Browsing by Subject "CULTURE"

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  • Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Garcia-del-Amo, David; Benyei, Petra; Fernandez-Llamazares, Alvaro; Gravani, Konstantina; Junqueira, Andre B.; Labeyrie, Vanesse; Li, Xiaoyue; Matias, Denise M. S.; McAlvay, Alex; Mortyn, Peter Graham; Porcuna-Ferrer, Anna; Schlingmann, Anna; Soleymani-Fard, Ramin (2019)
    Bringing insights from Indigenous and local knowledge into climate change research requires addressing the transferability, integration, and scalability of this knowledge. Using a review of research on place-based observations of climate change impacts, we explore ways to address these challenges. Our search mostly captured scientist-led qualitative research, which - while facilitating place-based knowledge transferability to global research - did not include locally led efforts documenting climate change impacts. We classified and organized qualitative multi-site place-based information into a hierarchical system that fosters dialogue with global research, providing an enriched picture of climate change impacts on local social-ecological systems. A network coordinating the scalability of place-based research on climate change impacts is needed to bring Indigenous and local knowledge into global research and policy agendas.
  • Ryynänen, Toni; Heinonen, Visa (2021)
    Purpose Temporal consumption experiences have been conceptualised as universal, subjective or practice-based experiences. Little research, though, addresses such experiences in conjunction with the repeated and situational consumption events that bring them about. The purpose of this paper is to extend current knowledge by examining how the temporal and situational intertwine during consumption events. For this purpose, the concept of a consumption timecycle based on the research data is constructed. Design/methodology/approach The paper takes a longitudinal and researcher-led approach to study temporal consumption experiences. The data was collected through participant observations, video recordings and personal subjective introspections during three consecutive annual Nordic motorcycle consumer trade shows (2014-2016). The data was analysed using an interpretive approach. Findings The results demonstrate five temporalities that characterise a consumption timecycle as follows: emerging, core, intensifying, fading and idle-time temporalities. The features of these temporal experiences are presented in the conclusions section of the paper. Research limitations/implications Recalled temporal experiences are mediated experiences and they differ from lived experiences. The transferability or generalisability of the results might be limited, as the case is situated in the Nordic context. Originality/value The paper presents the novel concept of a consumption timecycle that extends current debates about consumer time. The consumption timecycle is contrasted with established temporal concepts in consumer and marketing research.
  • Barmaki, Samineh; Jokinen, Ville; Obermaier, Daniela; Blokhina, Daria; Korhonen, Matti; Ras, Robin H. A.; Vuola, Jyrki; Franssila, Sami; Kankuri, Esko (2018)
    Physiological oxygen levels within the tissue microenvironment are usually lower than 14%, in stem cell niches these levels can be as low as 0-1%. In cell cultures, such low oxygen levels are usually mimicked by altering the global culture environment either by O-2 removal (vacuum or oxygen absorption) or by N-2 supplementation for O-2 replacement. To generate a targeted cellular hypoxic microenvironment under ambient atmospheric conditions, we characterised the ability of the dissolved oxygen-depleting sodium sulfite to generate an in-liquid oxygen sink. We utilised a microfluidic design to place the cultured cells in the vertical oxygen gradient and to physically separate the cells from the liquid. We demonstrate generation of a chemical in-liquid oxygen sink that modifies the surrounding O-2 concentrations. O-2 level control in the sink-generated hypoxia gradient is achievable by varying the thickness of the polydimethylsiloxane membrane. We show that intracellular hypoxia and hypoxia response element-dependent signalling is instigated in cells exposed to the microfluidic in-liquid O-2 sink-generated hypoxia gradient. Moreover, we show that microfluidic flow controls site-specific microenvironmental kinetics of the chemical O-2 sink reaction, which enables generation of intermittent hypoxia/re-oxygenation cycles. The microfluidic O-2 sink chip targets hypoxia to the cell culture microenvironment exposed to the microfluidic channel architecture solely by depleting O-2 while other sites in the same culture well remain unaffected. Thus, responses of both hypoxic and bystander cells can be characterised. Moreover, control of microfluidic flow enables generation of intermittent hypoxia or hypoxia/re-oxygenation cycles. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc.
