Browsing by Subject "CURRENT TRENDS"

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  • Kauppila, T. J.; Flink, A.; Pukkila, J.; Ketola, R. A. (2016)
    RATIONALE: Fast methods that allow the in situ analysis of explosives from a variety of surfaces are needed in crime scene investigations and home-land security. Here, the feasibility of the ambient mass spectrometry technique desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) in the analysis of the most common nitrogen-based explosives is studied. METHODS: DAPPI and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) were compared in the direct analysis of trinitrotoluene (TNT), trinitrophenol (picric acid), octogen (HMX), cyclonite (RDX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and nitroglycerin (NG). The effect of different additives in DAPPI dopant and in DESI spray solvent on the ionization efficiency was tested, as well as the suitability of DAPPI to detect explosives from a variety of surfaces. RESULTS: The analytes showed ions only in negative ion mode. With negative DAPPI, TNT and picric acid formed deprotonated molecules with all dopant systems, while RDX, HMX, PETN and NG were ionized by adduct formation. The formation of adducts was enhanced by addition of chloroform, formic acid, acetic acid or nitric acid to the DAPPI dopant. DAPPI was more sensitive than DESI for TNT, while DESI was more sensitive for HMX and picric acid. CONCLUSIONS: DAPPI could become an important method for the direct analysis of nitroaromatics from a variety of surfaces. For compounds that are thermally labile, or that have very low vapor pressure, however, DESI is better suited. Copyright (C) 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Thesleff, Tuomo; Lehtimaki, Kai; Niskakangas, Tero; Huovinen, Sanna; Mannerström, Bettina; Miettinen, Susanna; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta; Ohman, Juha (2017)
    Several alternative techniques exist to reconstruct skull defects. The complication rate of the cranioplasty procedure is high and the search for optimal materials and techniques continues. To report long-term results of patients who have received a cranioplasty using autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) seeded on beta-tricalcium phosphate (betaTCP) granules. Between 10/2008 and 3/2010, five cranioplasties were performed (four females, one male; average age 62.0 years) using ASCs, betaTCP granules and titanium or resorbable meshes. The average defect size was 8.1 x 6.7 cm(2). Patients were followed both clinically and radiologically. The initial results were promising, with no serious complications. Nevertheless, in the long-term follow-up, three of the five patients were re-operated due to graft related problems. Two patients showed marked resorption of the graft, which led to revision surgery. One patient developed a late infection (7.3 years post-operative) that required revision surgery and removal of the graft. One patient had a successfully ossified graft, but was re-operated due to recurrence of the meningioma 2.2 years post-operatively. One patient had an uneventful clinical follow-up, and the cosmetic result is satisfactory, even though skull x-rays show hypodensity in the borders of the graft. Albeit no serious adverse events occurred, the 6-year follow-up results of the five cases are unsatisfactory. The clinical results are not superior to results achieved by conventional cranial repair methods. The use of stem cells in combination with betaTCP granules and supporting meshes in cranial defect reconstruction need to be studied further before continuing with clinical trials.