted diffractive PDFs are compared to the analyzed diffractive DIS data and with other determinations of the diffractive PDFs.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2018)
    The production of the charm-strange baryon Xi(0)(c) is measured for the first time at the LHC via its semileptonic decay into e(+) Xi(-) nu(e) in ppcollisions at root s = 7 TeV with the ALICE detector. The transverse momentum ( p(T)) differential cross section multiplied by the branching ratio is presented in the interval 1 < p(T)< 8 GeV/c at mid-rapidity, vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.5. The transverse momentum dependence of the Xi(0)(c) baryon production relative to the D-0 meson production is compared to predictions of event generators with various tunes of the hadronisation mechanism, which are found to underestimate the measured cross-section ratio. (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Guzey, V.; Klasen, M. (2019)
    We compute the cross section of inclusive dijet photoproduction in ultraperipheral Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider using next-to-leading order perturbative QCD. We demonstrate that our theoretical calculations provide a good description of various kinematic distributions measured by the ATLAS Collaboration. We find that the calculated dijet photoproduction cross section is sensitive to nuclear modifications of parton distribution functions (PDFs) at the level of 10% to 20%. Hence, this process can be used to reduce uncertainties in the determination of these nuclear PDFs, whose current magnitude is comparable to the size of the calculated nuclear modifications of the dijet photoproduction cross section.
  • Abelev, B.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Kral, J.; Pohjoisaho, E. H. O.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Trzaska, W. H.; The ALICE collaboration (2015)
    The multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions of inclusive photons have been measured at forward rapidities (2.3 <eta <3.9) in proton-proton collisions at three center-of-mass energies, root s = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV using the ALICE detector. It is observed that the increase in the average photon multiplicity as a function of beam energy is compatible with both a logarithmic and a power-law dependence. The relative increase in average photon multiplicity produced in inelastic pp collisions at 2.76 and 7 TeV center-of-mass energies with respect to 0.9 TeV are 37.2 +/- 0.3% (stat) +/- 8.8% (sys) and 61.2 +/- 0.3% (stat) +/- 7.6% (sys), respectively. The photon multiplicity distributions for all center-of-mass energies are well described by negative binomial distributions. The multiplicity distributions are also presented in terms of KNO variables. The results are compared to model predictions, which are found in general to underestimate the data at large photon multiplicities, in particular at the highest center-of-mass energy. Limiting fragmentation behavior of photons has been explored with the data, but is not observed in the measured pseudorapidity range.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    The production of K*(892)(0) and phi(1020) mesons in proton-proton (pp) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions at root sNN = 2.76 TeV has been analyzed using a high luminosity data sample accumulated in 2011 with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Transverse momentum (p(T)) spectra have been measured for K*(892)(0) and phi(1020) mesons via their hadronic decay channels for p(T) up to 20 GeV/c. The measurements in pp collisions have been compared to model calculations and used to determine the nuclear modification factor and particle ratios. The K*(892)(0)/K ratio exhibits significant reduction from pp to central Pb-Pb collisions, consistent with the suppression of the K*( 892)(0) yield at low pT due to rescattering of its decay products in the hadronic phase. In central Pb-Pb collisions the pT dependent phi(1020)/p and K*(892)0/p ratios show an enhancement over pp collisions for pT approximate to 3 GeV/c, consistent with previous observations of strong radial flow. At high pT, particle ratios in Pb-Pb collisions are similar to those measured in pp collisions. In central Pb-Pb collisions, the production of K*(892)(0) and phi(1020) mesons is suppressed for p(T) > 8 GeV/c. This suppression is similar to that of charged pions, kaons, and protons, indicating that the suppression does not depend on particle mass or flavor in the light quark sector.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    Electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays (charm and beauty) were measured with the ALICE detector in Pb-Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass of energy root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV. The transverse momentum (pT) differential production yields at mid-rapidity were used to calculate the nuclear modification factor R-AA in the interval 3 <p(T) <18 GeV/c. The R-AA shows a strong suppression compared to binary scaling of pp collisions at the same energy (up to a factor of 4) in the 10% most central Pb-Pb collisions. There is a centrality trend of suppression, and a weaker suppression (down to a factor of 2) in semi-peripheral (50-80%) collisions is observed. The suppression of electrons in this broad p(T) interval indicates that both charm and beauty quarks lose energy when they traverse the hot medium formed in Pb-Pb collisions at LHC. (C) 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Perez-Loureiro, D.; Benlliure, J.; Diaz-Cortes, J.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, J. L.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Blank, B.; Casarejos, E.; Dragosavac, D.; Foehr, C.; Gascon, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.; Heinz, A.; Helariutta, K.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Lukic, S.; Montes, F.; Pienkowski, L.; Schmidt, K-H; Staniou, M.; Subotic, K.; Suemmerer, K.; Taieb, J.; Trzcinska, A. (2019)
    The production cross sections of neutron-rich fission residues in reactions induced by U-238 projectiles at 950A MeV impinging on Pb and Be targets are investigated at the Fragment Separator at GSI. These two targets allow us to investigate fission processes induced by two reaction mechanisms, Coulomb and nuclear excitations, and to study the role of these mechanisms in the neutron excess of the final fragments.