  • Narva, Elisa; Stubb, Aki; Guzman, Camilo; Blomqvist, Matias; Balboa, Diego; Lerche, Martina; Saari, Markku; Otonkoski, Timo; Ivaska, Johanna (2017)
    Cell-type-specific functions and identity are tightly regulated by interactions between the cell cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have ultimate differentiation capacity and exceptionally low-strength ECM contact, yet the organization and function of adhesion sites and associated actin cytoskeleton remain poorly defined. We imaged hPSCs at the cell-ECM interface with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and discovered that adhesions at the colony edge were exceptionally large and connected by thick ventral stress fibers. The actin fence encircling the colony was found to exert extensive Rho-ROCK-myosin-dependent mechanical stress to enforce colony morphology, compaction, and pluripotency and to define mitotic spindle orientation. Remarkably, differentiation altered adhesion organization and signaling characterized by a switch from ventral to dorsal stress fibers, reduced mechanical stress, and increased integrin activity and cell-ECM adhesion strength. Thus, pluripotency appears to be linked to unique colony organization and adhesion structure.
  • Mäklin, Tommi; Kallonen, Teemu; Alanko, Jarno; Samuelsen, Ørjan; Hegstad, Kristin; Mäkinen, Veli; Corander, Jukka; Heinz, Eva; Honkela, Antti (2021)
    Genomic epidemiology is a tool for tracing transmission of pathogens based on whole-genome sequencing. We introduce the mGEMS pipeline for genomic epidemiology with plate sweeps representing mixed samples of a target pathogen, opening the possibility to sequence all colonies on selective plates with a single DNA extraction and sequencing step. The pipeline includes the novel mGEMS read binner for probabilistic assignments of sequencing reads, and the scalable pseudoaligner Themisto. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach using closely related samples in a nosocomial setting, obtaining results that are comparable to those based on single-colony picks. Our results lend firm support to more widespread consideration of genomic epidemiology with mixed infection samples.
  • Kouhia, Anna (2012)
    The meaning and value of crafts as bearers of the cultural heritage are widely acknowledged, and deserved attention has also been paid to the pedagogical applications of craft in practice. Still, research relating to subjectively interpreted meanings of crafts has remained rather scarce. The main interest of the study is to examine subjectively construed meanings of craft associated both to the self-reflective act of making and to the tangible craft object, and categorize the discovered meanings into representative categories. In presenting a multi-perspectival framework for the categories that portray the common kinds of meanings that crafts have, a substance that surpasses cultural boundaries is also captured due to the multicultural research setting. The primary empirical data of the study are composed of interviews of six women from different cultural backgrounds; the supporting data feature a participant observation of a multicultural craft activity group and photographic notes. The wide range of different meanings captured from the data is, during the conducted qualitative content analysis, critically classified into representational categories that typify the personally experienced meanings. The analysis revealed eight interrelated meaning categories regarding the meanings of craft that go beyond cultural boundaries: Meanings proceed from the subjective process of interpreting craft in a socially constructed, personalized setting, but still the meanings given to craft have been given similar characterizations in the several cultural contexts examined. This study adds to an understanding of how personalized meanings contribute to building intercultural reciprocity.
  • Chang, Mingyang; Bogacheva, Mariia S.; Lou, Yan-Ru (2021)
    The current organoid culture systems allow pluripotent and adult stem cells to self-organize to form three-dimensional (3D) structures that provide a faithful recapitulation of the architecture and function of in vivo organs. In particular, human pluripotent stem cell-derived liver organoids (PSC-LOs) can be used in regenerative medicine and preclinical applications, such as disease modeling and drug discovery. New bioengineering tools, such as microfluidics, biomaterial scaffolds, and 3D bioprinting, are combined with organoid technologies to increase the efficiency of hepatic differentiation and enhance the functional maturity of human PSC-LOs by precise control of cellular microenvironment. Long-term stabilization of hepatocellular functions of in vitro liver organoids requires the combination of hepatic endodermal, endothelial, and mesenchymal cells. To improve the biological function and scalability of human PSC-LOs, bioengineering methods have been used to identify diverse and zonal hepatocyte populations in liver organoids for capturing heterogeneous pathologies. Therefore, constructing engineered liver organoids generated from human PSCs will be an extremely versatile tool in in vitro disease models and regenerative medicine in future. In this review, we aim to discuss the recent advances in bioengineering technologies in liver organoid culture systems that provide a timely and necessary study to model disease pathology and support drug discovery in vitro and to generate cell therapy products for transplantation.
