Browsing by Subject "CRYO-EM"

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  • Li, Sai; Rissanen, Ilona; Zeltina, Antra; Hepojoki, Jussi; Raghwani, Jayna; Harlos, Karl; Pybus, Oliver G.; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Bowden, Thomas A. (2016)
    Hantaviruses, a geographically diverse group of zoonotic pathogens, initiate cell infection through the concerted action of Gn and Gc viral surface glycoproteins. Here, we describe the high-resolution crystal structure of the antigenic ectodomain of Gn from Puumala hantavirus (PUUV), a causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Fitting of PUUV Gn into an electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of intact Gn-Gc spike complexes from the closely related but non-pathogenic Tula hantavirus localized Gn tetramers to the membrane-distal surface of the virion. The accuracy of the fitting was corroborated by epitope mapping and genetic analysis of available PUUV sequences. Interestingly, Gn exhibits greater non-synonymous sequence diversity than the less accessible Gc, supporting a role of the host humoral immune response in exerting selective pressure on the virus surface. The fold of PUUV Gn is likely to be widely conserved across hantaviruses.
  • De Colibus, Luigi; Roine, Elina; Walter, Thomas S.; Ilca, Serban L.; Wang, Xiangxi; Wang, Nan; Roseman, Alan M.; Bamford, Dennis; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Stuart, David (2019)
    Many of the largest known viruses belong to the PRD1-adeno structural lineage characterised by conserved pseudo-hexameric capsomers composed of three copies of a single major capsid protein (MCP). Here, by high-resolution cryo-EM analysis, we show that a class of archaeal viruses possess hetero-hexameric MCPs which mimic the PRD1-adeno lineage trimer. These hetero-hexamers are built from heterodimers and utilise a jigsaw-puzzle system of pegs and holes, and underlying minor capsid proteins, to assemble the capsid laterally from the 5-fold vertices. At these vertices proteins engage inwards with the internal membrane vesicle whilst 2-fold symmetric horn-like structures protrude outwards. The horns are assembled from repeated globular domains attached to a central spine, presumably facilitating multimeric attachment to the cell receptor. Such viruses may represent precursors of the main PRD1-adeno lineage, similarly engaging cell-receptors via 5-fold spikes and using minor proteins to define particle size.
  • Sun, Xiaoyu; Ilca, Serban L.; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Poranen, Minna M. (2018)
    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses package several RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) together with their dsRNA genome into an icosahedral protein capsid known as the polymerase complex. This structure is highly conserved among dsRNA viruses but is not found in any other virus group. RdRp subunits typically interact directly with the main capsid proteins, close to the 5-fold symmetric axes, and perform viral genome replication and transcription within the icosahedral protein shell. In this study, we utilized Pseudomonas phage Phi 6, a well-established virus self-assembly model, to probe the potential roles of the RdRp in dsRNA virus assembly. We demonstrated that Phi 6 RdRp accelerates the polymerase complex self-assembly process and contributes to its conformational stability and integrity. We highlight the role of specific amino acid residues on the surface of the RdRp in its incorporation during the self-assembly reaction. Substitutions of these residues reduce RdRp incorporation into the polymerase complex during the self-assembly reaction. Furthermore, we determined that the overall transcription efficiency of the Phi 6 polymerase complex increased when the number of RdRp subunits exceeded the number of genome segments. These results suggest a mechanism for RdRp recruitment in the polymerase complex and highlight its novel role in virion assembly, in addition to the canonical RNA transcription and replication functions. IMPORTANCE Double-stranded RNA viruses infect a wide spectrum of hosts, including animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria. Yet genome replication mechanisms of these viruses are conserved. During the infection cycle, a proteinaceous capsid, the polymerase complex, is formed. An essential component of this capsid is the viral RNA polymerase that replicates and transcribes the enclosed viral genome. The polymerase complex structure is well characterized for many double-stranded RNA viruses. However, much less is known about the hierarchical molecular interactions that take place in building up such complexes. Using the bacteriophage Phi 6 self-assembly system, we obtained novel insights into the processes that mediate polymerase subunit incorporation into the polymerase complex for generation of functional structures. The results presented pave the way for the exploitation and engineering of viral self-assembly processes for biomedical and synthetic biology applications. An understanding of viral assembly processes at the molecular level may also facilitate the development of antivirals that target viral capsid assembly.
  • Galemou Yoga, Etienne; Parey, Kristian; Djurabekova, Amina; Haapanen, Outi; Siegmund, Karin; Zwicker, Klaus; Sharma, Vivek; Zickermann, Volker; Angerer, Heike (2020)
    Respiratory complex I catalyzes electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone (Q) coupled to vectorial proton translocation across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Despite recent progress in structure determination of this very large membrane protein complex, the coupling mechanism is a matter of ongoing debate and the function of accessory subunits surrounding the canonical core subunits is essentially unknown. Concerted rearrangements within a cluster of conserved loops of central subunits NDUFS2 (beta 1-beta 2(S2) loop), ND1 (TMH5-6(ND1) loop) and ND3 (TMH1-2(ND3) loop) were suggested to be critical for its proton pumping mechanism. Here, we show that stabilization of the TMH1-2(ND3) loop by accessory subunit LYRM6 (NDUFA6) is pivotal for energy conversion by mitochondrial complex I. We determined the high-resolution structure of inactive mutant F89A(LYRM6) of eukaryotic complex I from the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica and found long-range structural changes affecting the entire loop cluster. In atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the mutant, we observed conformational transitions in the loop cluster that disrupted a putative pathway for delivery of substrate protons required in Q redox chemistry. Our results elucidate in detail the essential role of accessory subunit LYRM6 for the function of eukaryotic complex I and offer clues on its redox-linked proton pumping mechanism. Respiratory complex I plays a key role in energy metabolism. Cryo-EM structure of a mutant accessory subunit LYRM6 from the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica and molecular dynamics simulations reveal conformational changes at the interface between LYRM6 and subunit ND3, propagated further into the complex. These findings offer insight into the mechanism of proton pumping by respiratory complex I.
