Browsing by Subject "CYTOPLASMIC DOMAIN"

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  • Kleino, Iivari; Ortiz, Rebekka M.; Huovila, Ari-Pekka J. (2007)
    Background: ADAM15 is a metalloprotease-disintegrin implicated in ectodomain shedding and cell adhesion. Aberrant ADAM15 expression has been associated with human cancer and other disorders. We have previously shown that the alternative splicing of ADAM15 transcripts is mis-regulated in cancer cells. To gain a better understanding of ADAM15 regulation, its genomic organization and regulatory elements as well as the alternative exon use in human tissues were characterized. Results: Human ADAM15, flanked by the FLJ32785/DCST1 and ephrin-A4 genes, spans 11.4 kb from the translation initiation codon to the polyadenylation signal, being the shortest multiple-exon ADAM gene. The gene contains 23 exons varying from 63 to 316 bp and 22 introns from 79 to 1283 bp. The gene appeared to have several transcription start sites and their location suggested the promoter location within a CpG island proximal to the translation start. Reporter expression experiments confirmed the location of functional GC-rich, TATAless and CAATless promoter, with the most critical transcription-supporting elements located - 266 to - 23 bp relative to the translation start. Normal human tissues showed different complex patterns of at least 13 different ADAM15 splice variants arising from the alternative use of the cytosolic-encoding exons 19, 20a/b, and 21a/b. The deduced ADAM15 protein isoforms have different combinations of cytosolic regulatory protein interaction motifs. Conclusion: Characterization of human ADAM15 gene and identification of elements involved in the regulation of transcription and alternative splicing provide important clues for elucidation of physiological and pathological roles of ADAM15. The present results also show that the alternative exon use is a physiological post-transcriptional mechanism regulating ADAM15 expression in human tissues.
  • Myllymaki, Satu-Marja; Kämäräinen, Ulla-Reetta; Liu, Xiaonan; Cruz, Sara Pereira; Miettinen, Sini; Vuorela, Mikko; Varjosalo, Markku; Manninen, Aki (2019)
    Integrin-mediated laminin adhesions mediate epithelial cell anchorage to basement membranes and are critical regulators of epithelial cell polarity. Integrins assemble large multiprotein complexes that link to the cytoskeleton and convey signals into the cells. Comprehensive proteomic analyses of actin network-linked focal adhesions (FA) have been performed, but the molecular composition of intermediate filament-linked hemidesmosomes (HD) remains incompletely characterized. Here we have used proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) technology to label and characterize the interactome of epithelia-specific beta 4-integrin that, as alpha 6 beta 4-heterodimer, forms the core of HDs. The analysis identified similar to 150 proteins that were specifically labeled by BirA-tagged integrin-beta 4. In addition to known HDs proteins, the interactome revealed proteins that may indirectly link integrin-beta 4 to actin-connected protein complexes, such as FAs and dystrophin/dystroglycan complexes. The specificity of the screening approach was validated by confirming the HD localization of two candidate beta 4-interacting proteins, utrophin (UTRN) and ELKS/Rab6-interacting/CAST family member 1 (ERC1). Interestingly, although establishment of functional HDs depends on the formation of alpha 6 beta 4-heterodimers, the assembly of beta 4-interactome was not strictly dependent on alpha 6-integrin expression. Our survey to the HD interactome sets a precedent for future studies and provides novel insight into the mechanisms of HD assembly and function of the beta 4-integrin.
  • Gahmberg, Carl G.; Grönholm, Mikaela (2022)
    Cell adhesion is essential for the formation of organs, cellular migration, and interaction with target cells and the extracellular matrix. Integrins are large protein alpha/13-chain heterodimers and form a major family of cell adhesion molecules. Recent research has dramatically increased our knowledge of how integrin phos-phorylations regulate integrin activity. Phosphorylations determine the signaling complexes formed on the cytoplasmic tails, regulating downstream signaling. alpha-Chain phosphorylation is necessary for inducing 13-chain phosphorylation in LFA-1, and the crosstalk from one integrin to another activating or inactivating its function is in part mediated by phosphorylation of 13-chains. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and possible integrin coreceptors may crosstalk and induce a phosphorylation switch and autophagy.
  • Jahan, Farhana; Madhavan, Sudarrshan; Rolova, Taisia; Viazmina, Larisa; Grönholm, Mikaela; Gahmberg, Carl G. (2018)
    The integrin leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) plays a pivotal role in leukocyte adhesion and migration, but the mechanism(s) by which this integrin is regulated has remained incompletely understood. LFA-1 integrin activity requires phosphorylation of its 2-chain and interactions of its cytoplasmic tail with various cellular proteins. The -chain is constitutively phosphorylated and necessary for cellular adhesion, but how the -chain regulates adhesion has remained enigmatic. We now show that substitution of the -chain phosphorylation site (S1140A) in T cells inhibits the phosphorylation of the functionally important Thr-758 in the 2-chain, binding of -actinin and 14-3-3 protein, and expression of an integrin-activating epitope after treatment with the stromal cell-derived factor-1. The presence of this substitution resulted in a loss of cell adhesion and directional cell migration. Moreover, LFA-1 activation through the T-cell receptor in cells expressing the S1140A LFA-1 variant resulted in less Thr-758 phosphorylation, -actinin and talin binding, and cell adhesion. The finding that the LFA-1 -chain regulates adhesion through the -chain via specific phosphorylation at Ser-1140 in the -chain has not been previously reported and emphasizes that both chains are involved in the regulation of LFA-1 integrin activity.
  • Kleino, Iivari; Jarviluoma, Annika; Hepojoki, Jussi; Huovila, Ari Pekka; Saksela, Kalle (2015)
    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) constitute a protein family essential for extracellular signaling and regulation of cell adhesion. Catalytic activity of ADAMs and their predicted potential for Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain binding show a strong correlation. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of SH3 binding capacity and preferences of the catalytically active ADAMs 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 17, and 19. Our results revealed several novel interactions, and also confirmed many previously reported ones. Many of the identified SH3 interaction partners were shared by several ADAMs, whereas some were ADAM-specific. Most of the ADAM-interacting SH3 proteins were adapter proteins or kinases, typically associated with sorting and endocytosis. Novel SH3 interactions revealed in this study include TOCA1 and CIP4 as preferred partners of ADAM8, and RIMBP1 as a partner of ADAM19. Our results suggest that common as well as distinct mechanisms are involved in regulation and execution of ADAM signaling, and provide a useful framework for addressing the pathways that connect ADAMs to normal and aberrant cell behavior.