  • Walt, Marina; Helenius, Ilkka; Vogelsang, Werner (2019)
    We present new sets of nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs) at next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order. Our analyses are based on deeply inelastic scattering data with charged-lepton and neutrino beams on nuclear targets. In addition, a set of proton baseline PDFs is fitted within the same framework with the same theoretical assumptions. The results of this global QCD analysis are compared to existing nPDF sets and to the fitted cross sections. Also, the uncertainties resulting from the limited constraining power of the included experimental data are presented. The published work is based on an open-source tool, xFitter, which has been modified to be applicable also for a nuclear PDF analysis. The required extensions of the code are discussed as well.
  • Valiev, R. R.; Berezhnoy, A. A.; Gritsenko, I. S.; Merzlikin, B. S.; Cherepanov, Viktor N.; Kurten, Theo; Wöhler, Chrisitan (2020)
    We calculated the cross sections of photolysis of OH, LiO, NaO, KO, HCl, LiCl, NaCl, KCl, HF, LiF, NaF, and KF molecules using quantum chemistry methods. The maximal values for photolysis cross sections of alkali metal monoxides are on the order of 10(-18) cm(2). The lifetimes of photolysis for quiet Sun at 1 astronomical unit are estimated as 2.0 x 10(5), 28, 5, 14, 2.1 x 10(5), 225, 42, 52, 2 x 10(6), 35 400, 486, and 30 400 s for OH, LiO, NaO, KO, HCl, LiCl, NaCl, KCl, HF, LiF, NaF, and KF, respectively. We performed a comparison between values of photolysis lifetimes obtained in this work and in previous studies. Based on such a comparison, our estimations of photolysis lifetimes of OH, HCl, and HF have an accuracy of about a factor of 2. We determined typical kinetic energies of main peaks of photolysis-generated metal atoms. Impact-produced LiO, NaO, KO, NaCl, and KCl molecules are destroyed in the lunar and Hermean exospheres almost completely during the first ballistic flight, while other considered molecules are more stable against destruction by photolysis.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    Results are reported from a search for physics beyond the standard model in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of root s=13TeV. The search uses a signature of a single lepton, large jet and bottom quark jet multiplicities, and high sum of large-radius jet masses, without any requirement on the missing transverse momentum in an event. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1) recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. No significant excess beyond the prediction from standard model processes is observed. The results are interpreted in terms of upper limits on the production cross section for R-parity violating supersymmetric extensions of the standard model using a benchmark model of gluino pair production, in which each gluino decays promptly via (g) over tilde -> tbs. Gluinos with a mass below 1610 GeV are excluded at 95% confidence level. (c) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( Funded by SCOAP(3).
