Browsing by Subject "CSR"

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  • Malyutin, Kirill (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The main objective was to identify and analyze the tourism management perspective to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) at the luxury Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise (FCLL) Hotel and Resort in the Banff National Park (NP). It is viable for a company to conduct responsible business operations, especially in protected areas, because of a great influence of Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (ENGO’s) and high customer awareness of environmental issues. Definitely, large chains of luxury hotels and resorts, such as the Fairmont, are greatly dependent on their reputation and engagement with the communities’ well-being and handling the environmental issues in the area of business operations. The thesis is divided into several parts, i.e. introduction, theoretical background, methodology and previous research, results of the research, and conclusions and discussions. Undoubtedly, all of the above mentioned parts are essential in order to get a complete picture of the thesis topic and its achieved objectives. As a matter of fact, the current Master’s thesis comprises various industries with hospitality, tourism, and forestry. In order to gain the stated objectives, a deep analysis of the literature related to the topic and online sources was conducted, as well as email interviews with some representatives, i.e. certain managers, of the FCLL. Obviously, not all of the respondents were able to answer in time or to answer at all due to various reasons; however, the received replies were enough to make their contribution to the current thesis. The questions were especially designed to fit the respondents and to get a better insight into the FCLL’s business activities in the Banff NP. As the results showed, the FCLL has a good reputation due to its dedication and achievements, regardless of the plans to build a conference center and previous negative impact on the environment in the area. FCLL is trying its best to become a good “citizen” by following its CSR practices and engaging stakeholders. The FCLL’s major focus is to diminish negative impacts from its business operations in the park, i.e. on its various environmental programs, engaging not only personnel of the company, but communities and customers. These results were used as a basis of a SWOT analysis to have a clearer and visible representation of the FCLL’s current position, taking all the issues into consideration. In conclusion, this research shows that the luxury Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise Hotel and Resort in the Banff National Park has a good image and reputation due to its various environmental programs, dedication to its responsible business operations, and engagement of the involved stakeholders; therefore, it is clear the company has a great potential based on its achievements and willingness to make its positive contribution.
  • Partanen, Tommi (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Environmental issues have become an important part of today’s business. Some companies have made the decision to strive towards environmental friendliness of operation; others have decided to take a more reactive approach. Even though environmental issues have gotten much attention lately, the portion of green products out of total production is still very small. The purpose of this study is to find out using a single company case study if environmentalism adds value in the print business. From managerial perspective, the aim of the study is also to find out if the possible added value of environmentalism could be further enhanced. The main questions are: What are customers’ main selection criteria for making purchasing decisions? In what respect are customers’ purchasing decisions based on environmental values? Do customers feel that there is added value in environmentally friendly processes and materials? Data for the study is collected from thematic customer interviews, a newsletter survey and a literature review of previous research. Companies in the study include multinational, national and local ones. The study will use a mixed method approach with qualitative data from the interviews and quantitative data from the survey. By gathering data from two different sources with mainly qualitative and theory driven method of analysis, the reliability of the results is greater. Based on the results, environmental and sustainability issues are important issues for some customer companies in printing business, but not everyone wants to pay extra for environmental friendliness. Interestingly, there is clear evidence that also smaller companies are acknowledging the importance of environmental friendliness, so it is not only for large export-orineted companies. Some companies can be identified as proactively pursuing competitive advantages from sustainability and environmental friendliness. The results of the study are used to further develop the case company’s environmental marketing, for example by developing environmental management.