  • Kögler, Martin; Paul, Andrea; Anane, Emmanuel; Birkholz, Mario; Bunker, Alex; Viitala, Tapani; Maiwald, Michael; Junne, Stefan; Neubauer, Peter (2018)
    The application of Raman spectroscopy as a monitoring technique for bioprocesses is severely limited by a large background signal originating from fluorescing compounds in the culture media. Here, we compare time-gated Raman (TG-Raman)-, continuous wave NIR-process Raman (NIR-Raman), and continuous wave micro-Raman (micro-Raman) approaches in combination with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for their potential to overcome this limit. For that purpose, we monitored metabolite concentrations of Escherichia coli bioreactor cultivations in cell-free supernatant samples. We investigated concentration transients of glucose, acetate, AMP, and cAMP at alternating substrate availability, from deficiency to excess. Raman and SERS signals were compared to off-line metabolite analysis of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and nucleotides. Results demonstrate that SERS, in almost all cases, led to a higher number of identifiable signals and better resolved spectra. Spectra derived from the TG-Raman were comparable to those of micro-Raman resulting in well-discernable Raman peaks, which allowed for the identification of a higher number of compounds. In contrast, NIR-Raman provided a superior performance for the quantitative evaluation of analytes, both with and without SERS nanoparticles when using multivariate data analysis. (c) 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers
  • Hummelstedt-Djedou, Ida; Holm, Gunilla; Sahlström, Fritjof; Zilliacus, Harriet (2021)
    The aim of this study was to explore the role of social justice in multicultural education taught in teacher education. The study investigated discourses on multicultural education among Finnish teacher educa-tors, and the subject positions constructed in them. Discourse theory analysis revealed six discourses on multicultural education, ranging from conservative to liberal and critical, with liberal discourses having the most articulations. Although Finnish teacher education has taken steps towards social justice, the results also highlight racialisation and the subject position of the immigrant Other as themes that need to be challenged to prevent the reproduction of inequalities in teacher education. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Delcoigne, Benedicte; Provan, Sella Aarrestad; Hammer, Hilde Berner; Di Giuseppe, Daniela; Frisell, Thomas; Glintborg, Bente; Grondal, Gerdur; Gudbjornson, Bjorn; Hetland, Merete Lund; Michelsen, Brigitte; Nordström, Dan; Relas, Heikki; Askling, Johan (2022)
    Objectives To investigate whether patient-reported outcomes vary across countries and are influenced by cultural/contextual factors. Specifically, we aimed to assess inter-country differences in tender joint count (TJC), pain and patient's global health assessment (PGA), and their impact on disease activity (DAS28-CRP) in RA patients from five Nordic countries. Methods We collected data (baseline, 3- and 12-months) from rheumatology registers in the five countries comprising RA patients starting a first ever MTX or a first ever TNF inhibitor (TNFi). In order to assess the role of context (=country), we separately modelled TJC, pain and PGA as functions of objective variables (CRP, swollen joint count, age, sex, calendar period and disease duration) with linear models. Analyses were performed at each time point and for both treatments. We further assessed the impact of inter-country differences on DAS28-CRP. Results A total of 27 645 RA patients started MTX and 19 733 started a TNFi. Crude inter-country differences at MTX start amounted to up to 4 points (28 points scale) for TJC, 10 and 27 points (0-100 scale) for pain and PGA, respectively. Corresponding numbers at TNFi start were 3 (TJC), 27 (pain) and 24 (PGA) points. All differences were reduced at 3- and 12-months, and attenuated when adjusting for the objective variables. The variation in predicted DAS28-CRP across countries amounted to Conclusions Inter-country differences in TJC, pain and PGA are greater than expected based on differences in objective measures, but have a small clinical impact on DAS28-CRP across countries.