  • Rehan, Shahid; Paavilainen, Ville O.; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka (2017)
    The human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (hENT1) is important for the entry of anti-cancer and antiviral nucleoside analog therapeutics into the cell, and thus for their efficacy. Understanding of hENT1 structure -function relationship could assist with development of nucleoside analogs with better cellular uptake properties. However, structural and biophysical studies of hENT1 remain challenging as the hydrophobic nature of the protein leads to complete aggregation upon detergent-based membrane isolation. Here we report detergent-free reconstitution of the hENT1 transporter into styrene maleic acid co-polymer lipid particles (SMALPs) that form a native lipid disc. SMALP-purified hENT1, expressed in Sf9 insect cells binds a variety of ligands with a similar affinity as the protein in native membrane, and exhibits increased thermal stability compared to detergent-solubilized hENT1. hENT1-SMALPs purified using FLAG affinity M2 resin yielded similar to 0.4 mg of active and homogenous protein per liter of culture as demonstrated by ligand binding, size-exclusion chromatography and SDS-PAGE analyses. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis showed that each hENT1 lipid disc contains 16 phosphatidylcholine (PC) and 2 phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipid molecules. Polyunsaturated lipids are specifically excluded from the hENT1 lipid discs, possibly reflecting a functional requirement for a dynamic lipid environment. Our work demonstrates that human nucleoside transporters can be extracted and purified without removal from their native lipid environment, opening up a wide range of possibilities for their biophysical and structural studies. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Parey, Kristian; Lasham, Jonathan; Mills, Deryck J.; Djurabekova, Amina; Haapanen, Outi; Yoga, Etienne Galemou; Xie, Hao; Kuhlbrandt, Werner; Sharma, Vivek; Vonck, Janet; Zickermann, Volker (2021)
    Mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is a 1-MDa membrane protein complex with a central role in energy metabolism. Redox-driven proton translocation by complex I contributes substantially to the proton motive force that drives ATP synthase. Several structures of complex I from bacteria and mitochondria have been determined, but its catalytic mechanism has remained controversial. We here present the cryo-EM structure of complex I from Yarrowia lipolytica at 2.1-angstrom resolution, which reveals the positions of more than 1600 protein-bound water molecules, of which similar to 100 are located in putative proton translocation pathways. Another structure of the same complex under steady-state activity conditions at 3.4-angstrom resolution indicates conformational transitions that we associate with proton injection into the central hydrophilic axis. By combining high-resolution structural data with site-directed mutagenesis and large-scale molecular dynamic simulations, we define details of the proton translocation pathways and offer insights into the redox-coupled proton pumping mechanism of complex I.
  • Halldorsson, Steinar; Li, Sai; Li, Mengqiu; Harlos, Karl; Bowden, Thomas A.; Huiskonen, Juha T. (2018)
    Entry of enveloped viruses relies on insertion of hydrophobic residues of the viral fusion protein into the host cell membrane. However, the intermediate conformations during fusion remain unknown. Here, we address the fusion mechanism of Rift Valley fever virus. We determine the crystal structure of the Gn glycoprotein and fit it with the Gc fusion protein into cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of the virion. Our analysis reveals how the Gn shields the hydrophobic fusion loops of the Gc, preventing premature fusion. Electron cryotomography of virions interacting with membranes under acidic conditions reveals how the fusogenic Gc is activated upon removal of the Gn shield. Repositioning of the Gn allows extension of Gc and insertion of fusion loops in the outer leaflet of the target membrane. These data show early structural transitions that enveloped viruses undergo during host cell entry and indicate that analogous shielding mechanisms are utilized across diverse virus families.
  • Malik, Nayab; Kotecha, Abhay; Gold, Sarah; Asfor, Amin; Ren, Jingshan; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Tuthill, Tobias J.; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Stuart, David I. (2017)
    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) belongs to the aphthovirus genus of the Picornaviridae, a family of small, icosahedral, non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses. It is a highly infectious pathogen and is one of the biggest hindrances to the international trade of animals and animal products. FMDV capsids (which are unstable below pH6.5) release their genome into the host cell from an acidic compartment, such as that of an endosome, and in the process dissociate into pentamers. Whilst other members of the family (enteroviruses) have been visualized to form an expanded intermediate capsid with holes from which inner capsid proteins (VP4), N-termini (VP1) and RNA can be released, there has been no visualization of any such state for an aphthovirus, instead the capsid appears to simply dissociate into pentamers. Here we present the 8-angstrom resolution structure of isolated dissociated pentamers of FMDV, lacking VP4. We also found these pentamers to re-associate into a rigid, icosahedrally symmetric assembly, which enabled their structure to be solved at higher resolution (5.2 angstrom). In this assembly, the pentamers unexpectedly associate 'inside out', but still with their exposed hydrophobic edges buried. Stabilizing interactions occur between the HI loop of VP2 and its symmetry related partners at the icosahedral 3-fold axes, and between the BC and EF loops of VP3 with the VP2 beta B-strand and the CD loop at the 2-fold axes. A relatively extensive but subtle structural rearrangement towards the periphery of the dissociated pentamer compared to that in the mature virus provides insight into the mechanism of dissociation of FMDV and the marked difference in antigenicity.