  • Turpeinen, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Capoeira on viime vuosikymmenten aikana ympäri maailmaa suosiotaan kasvattanut brasilialainen liikuntaharrastus. Ritualistisuutta, tanssia, performanssia, kamppailua ja elävää musiikkia yhdistelevällä capoeiralla on historialliset ja ontologiset juuret afrobrasilialaisessa candomblé uskonnossa, sekä faveloiden ja mustien orjien elämänkokemuksessa. (Aula 2008, 2020) Mira Karjalainen (2018) liittää capoeiran uushenkisten kehopraktiikkojen, kuten joogan, kungfun ja japanilaiset budo-lajien joukkoon. Yhteistä kaikille mainituille harrastuksille on tausta jossakin uskontokulttuurisessa perinteessä. Kaikkiin näihin liittyy jonkinlainen taustafilosofia ihmisestä kokonaisvaltaisena olentona. Karjalaisen mukaansa Capoeiran ja muiden holististen kehopraktiikkojen erityinen suhde kehollisuuteen voivat tuottaa uudenlaista uskonnollisuutta länsimaissa. Tutkin capoeiraa Suomessa uushenkisenä rituaalina ja kehopraktiikkana kognitiivisen uskonnontutkimuksen ja kognitiivisen rituaalitutkimuksen tutkimusperinteiden näkökulmista. Tutkimusmateriaalina käytän kolmelle pitkään lajia harrastaneelle capoeiraopettajalle tekemiäni avoimia haastatteluja. Analysoin haastattelumateriaalin antamia vapaita ja yksilöllisiä kuvauksia lajista synkronisaation (Schüler 2012) ja kollektiivisen kuohunnan (Schüler, Liebst 2019) käsitteiden kautta. Analyysissä kuvaan siitä, miten capoeira rodan (ringin) toimintaperiaatteet, capoeirakulttuuri ja capoeiratradition representaatiot luovat tiivistä kehollista synkronisoitumista, sekä kollektiiviseksi kuohunnaksi kutsuttua hermostollista ja emotionaalista virittyneisyyttä rodassa. Haastattelumateriaalista nousee kuvaus capoeiraharrastuksesta elämäntapana, elämänfilosofian lähteenä ja tiiviinä yhteisöllisyyden muotona. Haastattelemani capoeiristat (capoeiran harrastajat) kuvaavat lajia yhteiskunnalliseksi utopiaksi, tavaksi ylittää sanallisen kommunikaation haasteita yhteisössä, henkiseksi harjoitteeksi, sielun peiliksi, elämäsimulaatioksi ja siskonpedin kaltaiseksi lämpimäksi ja turvalliseksi yhteisöksi. Tutkimuksen pohjalta väitän, että capoeira on kehollinen, kulttuurinen ja psykososiaalinen dynaaminen järjestelmä, joka voi ohjata harrastajia kohti tiivistä kehollista synkronisoitumista ja voimakkaita kollektiivisia hurmioitumisen tiloja. Väitän, että capoeira on yhteisöllisenä rituaalina, improvisoituna itseilmaisuna ja kehollisena kommunikaation muotona capoeiran harrastajalle mahdollinen väline ”toisin olemiselle” sekä oman elämänkokemukset tarkastelulle ja käsittelylle. Capoeira on läpeensä yhteisöllistä, jolloin yksilölliset ja yhteisölliset motiivit sekä päämäärät harrastuksen taustalla sekoittuvat toisiinsa. Tutkielmassa esittelen kognitiivisesta uskonnontutkimuksesta nousevia tapoja sille, miten tämä sekoittuminen tapahtuu rodan rituaalisessa ja kehollisessa kokemusmaailmassa, synkronisaation dynamiikan ohjatessa rodaan kokoontunutta yhteisöä kohti kollektiivisia hurmioitumisen tiloja.