  • Auvinen, Vili-Veli; Merivaara, Arto; Kiiskinen, Jasmi; Paukkonen, Heli; Laurén, Patrick; Hakkarainen, Tiina; Koivuniemi, Raili; Sarkanen, Riina; Ylikomi, Timo; Laaksonen, Timo; Yliperttula, Marjo (2019)
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) hydrogels on two human derivatives during freeze-drying. Native NFC hydrogel is a suitable platform to culture 3D cell spheroids and a hydrogel processed further, called anionic NFC (ANFC) hydrogel, is an excellent platform for controlled release of proteins. Moreover, it has been shown to be compatible with freeze-drying when correct lyoprotectants are implemented. Freeze-drying is a method, where substance is first frozen, and then vacuum dried trough sublimation of water in order to achieve dry matter without the loss of the original three-dimensional structures. The first chosen human derivative was adipose tissue extract (ATE) which is a cell-free growth factor-rich preparation capable of promoting growth of regenerative cells. The release of growth factors from the freeze-dried mixture of ATE and ANFC was compared to that of non-freeze-dried control mixtures. The release profiles remained at the same level after freeze-drying. The second derivative was hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell spheroids which were evaluated before and after freeze-drying. The 3D structure of the HepG2 cell spheroids was preserved and the spheroids retained 18% of their metabolic activity after rehydration. However, the freeze-dried and rehydrated HepG2 cell spheroids did not proliferate and the cell membrane was damaged by fusion and formation of crystals.
  • Kornilov, Roman; Puhka, Maija; Mannerström, Bettina; Hiidenmaa, Hanna; Peltoniemi, Hilkka; Siljander, Pia Riitta-Maria; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta; Kaur, Sippy (2018)
    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is the most commonly used supplement in studies involving cell-culture experiments. However, FBS contains large numbers of bovine extracellular vesicles (EVs), which hamper the analyses of secreted EVs from the cell type of preference and, thus, also the downstream analyses. Therefore, a prior elimination of EVs from FBS is crucial. However, the current methods of EV depletion by ultracentrifugation are cumbersome and the commercial alternatives expensive. In this study, our aim was to develop a protocol to completely deplete EVs from FBS, which may have wide applicability in cell-culture applications. We investigated different EVdepleted FBS prepared by our novel ultrafiltration-based protocol, by conventionally used overnight ultracentrifugation, or commercially available depleted FBS, and compared them with regular FBS. All sera were characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis, electron microscopy, Western blotting and RNA quantification. Next, adipose-tissue mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) and cancer cells were grown in the media supplemented with the three different EV-depleted FBS and compared with cells grown in regular FBS media to assess the effects on cell proliferation, stress, differentiation and EV production. The novel ultrafiltration-based protocol depleted EVs from FBS clearly more efficiently than ultracentrifugation and commercial methods. Cell proliferation, stress, differentiation and EV production of AT-MSCs and cancer cell lines were similarly maintained in all three EV-depleted FBS media up to 96 h. In summary, our ultrafiltration protocol efficiently depletes EVs, is easy to use and maintains cell growth and metabolism. Since the method is also cost-effective and easy to standardize, it could be used in a wide range of cell-culture applications helping to increase comparability of EV research results between laboratories.
  • Bjorninen, Miina; Gilmore, Kerry; Pelto, Jani; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta; Kellomaki, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna; Wallace, Gordon; Grijpma, Dirk; Haimi, Suvi (2017)
    We investigated the use of polypyrrole (PPy)-coated polymer scaffolds and electrical stimulation (ES) to differentiate adipose stem cells (ASCs) towards smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Since tissue engineering lacks robust and reusable 3D ES devices we developed a device that can deliver ES in a reliable, repeatable, and cost-efficient way in a 3D environment. Long pulse (1 ms) or short pulse (0.25 ms) biphasic electric current at a frequency of 10 Hz was applied to ASCs to study the effects of ES on ASC viability and differentiation towards SMCs on the PPy-coated scaffolds. PPy-coated scaffolds promoted proliferation and induced stronger calponin, myosin heavy chain (MHC) and smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression in ASCs compared to uncoated scaffolds. ES with 1 ms pulse width increased the number of viable cells by day 7 compared to controls and remained at similar levels to controls by day 14, whereas shorter pulses significantly decreased viability compared to the other groups. Both ES protocols supported smooth muscle expression markers. Our results indicate that electrical stimulation on PPy-coated scaffolds applied through the novel 3D ES device is a valid approach for vascular smooth muscle tissue engineering.
