Browsing by Subject "CULTIVARS"

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  • Mehmood, Shiraz; Din, Israr Ud; Ullah, Izhar; Mohamed, Heba; Basit, Abdul; Khan, Mudassar Nawaz; Shah, Syed Saad Hussain; Rehman, Attiq ur (2021)
    Background Knowledge of the genetic diversity and population structure of germplasm collections is an important foundation for crop improvement. Rice production across a broad range of rice-growing environments results in a diverse array of local rice varieties. Many rice varieties have been lost as a result of biodiversity loss and are now grown in Pakistan. Methods and results To protect the biodiversity of rice varieties, an experiment was carried out to check the genetic and morphological variations between 8 exotic and 7 local rice genotypes, using 5 different SSR markers, i.e., RM3, RM259, RM341, RM520, and RM11943. The analysis of morphological and quality traits of rice observed significant variation across genotypes. The results revealed that genotype Irri-Pak attained the highest plant height and primary branch plant-1, while genotype Mushkan produced a higher number of productive tillers and obtained a higher fertility factor (%). Similarly, the highest value for panicle length was observed for genotype Faker-e-Malakand, 1000-grains weight in genotype Calmochi, and maximum days to maturity was noticed in genotype Swati-2014. Moreover, the genotype Brio attained the highest value of stem diameter, while maximum seed length was noted in the genotype Sug Dasi. The highest number of primary branches plant(-1) in genotype Ibge-I and secondary branches plant(-1) in genotype Calmochi were noticed. A higher concentration of sodium and potassium was observed for the genotype Marte, while the genotype Muskan attained the maximum content of copper. Moreover, the highest concentration of iron in genotype Originario, zinc in genotype JP-5, and cadmium content were noticed in genotype Ibge. Similarly, the dendrogram analysis for quantitative parameters showed three clusters at 74.13% similarities. Whereas all the genotypes of European origin formed a separate cluster. A set of 5 simple sequence repeat primers, covering four chromosomes, amplified a total of 14 alleles and showed 100% polymorphism with an average PIC value ranging from 0.39 to 0.91. The UPGMA cluster analysis separated the 15 rice genotypes into 3 main groups based on 32.5% similarities and the highest genetic distance (45.1%) was observed between two genotypes (Fakher-e-malakand and Musa), having different geographical origins. There was no genetic distance between the genotypes Marte and Brio, irrespective of having the same origin. Conclusions The maximum genetic distances were noted for genotype, Fakhre-e-Malakand and Musa having a different origin, while the minimum genetic distance was shown by genotypes, Marte and Onice, from the same origin.
  • Huang, Xin; Ma, Kaiyue; Leinonen, Sara; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula (2020)
    The lack of certified reference materials has been one major challenge for gluten quantification in gluten-free products. In this study, the feasibility of using barley C-hordein as the calibrant for wheat gluten in R5 sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was investigated. The gluten composition and total gluten R5 reactivity ranged largely depending on the genotypes and the growing environment. The conversion factor of gliadin to gluten averaged 1.31 for common wheat, which is smaller than the theoretical factor of 2. Each gluten group had varying reactivity against the R5 antibody, where omega 1.2-, gamma- and alpha-gliadins were the main reactive groups from wheat gluten. A mixture of wheat cultivars or one single cultivar as the reference material can be difficult to keep current. Based on the average R5 reactivity of total gluten from the 27 common wheat cultivars, here we proposed 10% C-hordein mixed with an inert protein as the calibrant for wheat gluten quantification. In spiking tests of gluten-free oat flour and biscuits, calibration using 10% C-hordein achieved the same recovery as the gliadin standard with its cultivar-specific conversion factor. For its good solubility and good affinity to the R5 antibody, the application of C-hordein increases the probability of developing a series of reference materials for various food matrices.