  • Vilppo, Tiina; Lindberg-Repo, Kirsti (Hanken School of Economics, 2011)
    Working Paper - 557
    Purpose – This research paper studies how the strategy of repositioning enables marketers to communicate CSR as their brand’s differentiating factor. It aims at understanding how consumer perceptions can be managed to generate brand value through corporate brand repositioning when CSR is the differentiating factor. The purpose of this paper is to answer the following research question: How can consumer perceptions be managed to generate brand value through corporate brand repositioning when CSR is the differentiating factor? The two research objectives were: 1. to build a model, which describes the different components of consumer perceptions involved in generation of brand value through repositioning when CSR is the differentiating factor, 2. to identify the most critical components in the context of the case company, IKEA for generation of brand value during the process of corporate brand repositioning Design/methodology/approach – This paper is based on the literature review covering the logic of brand value generation, repositioning strategy and consumer perceptions connected to CSR activities. A key concept of the positioning theory, the brand’s differentiating factor, was explored. Previous studies have concluded that desirability of the differentiating factor largely determines the level of brand value-creation for the target customers. The criterion of desirability is based on three dimensions: relevance, distinctiveness and believability. A model was built in terms of these desirability dimensions. This paper takes a case study approach where the predefined theoretical framework is tested using IKEA as the case company. When developing insights on the multifaceted nature of brand perceptions, personal interviews and individual probing are vital. They enable the interviewees to reflect on their feelings and perceptions with their own words. This is why the data collection was based on means-end type of questioning. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 consumers. Findings – The paper highlights five critical components that may determine whether IKEA will fail in its repositioning efforts. The majority of the critical components involved believability perceptions. Hence, according to the findings, establishing credibility and trustworthiness for the brand in the context of CSR seems primary. The most critical components identified of the believability aspect were: providing proof of responsible codes of conduct via conducting specific and concrete CSR actions, connecting the company’s products and the social cause, and building a linkage between the initial and new positioning while also weakening the old positioning. Originality/value – Marketers’ obligation is to prepare the company for future demands. Companies all over the globe have recognized the durable trend of responsibility and sustainability. Consumer´s worry about the environmental and social impact of modern lifestyles is growing. This is why Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) provides brands an important source of differentiation and strength in the future. The strategy of repositioning enables marketers to communicate CSR as their brand’s differentiating factor. This study aimed at understanding how consumer perceptions can be managed to generate brand value through corporate brand repositioning when CSR is the differentiating factor.
  • Oksanen, Tino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    I den här avhandlingen granskas hur nordiska flygbolag förhåller sig till att behandla miljön i sin kommunikation och marknadsföring. Syftet med avhandlingen är att skapa förståelse för hur nordiska flygbolag förhåller sig till och resonerar kring att behandla miljön i sin kommunikation och marknadsföring. Avhandlingen svarar också på frågan om representanter för nordiska flygbolag upplever att flygbolag alls kan behandla miljön i marknadsföringen. Flygbolag behandlar i dagsläget miljön i väldigt liten utsträckning i marknadsföringen, och den här avhandlingen tillför ny kunskap om hur nordiska flygbolag förhåller sig till det. Studien utgår ifrån teorier om grön marknadsföring som visar att det finns ekonomiska fördelar med grön marknadsföring. Avhandlingen behandlar också samhällsansvar, och mera specifikt hur nordiska flygbolag upplever sitt eget samhällsansvar, och hur de kommunicerar sitt hållbarhetsarbete till konsumenterna. Avhandlingen behandlar också sociala medier, där en stor del av flygbolagens marknadsföring sker, och redogör för vilka utmaningar sociala medier orsakar för flygbolagens marknadsföring. Studien är kvalitativ och materialet baserar sig på anonyma, semistrukturerade intervjuer med informanter som arbetar med kommunikation, samhällsansvar och marknadsföring på nordiska flygbolag. Avhandlingens resultat pekar på att nordiska flygbolag förhåller sig relativt öppet till att behandla miljön i sin marknadsföring och kommunikation, men att det finns en tydlig distinktion mellan de här två. Representanterna för de nordiska flygbolagen upplever att det är svårare att behandla miljön i marknadsföringen – bland annat eftersom det kan leda till anklagelser om grönmålning – än i kommunikationen. Flygbolagen upplever ändå att det är problematiskt att marknadsföringen inte är i linje med den övriga kommunikationen, och att det måste ske en snar förändring om kommunikationen som helhet ska vara trovärdig. Det handlar om flygbolagens överlevnad.
  • Talonen, Antti Paavali; Jussila, Iiro; Tuominen, Pasi; Ruuskanen, Olli-Pekka (2021)
    In 1991, Archie Carroll presented the CSR pyramid, which has since become a widely recognised conceptualisation of corporate social responsibility. Responding to recent suggestions that understanding of the pyramid should be evaluated with regard to particular organisational contexts, the paper proceeds from awareness that not all corporations are owned by shareholders. Analysing qualitative data from consumer co-operatives, the authors conceptualise the economic responsibilities of these and consider them in light of prior definition of corporate economic responsibilities, to abstract a more general definition of corporate economic responsibility. The article is, to authors knowledge, the first one to address the implications of organizational form in economic responsibilities of a company.