  • Juntunen, Miia; Heinonen, Sini; Huhtala, Heini; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kuismanen, Kirsi; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Miettinen, Susanna; Patrikoski, Mimmi (2021)
    Background Adipose stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are promising candidates for future clinical applications. ASCs have regenerative capacity, low immunogenicity, and immunomodulatory ability. The success of future cell-based therapies depends on the appropriate selection of donors. Several factors, including age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), may influence ASC characteristics. Our aim was to investigate the effect of acquired weight on ASC characteristics under the same genetic background using ASCs derived from monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. Methods ASCs were isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue from five weight-discordant (WD, within-pair difference in BMI > 3 kg/m(2)) MZ twin pairs, with measured BMI and metabolic status. The ASC immunophenotype, proliferation and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity were studied. ASC immunogenicity, immunosuppression capacity and the expression of inflammation markers were investigated. ASC angiogenic potential was assessed in cocultures with endothelial cells. Results ASCs showed low immunogenicity, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation capacity independent of weight among all donors. ASCs showed a mesenchymal stem cell-like immunophenotype; however, the expression of CD146 was significantly higher in leaner WD twins than in heavier cotwins. ASCs from heavier twins from WD pairs showed significantly greater adipogenic differentiation capacity and higher expression of TNF and lower angiogenic potential compared with their leaner cotwins. ASCs showed immunosuppressive capacity in direct cocultures; however, heavier WD twins showed stronger immunosuppressive capacity than leaner cotwins. Conclusions Our genetically matched data suggest that a higher weight of the donor may have some effect on ASC characteristics, especially on angiogenic and adipogenic potential, which should be considered when ASCs are used clinically.
  • Ghahramani, Abolfazl (2016)
    Many organizations are adapting to the requirements of occupational health and safety management systems worldwide. Despite the considerable acceptance of the systems for managing occupational health and safety in organizations, there is still no clear consensus on their effectiveness. The present study aimed to identify potential areas for improvements based on the experience and perception of the managers who worked in companies that are adopting the occupational health and safety assessment series 18001 standard in Iran. Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with the managers. A qualitative study design using a grounded theory approach was used to analyze the gathered data. Eleven categories emerged to explain the influencing factors that hinder or facilitate the effectiveness of the standard in the companies: (1) management commitment; (2) safety communication; (3) employee involvement; (4) integration; (5) training; (6) safety culture; (7) internal incentives; (8) enforcement; (9) occupational health and safety authority' support, (10) auditing, and (11) external incentives. Moreover, a conceptual model was developed based on the categories. The commitment of the senior managers to safety and their support of the system in practice can facilitate the improvement of the adaptation to the standard in the companies. Conducting efforts to train employees about occupational health and safety and to involve them in the practices required by the standard can help the companies in creating a positive safety culture. The development of a new inspection program with more enforcement on occupational health and safety legislation by the authorities would help the companies to adopt the requirements of the legislation. The application of an enforced policy by accreditation bodies to check the third-party auditing process could also increase the quality of auditing and help to improve the effectiveness of their systems to achieve a better occupational health and safety performance. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Franks, Victoria R.; Ewen, John G.; McCready, Mhairi; Thorogood, Rose (2020)
    Early independence from parents is a critical period where social information acquired vertically may become outdated, or conflict with new information. However, across natural populations, it is unclear if newly independent young persist in using information from parents, or if group-level effects of conformity override previous behaviours. Here, we test if wild juvenile hihi (Notiomystis cincta, a New Zealand passerine) retain a foraging behaviour from parents, or if they change in response to the behaviour of peers. We provided feeding stations to parents during chick-rearing to seed alternative access routes, and then tracked their offspring's behaviour. Once independent, juveniles formed mixed-treatment social groups, where they did not retain preferences from their time with parents. Instead, juvenile groups converged over time to use one access route­ per group, and juveniles that moved between groups switched to copy the locally favoured option. Juvenile hihi did not copy specific individuals, even if they were more familiar with the preceding bird. Our study shows that early social experiences with parents affect initial foraging decisions, but social environments encountered later on can update transmission of arbitrary behaviours. This suggests that conformity may be widespread in animal groups, with potential cultural, ecological and evolutionary consequences.
