Browsing by Subject "CRPS"

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  • Hotta, Jaakko; Saari, Jukka; Koskinen, Miika; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Forss, Nina; Hari, Riitta (2017)
    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) display various abnormalities in central motor function, and their pain is intensified when they perform or just observe motor actions. In this study, we examined the abnormalities of brain responses to action observation in CRPS. We analyzed 3-T functional magnetic resonance images from 13 upper limb CRPS patients (all female, ages 31-58 years) and 13 healthy, age- and sex-matched control subjects. The functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while the subjects viewed brief videos of hand actions shown in the first-person perspective. A pattern-classification analysis was applied to characterize brain areas where the activation pattern differed between CRPS patients and healthy subjects. Brain areas with statistically significant group differences (q <.05, false discovery rate-corrected) included the hand representation area in the sensorimotor cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, secondary somatosensory cortex, inferior parietal lobule, orbitofrontal cortex, and thalamus. Our findings indicate that CRPS impairs action observation by affecting brain areas related to pain processing and motor control. Perspective: This article shows that in CRPS, the observation of others' motor actions induces abnormal neural activity in brain areas essential for sensorimotor functions and pain. These results build the cerebral basis for action-observation impairments in CRPS. (C) 2016 by the American Pain Society
  • Elomaa, Minna; Hotta, Jaakko; Williams, Amanda C. de C.; Forss, Nina; Äyräpää, Anni; Kalso, Eija; Harno, Hanna (2019)
    Background and aims: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) often recovers spontaneously within the first year, but when it becomes chronic, available rehabilitative therapies (pharmacological management, physiotherapy, and psychological intervention) have limited effectiveness. This study examined the effect of a 12-week intensive outpatient rehabilitation on pain relief and function in chronic CRPS patients. Rehabilitation program included memantine and morphine treatment (added to patient's prior pain medication) and concurrent psychological and physiotherapeutic intervention. Primary outcome measure was a change in CRPS symptom count and secondary outcomes were motor performance, psychological factors, pain intensity, and quality of life. Methods: Ten patients with chronic upper limb CRPS I (median 2.9 years, range 8 months to 12 years) were recruited to the study and were assessed before and after the intervention. Hand motor function of the patients was evaluated by an independent physiotherapist. There were standardized questionnaires for depression, pain anxiety, pain acceptance, quality of life, and CRPS symptom count. In addition, psychological factors were evaluated by a semi-structured interview. Severity of experienced pain was rated at movement and at rest. In addition, a video experiment of a hand action observation was conducted pre- and post-intervention to study possible change in neuronal maladaptation. Intervention consisted of pharmacological, psychological and physiotherapeutic treatment. First, 10 mg daily morphine was started and increased gradually to 30 mg daily, if tolerated. After 30 mg/day or tolerated dose of morphine was achieved, 5 mg daily memantine was started and increased gradually to 40 mg, if tolerated. Psychological intervention consisted of weekly group sessions, using cognitive and behavioral methods (relaxation, behavioral activation, and exposure) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and daily home practice. Physiotherapeutic intervention consisted of graded motor imagery and physiotherapy exercises with weekly group sessions and/or individual guidance by the physiotherapist, and individual exercise of the affected upper limb. Results: Multimodal intensive intervention resulted in significant decrease in CRPS symptom count. The effect was strongest in motor and trophic symptoms (19% decrease after intervention) and in sensory symptoms (18% decrease). Additionally, improvement was seen in some, but not all, secondary outcomes (movement pain, motor symptoms, change in perceptions during video experiment of hand actions, and summary index with motor functioning, pain, and psychological factors). There were no dropouts. Conclusions: Intensive 12-week multimodal intervention reduced some CRPS symptoms but was not sufficient to alter patients' rest pain, distress, or quality of life.