  • Pour-Aboughadareh, Alireza; Poczai, Péter (2021)
    The dataset herein indicated the novelty of the article entitled “Dataset on the use of MGIDI in screening drought-tolerant wild wheat accessions at the early growth stage”. Data were gathered during 2018-2019 on a set of wild wheat germplasm under two control and water deficit stress conditions. One hundred and forty-six accessions belonging to Ae. tauschii, Ae. cylindrica, and Ae. crassa were assessed under optimal glasshouse conditions to screen the drought-tolerant samples at the early growth stage. Nine drought tolerance and susceptibility indices along with the multi-trait genotype-ideotype distance index (MGIDI) were used to visualize the dataset. The obtained data can highlight the potential of the MGIDI index in accelerating screening of a large number of plant materials using multiple traits or selection indices in crop breeding programs, especially at the early growth stage.
  • Palonen, Pauliina; Lettojarvi, Iiris; Luoranen, Jaana; Ruhanen, Hanna; Rantanen, Marja; Haikonen, Tuuli; Finni, Sanna (2021)
    In the future climate scenario the transient warm spells during winter are predicted to become more frequent and potentially increase the risk of frost damage in perennial horticultural crops. The aim of our study was to examine, whether apple (Males x domestica Borkh.), blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.), and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars differing in winter hardiness have a different susceptibility to deacclimation during a warm spell and the ability to reacclimate in response to a subsequent cold period. Shoot samples were collected from commercial orchards in Finland on Feb. 6, 2019. Samples were subjected to a deacclimation treatment (+5 degrees C, 4 d) followed by a reacclimation treatment (-7 degrees C, 7 d). Controlled freezing tests were conducted immediately after sampling, and at the end of deacclimation and reacclimation treatments to determine frost hardiness (FH). FH was most stable in those cultivars that are known to be hardy in the Finnish climate conditions, i.e. 'Pirja' apple, 'Mikael' and `Ojebyn' blackcurrants, and 'Maurin Makea' raspberry. Buds were consistently less hardy than shoots, the difference being largest in blackcurrant, 25 degrees C . The buds of all cultivars, except 'Pirja' apple, deacclimated during four days at +5 degrees C, but only 'Ben Tron' blackcurrant buds were able to reacclimate. The depth of dormancy was determined by forcing the shoot samples in a greenhouse to examine the relationship of the FH stability to the dormancy status in the cultivars. Sixty to 95 % of apple, 98 to 100 % of blackcurrant, and 55 to 67 % of raspberry buds broke during five weeks in forcing. Only the apple cultivars exhibited cultivar differences in the dormancy status in the beginning of February. `Pirja' despite having the most stable FH of the apple cultivars, showed the most complete and fastest bud break in forcing. Consequently, the susceptibility to deacclimation during a warm spell and the ability to reacclimate at subsequent low temperatures were not related to the status of dormancy in these cultivars.
  • Bublyk, Olena M.; Andreev, Igor O.; Kalendar, Ruslan; Spiridonova, Kateryna V.; Kunakh, Viktor A. (2013)
  • Khazaei, Hamid; Wach, Damian; Pecio, Alicja; Vandenberg, Albert; Stoddard, Frederick L. (2019)
    Increasing productivity through improvement of photosynthesis in faba bean breeding programmes requires understanding of the genetic control of photosynthesis-related traits. Hence, we investigated the gene action of leaf area, gas exchange traits, canopy temperature, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and biomass. We chose inbred lines derived from cultivars 'Aurora' (Sweden) and 'Melodie' (France) along with an Andean accession, ILB 938, crossed them (Aurora/2 x Melodie/2, ILB 938/2 x Aurora/2 and Melodie/2 x ILB 938/2), and prepared the six standard generations for quantitative analysis (P-1, P-2, F-1, F-2, B-1, and B-2). Gene action was complex for each trait, involving additive and dominance gene actions and interactions. Additive gene action was important for SPAD, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and F-v/F-m. Dominance effect was important for biomass production. It is suggested that breeders selecting for productivity can maximize genetic gain by selecting early generations for canopy temperature, SPAD and F-v/F-m, then later generations for biomass. The information on genetics of various contributing traits of photosynthesis will assist plant breeders in choosing an appropriate breeding strategy for enhancing productivity in faba bean.
