Browsing by Subject "CRYSTALLINE BEDROCK"

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  • Nuppunen-Puputti, Maija; Kietaevaeinen, Riikka; Raulio, Mari; Soro, Aino; Purkamo, Lotta; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Bomberg, Malin (2022)
    The deep terrestrial biosphere hosts vast sessile rock surface communities and biofilms, but thus far, mostly planktic communities have been studied. We enriched deep subsurface microbial communities on mica schist in microcosms containing bedrock groundwater from the depth of 500 m from Outokumpu, Finland. The biofilms were visualized using scanning electron microscopy, revealing numerous different microbial cell morphologies and attachment strategies on the mica schist surface, e.g., bacteria with outer membrane vesicle-like structures, hair-like extracellular extensions, and long tubular cell structures expanding over hundreds of micrometers over mica schist surfaces. Bacterial communities were analyzed with amplicon sequencing showing that Pseudomonas, Desulfosporosinus, Hydrogenophaga, and Brevundimonas genera dominated communities after 8-40 months of incubation. A total of 21 metagenome assembled genomes from sessile rock surface metagenomes identified genes involved in biofilm formation, as well as a wide variety of metabolic traits indicating a high degree of environmental adaptivity to oligotrophic environment and potential for shifting between multiple energy or carbon sources. In addition, we detected ubiquitous organic carbon oxidation and capacity for arsenate and selenate reduction within our rocky MAGs. Our results agree with the previously suggested interaction between the deep subsurface microbial communities and the rock surfaces, and that this interaction could be crucial for sustaining life in the harsh anoxic and oligotrophic deep subsurface of crystalline bedrock environment.
  • Purkamo, Lotta; Bomberg, Malin; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Salavirta, Heikki; Nyyssonen, Mari; Nuppunen-Puputti, Maija; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Itavaara, Merja (2016)
    The bacterial and archaeal community composition and the possible carbon assimilation processes and energy sources of microbial communities in oligotrophic, deep, crystalline bedrock fractures is yet to be resolved. In this study, intrinsic microbial communities from groundwater of six fracture zones from 180 to 2300aEuro-m depths in Outokumpu bedrock were characterized using high-throughput amplicon sequencing and metagenomic prediction. Comamonadaceae-, Anaerobrancaceae- and Pseudomonadaceae-related operational taxonomic units (OTUs) form the core community in deep crystalline bedrock fractures in Outokumpu. Archaeal communities were mainly composed of Methanobacteriaceae-affiliating OTUs. The predicted bacterial metagenomes showed that pathways involved in fatty acid and amino sugar metabolism were common. In addition, relative abundance of genes coding the enzymes of autotrophic carbon fixation pathways in predicted metagenomes was low. This indicates that heterotrophic carbon assimilation is more important for microbial communities of the fracture zones. Network analysis based on co-occurrence of OTUs revealed possible "keystone" genera of the microbial communities belonging to Burkholderiales and Clostridiales. Bacterial communities in fractures resemble those found in oligotrophic, hydrogen-enriched environments. Serpentinization reactions of ophiolitic rocks in Outokumpu assemblage may provide a source of energy and organic carbon compounds for the microbial communities in the fractures. Sulfate reducers and methanogens form a minority of the total microbial communities, but OTUs forming these minor groups are similar to those found in other deep Precambrian terrestrial bedrock environments.