  • Juvonen, Minna; Bakx, Edwin; Schols, Henk; Tenkanen, Maija (2022)
    The potential of travelling wave ion mobility spectroscopy in combination with collision induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-TWIMS-MS/MS) to separate cereal-derived isomeric arabinoxylanoligosaccharides (A)XOS was investigated. Three trisaccharide, four tetrasaccharide, and four pentasaccharide (A)XOS isomers were analyzed by positive and negative ionization TWIMS-MS and CID-TWIMS-MS/MS. The triand pentasaccharide isomers were distinguishable by the ATDs of the precursor ions. The CID-TWIMS-MS/MS could separate most of the isomeric fragment ions produced from tetra- and pentasaccharide (A)XOS. Finally, the base peak mobility spectrum is introduced as a practical tool for (A)XOS fingerprinting.
  • Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Maguregui, Maite; Manuel Madariaga, Juan; Laakso, Raili (2016)
    The paint stratigraphy of the two clock faces from the tower clock of the Government Palace in Helsinki (Finland) was analysed in order to determine their original colour before restoration works. Paint cross-section samples from both clock faces were analysed by confocal Raman microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled to an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The results revealed the complex superimposition of paint layers applied over the original black colour. FTIR/ATR analyses proved that the original paint was prepared with linseed oil-resin media. Most likely not all of the different layer colours were visible. Some of the layers were likely to have been a primer or for rust protection.
  • Peltola, Jari; Seal, Prasenjit; Inkilä, Anni; Eskola, Arkke (2020)
    We present a time-resolved broadband cavity-enhanced UV-absorption spectrometer apparatus that we have constructed and utilized for temperature- and pressure-dependent kinetic measurements of formaldehyde oxide (CH2OO) reactions. We also introduce and utilize a new photolytic precursor, bromoiodomethane (CH2IBr), which photolysis at 213 nm in presence of O-2 produces CH2OO. Importantly, this precursor appears to be free from secondary reactions that may regenerate CH2OO in kinetic experiments. The unimolecular decomposition rate coefficient of CH2OO has been measured over wide pressure (5-400 Torr) and temperature (296-600 K) ranges and master equation simulations of the decomposition kinetics have been performed using MESMER program. The MESMER simulations of the experimental data with the calculated zero-point energy corrected transition state energy 85.9 kJ mol(-1) for decomposition required no adjustment and returned (down) = 123.2 x (T/298 K)(0.74) cm(-1) for temperature-dependent exponential-down model of the collisional energy transfer in He. A very good agreement between results of simulations and experiments is obtained. The results are compared with the previously reported unimolecular decomposition study by Stone et al. (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2018, 20, 24940-24954). Current master equation simulations suggest about 61% decomposition yield for the predominant H-2 + CO2 channel, whereas the yields of two other channels, H2O + CO, and HCO + OH, are sensitive on the parameters involved in the simulations. The kinetics of CH2OO reaction with formic acid has also been investigated as function of pressure (5-150 Torr) and temperature (296-458 K). The bimolecular rate coefficient for CH2OO + HCOOH reaction shows a negative temperature dependency, decreasing from (1.0 +/- 0.03) x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 296 K to (0.47 +/- 0.05) x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 458 K with an Arrhenius activation energy of -4.9 +/- 1.6 kJ mol(-1), where statistical uncertainties shown are 2 sigma. Estimated overall uncertainty in the measured rate coefficients is about +/- 20%. Current bimolecular rate coefficient at room temperature agrees with the previously reported rate coefficients from the direct kinetic experiments. The reaction is found to be pressure independent over the range between 5 and 150 Torr at 296 K in He.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    The W and Z boson production was measured via the muonic decay channel in proton-lead collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider with the ALICE detector. The measurement covers backward (4.46 <y(cms) <2.96) and forward (2.03 <y(cms) <3.53) rapidity regions, corresponding to Pb-going and p-going directions, respectively. The Z-boson production cross section, with dimuon invariant mass of 60 <m(mu mu) <120 GeV/c(2) and muon transverse momentum (p(T)(mu)) larger than 20 GeV/c, is measured. The production cross section and charge asymmetry of muons from W-boson decays with p(T)(mu) > 10 GeV/c are determined. The results are compared to theoretical calculations both with and without including the nuclear modification of the parton distribution functions. The W-boson production is also studied as a function of the collision centrality: the cross section of muons from W-boson decays is found to scale with the average number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions within uncertainties.