Browsing by Subject "Canidae"

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  • Graf, Lukas; Hatlauf, Jennifer (2021)
    Golden jackals (Canis aureus) display a complex repertoire of calls, utilized in different communication types (e.g., marking territories, attraction of mating partners). Resident golden jackal groups can successfully be detected by active bioacoustic stimulation, as well as with passive recording devices. For monitoring, basic knowledge of the calls of the focal species and potential restrictions and strengths of the monitoring devices should be considered. We therefore tested possible applications of a low-budget autonomous recording unit for bioacoustic golden jackal monitoring and examined the following research questions: How far can group calls be detected? Can the distance to the recording device be estimated? To answer these questions, we placed 11 AudioMoth recording devices in a linear transect to record live imitated and replayed howls. For the estimation of the number of responding animals, the number of howling individuals was determined based on the maximum number of simultaneously visible fundamental frequencies in a spectrogram. To predict the distance of the playback howls to the recording devices, the relative sound level (RSL) of each call was measured and fitted in linear models. Reliable distance estimations using RSL were possible up to 400 m. Estimated number of responding animals showed a negative relationship with distance. Our results present a baseline for future studies and show that AudioMoths can be a helpful asset in distance estimation of golden jackal packs—both in passive but also active monitoring.
  • Viranta, Suvi; Atickem, Anagaw; Werdelin, Lars; Stenseth, Nils C (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background The African wolf, for which we herein recognise Canis lupaster Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1832 (Symbolae Physicae quae ex Itinere Africam Borealem er Asoam Occidentalem Decas Secunda. Berlin, 1833) as the valid species name (we consider the older name Canis anthus Cuvier, 1820 [Le Chacal de Sénégal, Femelle. In: Geoffroy St.-Hilaire E, Cuvier F, editors. Histoire Naturelle des Mammifères Paris, A. Belin, 1820] a nomen dubium), is a medium-sized canid with wolf-like characters. Because of phenotypic similarity, specimens of African wolf have long been assigned to golden jackal (Canis aureus Linnaeus, 1758 [Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata, 1758]). Results Here we provide, through rigorous morphological analysis, a species description for this taxonomically overlooked species. Through molecular sequencing we assess its distribution in Africa, which remains uncertain due to confusion regarding possible co-occurrence with the Eurasian golden jackal. Canis lupaster differs from all other Canis spp. including the golden jackal in its cranial morphology, while phylogenetically it shows close affinity to the Holarctic grey wolf (Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 [Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata, 1758]). All sequences generated during this study clustered with African wolf specimens, consistent with previous data for the species. Conclusions We suggest that the estimated current geographic range of golden jackal in Africa represents the African wolf range. Further research is needed in eastern Egypt, where a hybrid zone between Eurasian golden jackal and African wolf may exist. Our results highlight the need for improved studies of geographic range and population surveys for the taxon, which is classified as ‘least concern’ by the IUCN due to its erroneous identification as golden jackal. As a species exclusively distributed in Africa, investigations of the biology and threats to African wolf are needed.
  • Hatlauf, Jennifer; Krendl, Lisa Maria; Tintner, Johannes; Griesberger, Paul; Heltai, Miklos; Markov, Georgi; Viranta, Suvi; Hackländer, Klaus (2021)
    Sexual dimorphism is a widespread phenomenon among mammals, including carnivorans. While sexual dimorphism in golden jackals (Canis aureus) has been analysed in the past, in the related and apparently convergent canid, the African wolf (Canis lupaster), it is poorly studied and showed to be relatively small. Previously, sexual size dimorphism (SSD) research in these species was mostly based on skull and body measurements. In our study, we also included dental measurements, namely the diameter of the canine. We used 11 measured sections of 104 adult specimens, comprising 61 golden jackal and 43 African wolf skulls. Data analyses were carried out through logistic regression and conditional inference trees (CIT). To compare the results of SSD to other species, sexual dimorphism indices (SDI) were calculated. Golden jackals and African wolves show significant sexual size dimorphism, both in cranial and dental size. The logistic regression revealed that the mesiodistal diameter of the upper canine is most effective in discerning the sexes. The difference in the calculated SDI of the canine diameter between the sexes amounted to 8.71 in golden jackals and 14.11 in African wolves, respectively-with regional diversity. Thus, the canine diameter is an important measure to investigate SSD as well as an easy tool to apply in the field.