  • Toivonen, Eeva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Responsible investing is a topical subject in financial markets. When both environmental and societal concerns are increasing with population growth and growing demand for scarce resources, interest towards responsibility and sustainability matters have become global. This has created new investment markets of responsible investing. The aim of this thesis is to form a comprehensive analysis of the performance of responsible investments compared to non-responsible investments. The thesis analyses the financial performance, the performance under uncertainty and the volatility of responsible investments. The empirical studies are utilised in the analysis. The thesis also aims to form an understanding of the possible sources and explanations of economics for financially profitable performance of responsible investments by introducing and applying theories of economics and academic studies. The thesis creates a theoretical framework for the research question analysis, with Markowitz’s (1952) modern portfolio theory. The theory indicates that by limiting the investment possibilities to cover the preference of responsible investing, an investor faces a constraint. Since opportunities of diversification decrease, responsible investing portfolios cannot be diversified as normal portfolios and responsible investing portfolios are not considered optimal. The theory indicates that responsible investment portfolios yield a worse expected return with the same risk or higher risk with same expected return compared with the optimal portfolios. When analysing the financial performance of responsible investments, the empirical evidence shows that the positive environmental, social governance (ESG) – corporate financial performance (CFP) correlation is higher than the negative ESG–CFP correlation. In addition, when comparing the performance of responsible indices and traditional indices, there are no significant differences in the gross returns or Sharpe ratios. When analysing the performance under uncertainty, companies with high corporate social responsibility (CSR) ratings compared to companies with low CSR ratings, ratings had four to seven percent higher stock returns during the financial crisis period of 2008–2009. In addition, when analysing volatility, the conclusion is that higher ESG rating correlated with lower volatility and the relationship is stronger when market volatility was high. The empirical evidence shows that responsible investing appears to be financially profitable and a rational investing strategy since it does not impose opportunity costs for an investor. In fact, responsible investing can result in good risk-management of a portfolio and yield even better profit expectations than a non-responsible investing strategy. These findings challenge the modern portfolio theory’s indications. Explanations for the research question of why responsible investments perform well, are diverse. When applying the theories of economics, responsibility can be seen as signaling and to bring a competitive advantage for companies that integrate responsibility into the business models. A competitive advantage can occur through lower costs, easier access to capital and through differentiation. The academic studies also recognize the connection between responsibility and trustworthiness as distinct. In addition, responsibility can be seen as anticipating and managing of risks when it comes to possible changes in the institutional environment, for example, in legislation or in regulation framework. Furthermore, an altruistic way of behaviour can be identified among consumers and overall there exists a significant demand for responsibility and responsible products and businesses.
  • Lähdesmäki, Merja; Siltaoja, Marjo; Spence, Laura (2019)
    This paper advances stakeholder salience theory from the viewpoint of small businesses. It is argued that the stakeholder salience process for small businesses is influenced by their local embeddedness, captured by the idea of social proximity, and characterised by multiple relationships that the owner-manager and stakeholders share beyond the business context. It is further stated that the ethics of care is a valuable ethical lens through which to understand social proximity in small businesses. The contribution of the study conceptualises how the perceived social proximity between local stakeholders and small business owner-managers influences managerial considerations of the legitimacy, power and urgency of stakeholders and their claims. Specifically, the paradoxical nature of close relationships in the salience process is acknowledged and discussed.
  • Raitanen, Piritta (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    The phenomenal globalization of business is the main incentive for the study of business ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). With an increase in transnational trade over the past decades, an understanding of acceptable business practices across cultural boundaries is particularly important. Public concern for global issues such as climate change, raw material procurement, human rights, labor policies and corporate governance has significantly increased. Business corporations are obligated to operate as members of communities, organization as such is not allowed to exist if it does not gain acceptance and support from those in its environment. Furthermore, CSR can be seen as a competitive advantage – one dimension of corporate reputation and image. As future managers and consumers the current students are shaping the construct of corporate responsibilities. The future of CSR depends much on the attitudes of coming generations. The purpose of this study was to investigate how and to what extent the personal values and perceptions of CSR differ among Chinese, Finnish and American students. The theoretical frame of reference suggests that perceptions of CSR are affected by background variables – gender, nationality and study major – both directly and through personal values. The nature of the study was quantitative and the sample consisted of altogether 1547 students from Finland, China and USA. The data has been gathered using questionnaires. The results of the study support previous findings of significant cultural and gender related differences in personal values and perceptions of CSR. Generally, female respondents and students majoring in forest ecology and environmental sciences possessed softer values and accepted or supported NGOs’ activity and governmental regulation in business life. The Chinese represented harder and more masculine values, whereas the American respondents emphasized soft values and stakeholder welfare. Overall, the Chinese data was the most homogenous, whereas the difference between genders was the most significant in Finland. Further research would be needed to find out if and how the values and perceptions are evolving over time. It remains to be seen, whether the ongoing globalization will decrease cultural differences in values and CSR orientation.