  • Sandström, Niclas; Nevgi, Anne (2020)
    This paper took a pedagogical campus developer’s look into a campus retrofitting process. The paper presents a case study of a major Finnish research-intensive university. The data consist of semi-structured interviews of information-rich key stakeholders identified using snowball sampling method. The findings suggest that co-design should be followed through the whole retrofitting process with sufficient communications between stakeholders. The study introduces the concept of learning landscape reliability, putting digital age basic needs in the centre of learning landscape usability.
  • Jallinoja, Piia Tuuli; Niva, Mari Helena; Latvala, Terhi Tuulikki (2016)
    A transition towards more sustainable food consumption requires changes in everyday eating patterns, particularly a substitution of animal protein with plant-based protein sources. However, in many European countries plant protein consumption is low compared to meat consumption. The article explores plant protein consumption frequencies, future intentions to increase bean consumption, and the associations of frequent bean eating with socioeconomic factors and beanrelated meanings, material issues and competence. A population web-based survey was conducted in 2013 among 15-64-year-old Finns (n=1048). The results showed that beans and soy-based plant proteins were infrequently consumed. A fifth of the respondents intended to increase their bean consumption in the future, intention being the greatest among those who already included beans in their diets. Frequent bean consumption was most likely among persons aged 25-34, living around the capital district, with education higher than comprehensive or vocational school, and who were vegetarian. Perceiving beans as culturally acceptable and good-tasting, and having competence in preparing bean meals were positively associated with the frequent eating of beans. The results suggest that for plant proteins to replace meat, new meanings and competences related to preparing and eating pulse-based dishes are needed. Based on our results, we build alternative future scenarios for plant protein consumption and the related requirements for changes. Several actor groups, such as NGOs, politicians, celebrity chefs and teachers of home economics have a central role in the developments.
  • Özdemir, Meltem; Caglayan, Feriha; Bigger, Floris; Pussinen, Pirkko; Könönen, Eija; Yamalik, Nermin; Gursoy, Mervi; Fteita, Dareen; Nazmi, Kamran; Güncü, Güliz N.; Pietiäinen, Milla; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Gürsoy, Ulvi Kahraman (2020)
    Aim To profile gingival tissue levels of human beta-defensin (hBD)-2 and hBD-3 in relation to gingival inflammation, Th17-related cytokine concentrations, Porphyromonas gingivalis counts, and gingipain and total protease activities. Materials and Methods Gingival tissue and subgingival plaque samples were collected from 21 periodontitis patients including 48 periodontal pocket sites with marginal, mild, or moderate to severe inflammation. hBD levels were determined by immunodetection, P. gingivalis counts with real-time polymerase chain reaction, protease activities with fluorogenic substrates, and cytokine concentrations with Luminex technique. Data were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman correlation coefficients. Results Subgingival plaque counts of P. gingivalis (p = .001) and gingipain activity (p <.001), as well as interleukin (IL)-1 beta (p = .012), IL-10 (p = .024), IL-17A (p = .002), IL-17F (p = .006), and IL-23 (p = .036) concentrations were elevated in severely inflamed sites, whereas no change was observed in hBD-2 and hBD-3 levels. Negative correlations were found between protease activity and hBD-2 (p = .033) and hBD-3(p = .003) levels. Conclusions Shift in gingival inflammation from marginal to mild stage is related to elevations in subgingival plaque P. gingivalis counts and gingipain activity, but not to tissue hBD levels. Negative correlations between hBDs and total protease activity suggest the degradation of these antimicrobial peptides in progressed inflammation.
  • Kangas, Emilia; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Jyrkinen, Marjut (2019)
    It has been claimed that in the context of organizations and management, fathers are invisible. One source of tension for fathers who work and who want to participate in family life is that even though involved fatherhood is emerging in many western societies, a family-oriented male identity is likely to be problematic for men in organizations. This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of a professional and managerial men's work-family relationship using discourse analysis on data from three different media sources in Finland, published during 1990-2015. We identified two competing discourses: one of stasis, the other of change. The stasis discourse is constructed around traditionally masculine management and fatherhood roles, while the changing discourse embodies more diverse masculinities and fatherhood. We conclude that although the discourse on fatherhood in the organizational context is moving towards gender equality, at the same time a strong discourse is putting a brake on such development, especially regarding management.