Browsing by Subject "CYTOLOGY"

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  • Louvanto, Karolina; Eriksson, Tiina; Gray, Penelope; Apter, Dan; Baussano, Iacopo; Bly, Anne; Harjula, Katja; Heikkila, Kaisa; Hokkanen, Mari; Huhtinen, Leila; Ikonen, Marja; Karttunen, Heidi; Nummela, Mervi; Soderlund-Strand, Anna; Veivo, Ulla; Dillner, Joakim; Elfstöm, Miriam; Nieminen, Pekka; Lehtinen, Matti (2020)
    Less frequent cervical cancer screening in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinated birth cohorts could produce considerable savings without increasing cervical cancer incidence and loss of life-years. We report here the baseline findings and interim results of safety and accuracy of infrequent screening among HPV16/18 vaccinated females. The entire 1992-1994 birth-cohorts (30,139 females) were invited to a community-randomized HPV16/18-vaccination trial. A total of 9,482 female trial participants received HPV16/18-vaccination in 2007-2009 at age of 13-15. At age 22, 4,273 (45%) of these females consented to attend a randomized trial on frequent (ages 22/25/28; Arm 1: 2,073 females) vs. infrequent screening (age 28; Arm 2: 2,200 females) in 2014-2017. Females (1,329), who had got HPV16/18 vaccination at age 18 comprised the safety Arm 3. Baseline prevalence and incidence of HPV16/18 and other high-risk HPV types were: 0.5% (53/1,000 follow-up years, 10(4)) and 25% (2,530/10(4)) in the frequently screened Arm 1; 0.2% (23/10(4)) and 24% (2,413/10(4)) in the infrequently screened Arm 2; and 3.1% (304/10(4)) and 23% (2,284/10(4)) in the safety Arm 3. Corresponding prevalence of HSIL/ASC-H and of any abnormal cytological findings were: 0.3 and 4.2% (Arm 1), 0.4 and 5.3% (Arm 2) and 0.3 and 4.7% (Arm 3). Equally rare HSIL/CIN3 findings in the infrequently screened safety Arm A3 (0.4%) and in the frequently screened Arm 1 (0.4%) indicate no safety concerns on infrequent screening despite the up to 10 times higher HPV16/18 baseline prevalence and incidence in the former.
  • Kyrgiou, Maria; Arbyn, Marc; Bergeron, Christine; Bosch, F. Xavier; Dillner, Joakim; Jit, Mark; Kim, Jane; Poljak, Mario; Nieminen, Pekka; Sasieni, Peter; Kesic, Vesna; Cuzick, Jack; Gultekin, Murat (2020)
    This paper summarises the position of ESGO and EFC on cervical screening based on existing guidelines and opinions of a team of lead experts. HPV test is replacing cytology as this offers greater protection against cervical cancer and allows longer screening intervals. Only a dozen of HPV tests are considered as clinically validated for screening. The lower specificity of HPV test dictates the use of triage tests that can select women for colposcopy. Reflex cytology is currently the only well validated triage test; HPV genotyping and p16 immunostaining may be used in the future, although methylation assays and viral load also look promising. A summary of quality assurance benchmarks is provided, and the importance to audit the screening histories of women who developed cancer is noted as a key objective. HPV-based screening is more cost-effective than cytology or cotesting. HPV-based screening should continue in the post-vaccination era. Only a fraction of the female population is vaccinated, and this varies across countries. A major challenge will be to personalise screening frequency according to vaccination status. Still the most important factor for successful prevention by screening is high population coverage and organised screening. Screening with self-sampling to reach under-screened women is promising.
  • Ritari, Jarmo; Hultman, Jenni; Fingerroos, Rita; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Pullat, Janne; Paulin, Lars; Kivi, Niina; Auvinen, Petri; Auvinen, Eeva (2012)
  • Pankakoski, Maiju; Heinavaara, Sirpa; Sarkeala, Tytti; Anttila, Ahti (2017)
    Objective: Regular screening and follow-up is an important key to cervical cancer prevention; however, screening inevitably detects mild or borderline abnormalities that would never progress to a more severe stage. We analysed the cumulative probability and recurrence of cervical abnormalities in the Finnish organized screening programme during a 22-year follow-up. Methods: Screening histories were collected for 364,487 women born between 1950 and 1965. Data consisted of 1 207,017 routine screens and 88,143 follow-up screens between 1991 and 2012. Probabilities of cervical abnormalities by age were estimated using logistic regression and generalized estimating equations methodology. Results: The probability of experiencing any abnormality at least once at ages 30-64 was 34.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.3-34.6%). Probability was 5.4% (95% CI: 5.0-5.8%) for results warranting referral and 2.2% (95% CI: 2.0-2.4%) for results with histologically confirmed findings. Previous occurrences were associated with an increased risk of detecting new ones, specifically in older women. Conclusion: A considerable proportion of women experience at least one abnormal screening result during their lifetime, and yet very few eventually develop an actual precancerous lesion. Re-evaluation of diagnostic criteria concerning mild abnormalities might improve the balance of harms and benefits of screening. Special monitoring of women with recurrent abnormalities especially at older ages may also be needed.
  • Aro, Katri; Korpi, Jarkko; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Mäkitie, Antti; Atula, Timo (2020)
    Background: The nature of parotid tumors often remains unknown preoperatively and final histopathology may reveal unexpected malignancy. Still, the use of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and imaging varies in the management of these tumors. Methods: We evaluated the preoperative examinations and management of all 195 parotid gland tumors diagnosed within our catchment area of 1.6 million people during 2015. Results: Altogether 171 (88%) tumors were classified as true salivary gland neoplasms. FNAC showed no false malignant findings, but it was false benign in 5 (2.6%) cases. Preoperative MRI was utilized in 48 patients (25%). Twenty (10%) malignancies included 16 salivary gland carcinomas. Pleomorphic adenomas accounted for 52% of all adenomas. For 24 (40%) Warthin tumors, surgery was omitted. Conclusion: The proportion of malignancies was lower than generally presented. Our proposed guidelines include ultrasound-guided FNAC with certain limitations. MRI is warranted in selected cases, but seems unnecessary routinely.
  • Heinonen, Annu; Jakobsson, Maija; Kiviharju, Mari; Virtanen, Seppo; Aro, Karoliina; Kyrgiou, Maria; Nieminen, Pekka; Kalliala, Ilkka (2020)
    Colposcopy is often used in follow-up after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) despite its marked inter-observer variability and low sensitivity. Our objective was to assess the role of colposcopy in post-treatment follow-up in comparison to hrHPV (high-risk human papillomavirus) testing, cytology, and cone margin status. Altogether, 419 women treated for histological high-grade lesion (HSIL) with large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) attended colposcopy with cytology and hrHPV test at six months. Follow-up for recurrence of HSIL continued for 24 months. Colposcopy was considered positive if colposcopic impression was recorded as high grade and cytology if HSIL, ASC-H (atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSIL), or AGC-FN (atypical glandular cells, favor neoplasia) were present. Overall, 10 (10/419, 2.4%) recurrent HSIL cases were detected, 5 at 6 months and 5 at 12 months. Colposcopic impression was recorded at 407/419 6-month visits and was positive for 11/407 (2.7%). None of them had recurrent lesions, resulting in 0% sensitivity and 97% specificity for colposcopy. Sensitivity for the hrHPV test at 6 months was 100% and specificity 85%, for cytology 40% and 99%, and for margin status at treatment 60% and 82%, respectively. While the hrHPV test is highly sensitive in predicting recurrence after local treatment for CIN, colposcopy in an unselected population is not useful in follow-up after treatment of CIN.