  • Hyytia, Annika (WoodEMA i.a. International Association for Economics and Management in Wood Processing and Furniture Manufacturing, 2019)
    Resources are important for competitiveness in business. Business models and innovation can provide new opportunities. The value chain and innovations in the sustainable development of the forest sector provide opportunities for competitiveness and business. Quality is part of competitiveness. It can provide a sustainable image to customers. This is a qualitative research based on research articles and literature including academic sources, for example Proquest, Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), Agris, CAB Abstracts, SCOPUS (Elsevier), Web of Science (IS I) and Google Scholar and Internet sites.
  • Nousjoki, Josetta (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Tutkimukseni tavoite on selvittää, miten kansainvälisten yritysten pyrkimykset valvoa alihankintaketjujaan yhteiskuntavastuuvaatimuksin (code of conductit, sertifioinnit ja auditoinnit) vaikuttavat Kiinassa. Tutkin, miten Etelä-Kiinassa toimivat, työntekijöiden oikeuksien edistämiseen erikoistuneet työntekijäjärjestöt suhtautuvat vastuuvaatimuksiin. Kartoitan myös kiinalaista yritysvastuukäsitystä ja siihen liittyvää sääntelyä sekä selvitän, miten työntekijäjärjestöt toimivat. Tutkimukseni on kvalitatiivinen kartoitus, joka perustuu akateemisiin artikkeleihin ja teemahaastatteluihin. Kirjallinen aineisto on pääasiassa englanninkielisiä artikkeleita 2010-luvulta. Empiirisen aineiston keräsin haastattelemalla kahta hongkongilaista järjestöä vuonna 2017. Teoreettisena viitekehyksenä on Schererin ja Palazzon poliittisen yritysvastuun teoria. Tulokset osoittavat, että vastuullisuusvaatimukset ja niihin liittyvät auditoinnit eivät ole parantaneet, mutta eivät myöskään huonontaneet työntekijöiden mahdollisuuksia puolustaa omia etujaan. Työntekijäjärjestöt pitävät suurena ongelmana sitä, ettei työntekijöillä ole oikeutta vapaasti järjestäytyä tai neuvotella työehdoista. Tulokset vahvistavat aiempia havaintoja siitä, että vastuullisuusjärjestelmillä on vaikea puuttua työelämän perusoikeuksien toteutumiseen. Yritysvastuun käsite on Kiinassa tuontitavaraa eikä se ole täysin löytänyt paikkaansa taloudessa, joka on siirtynyt sosialismista äärimmäisen kilpailtuun valtiojohtoiseen markkinatalouteen. Valtio on lainannut länsimaista yritysvastuukäsitystä retoriikkaansa ja lainsäädäntöönsä, ja pyrkii sille soveltuvin osin valmentamaan kiinalaisia vientiyrityksiä ottamaan huomioon kansainvälisiä yritysvastuun periaatteita. Kiinalaisissa yrityksissä länsimaisia vaatimuksia on vastustettu eikä kovin moni yritys vaikuta integroineen vastuuajattelua toimintaansa. Alueelliset ja toimialakohtaiset erot ovat kuitenkin suuria. Elinkeinoelämä on luonut omia vastuullisuusstandardeja. Ristiriitoja autoritaarisen puoluejohdon näkemysten ja länsimaisen vastuuajattelun välille syntyy erityisesti vapauksien ja oikeuksien alueella.