  • Amiryousefi, Ali; Hyvönen, Jaakko; Poczai, Péter (2018)
    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: To accurately design plant genetic studies, the information content of utilized markers and primers must be calculated. Plant genotyping studies should take into account the efficiency of each marker system by calculating different parameters to find the optimal combination of primers. This can be problematic because there are currently no easily accessible applications that can be used to calculate multiple indices together. METHODS AND RESULTS: The program Online Marker Efficiency Calculator (iMEC) was developed using R for the simple computation of seven polymorphism indices (heterozygosity index, polymorphism information content, discriminating power, effective multiplex ratio, marker index, arithmetic mean heterozygosity, and resolving power). These indices are based on dominant and codominant DNA fingerprinting markers, thus allowing comparison and selection of optimal genetic markers for a given data set. CONCLUSIONS: iMEC simplifies the calculation of diverse indices for the marker of choice to better enable researchers to measure polymorphism information for individual markers.
  • Chen, Shengxian; Yi, Lita; Korpelainen, Helena; Yu, Fei; Liu, Meihua (2020)
    Drought stress influences the growth of plants and thus grafting has been widely used to improve tolerance to abiotic stresses. Poplars possess sex-specific responses to drought stress, but how male or female rootstock affect the grafted plant is little known. To explore the mechanisms underlying changes in drought tolerance caused by grafting, we investigated the changes in growth, leaf traits, gas exchange and antioxidant enzyme activities of reciprocally grafted seedlings between Populus euramericana cv. "Nanlin895" (NL-895) (female) and Populus deltiodes cv."3412" (NL-3412) (male) under water deficit stress with 30% field capacity for 30 d. Results showed that drought stress affected adversely growth, morphological, and physiological characteristics in all seedlings studied. Grafted seedlings with male roots can effectively alleviated the inhibition of growth induced by drought stress, as shown by higher WUE, activities of SOD, POD and CAT, and lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Male seedlings with female roots were found to be less tolerance to drought than non-grafted male clones and female scions with male roots, but more tolerance than non-grafted female clones. This results suggested that drought tolerance of grafted seedlings is primarily caused by the rootstock, although the scion also affects the grafted plant. Thus, paying attention on the root genotype can provide an important means of improving the drought tolerance of poplars.
  • Polaszek, A.; Al-Riyami, A.; Lahey, Z.; Al-Khatri, S. A.; Al-Shidi, R. H.; Hardy, Ian Charles Wrighton (2021)
    The pomegranate butterfly Deudorix (= Virachola) livia is the major pest of pomegranate, a crop of economic importance, in Oman. A species of parasitoid wasp in the hymenopteran family Scelionidae is responsible for high levels of mortality of its eggs. This wasp is described herein as Telenomus nizwaensis Polaszek sp. n., based on morphology and DNA sequence data. T. nizwaensis is currently known only from D. livia, which is also a pest of economic importance on other crops in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Mediterranean. We summarise current knowledge of T. nizwaensis life-history and its potential to provide biological pest control.
  • Pour-Aboughadareh, Alireza; Omidi, Mansoor; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Etminan, Alireza; Mehrabi, Ali Ashraf; Poczai, Peter (2020)
    Previous studies have revealed that some wild wheat accessions respond well to water deficit treatments and have a good potential in terms of photosynthetic parameters, root system architecture, and several physiological properties. However, the biochemical responses and molecular mechanisms of antioxidant-encoding genes remain to be elucidated. Herein, we investigated the most tolerant accessions fromA. crassa,Ae. tauschii, andAe. cylindricapreviously identified from a core collection in previous studies, along with a control variety of bread wheat (T. aestivumcv. Sirvan) through measuring the shoot fresh and dry biomasses; the activities of antioxidant enzymes (including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and peroxidase (POD)); and the relative expression ofCAT, superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), andGPXandAPXgenes under control and water deficit conditions. Water deficit stress caused a significant decrease in the shoot biomasses but resulted in an increase in the activity of all antioxidant enzymes and relative expression of antioxidant enzyme-encoding genes. Principal component analysis showed a strong association between the shoot dry biomass and the activity of CAT, POD, and APX, as well asMnSODgene expression. Thus, these traits can be used as biomarkers to screen the tolerant plant material in the early growth stage. Taken together, our findings exposed the fact thatAe. tauschiiandAe. crassarespond better to water deficit stress thanAe. cylindricaand a control variety. Furthermore, these accessions can be subjected to further molecular investigation.