Browsing by Subject "Canine"

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  • Wielaender, F.; James, F. M. K.; Cortez, M. A.; Kluger, G.; Nessler, J. N.; Tipold, A.; Lohi, H.; Fischer, A. (2018)
    Myoclonic epilepsy in Rhodesian Ridgeback (RR) dogs is characterized by myoclonic seizures occurring mainly during relaxation periods, a juvenile age of onset and generalized tonic-clonic seizures in one-third of patients. An 8-month-old female intact RR was presented for myoclonic seizures and staring episodes that both started at 10 weeks of age. Testing for the DIRAS1 variant indicated a homozygous mutant genotype. Unsedated wireless video-electroencephalography (EEG) identified frequent, bilaterally synchronous, generalized 4 Hz spike-and-wave complexes (SWC) during the staring episodes in addition to the characteristic myoclonic seizures with generalized 4-5 Hz SWC or 4-5 Hz slowing. Photic stimulation did not evoke a photoparoxysmal response. Repeat video-EEG 2 months after initiation of levetiracetam treatment disclosed a >95% decrease in frequency of myoclonic seizures, and absence seizures were no longer evident. Absence seizures represent another seizure type in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) in RR dogs, which reinforces its parallels to JME in humans.
  • Hagner, Karolina; Jokinen, Tarja S.; Lavikainen, Antti; Sukura, Antti (2018)
    Abstract Typically, carnivores are the definitive and herbivores the intermediate hosts for protozoan Sarcocystis spp. In the definitive host, the parasite has sexual multiplication in the intestine. Asexual phases occur in the musculature of different intermediate hosts. Although intestinal sarcocystosis is common in dogs, muscular symptomatic sarcocystosis is rarely reported. Here we report a fatal dual Sarcocystis spp. infection in a dog. The dog had acute onset of non-ambulatory tetraparesis. While neurological findings suggested a generalized neuromuscular disease with peripheral neuropathy concordant with the neurological deficits, the highly elevated muscle enzymes were more suggestive of a myopathy. Despite supportive therapy, the dog died three days after the onset of clinical signs. Necropsy revealed severe monophasic multifocal myodegeneration with severe pyogranulomatous inflammation. Histology revealed multiple sarcocysts in skeletal muscles and a smaller number in the heart. In light microscopy, both thin-walled and very thin-walled sarcocysts were found in skeletal muscles. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of two types of mature sarcocysts. Morphologically, cysts were indistinguishable from Sarcocystis caninum and Sarcocystis svanai, which were previously reported in a dog from USA. A region of the 18S rRNA gene sequence confirmed the presence of one species, S. arctica/caninum, without evidence for a dual infection. This is the first report of muscular sarcocystosis in a dog in Europe and, intriguingly, revealed morphologically similar species across the Atlantic.
  • Mikkola, Lea; Kyöstilä, Kaisa; Donner, Jonas; Lappalainen, Anu K.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Iivanainen, Antti (2021)
    BackgroundCanine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a common disease, with a complex genetic background. Dogs with severe CHD sometimes also suffer from osteoarthritis (OA), an inflammatory, often painful and incurable condition. Previous studies have reported breed-specific genetic loci associated with different hip dysplasia and OA phenotypes. However, the independent replication of the known associations within or across breeds has been difficult due to variable phenotype measures, inadequate sample sizes and the existence of population specific variants.ResultsWe execute a validation study of 46 genetic markers in a cohort of nearly 1600 dogs from ten different breeds. We categorize the dogs into cases and controls according to the hip scoring system defined by the Federation Cynologique Internationale (FCI). We validate 21 different loci associated on fourteen chromosomes. Twenty of these associated with CHD in specific breeds, whereas one locus is unique to the across-breed study. We show that genes involved in the neddylation pathway are enriched among the genes in the validated loci. Neddylation contributes to many cellular functions including inflammation.ConclusionsOur study successfully replicates many loci and highlights the complex genetic architecture of CHD. Further characterisation of the associated loci could reveal CHD-relevant genes and pathways for improved understanding of the disease pathogenesis.
  • Mikkola, Lea; Kyöstilä, Kaisa; Donner, Jonas; Lappalainen, Anu K; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Iivanainen, Antti (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a common disease, with a complex genetic background. Dogs with severe CHD sometimes also suffer from osteoarthritis (OA), an inflammatory, often painful and incurable condition. Previous studies have reported breed-specific genetic loci associated with different hip dysplasia and OA phenotypes. However, the independent replication of the known associations within or across breeds has been difficult due to variable phenotype measures, inadequate sample sizes and the existence of population specific variants. Results We execute a validation study of 46 genetic markers in a cohort of nearly 1600 dogs from ten different breeds. We categorize the dogs into cases and controls according to the hip scoring system defined by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI). We validate 21 different loci associated on fourteen chromosomes. Twenty of these associated with CHD in specific breeds, whereas one locus is unique to the across-breed study. We show that genes involved in the neddylation pathway are enriched among the genes in the validated loci. Neddylation contributes to many cellular functions including inflammation. Conclusions Our study successfully replicates many loci and highlights the complex genetic architecture of CHD. Further characterisation of the associated loci could reveal CHD-relevant genes and pathways for improved understanding of the disease pathogenesis.
  • Välkki, Kirsi J; Thomson, Katariina H; Grönthal, Thomas S C; Junnila, Jouni J T; Rantala, Merja H J; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi M; Mölsä, Sari H (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Surgical site infections (SSI) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To lower the incidence of SSI, antimicrobial prophylaxis is given 30–60 min before certain types of surgeries in both human and veterinary patients. However, due to the increasing concern of antimicrobial resistance, the benefit of antimicrobial prophylaxis in clean orthopaedic and neurosurgeries warrants investigation. The aims of this retrospective cross-sectional study were to review the rate of SSI and evaluate the compliance with antimicrobial guidelines in dogs at a veterinary teaching hospital in 2012–2016. In addition, possible risk factors for SSI were assessed. Results Nearly all dogs (377/406; 92.9%) received antimicrobial prophylaxis. Twenty-nine dogs (7.1%) did not receive any antimicrobials and only four (1.1%) received postoperative antimicrobials. The compliance with in-house and national protocols was excellent regarding the choice of prophylactic antimicrobial (cefazolin), but there was room for improvement in the timing of prophylaxis administration. Follow-up data was available for 89.4% (363/406) of the dogs. Mean follow-up time was 464 days (range: 3–2600 days). The overall SSI rate was 6.3%: in orthopaedic surgeries it was 6.7%, and in neurosurgeries it was 4.2%. The lowest SSI rates (0%) were seen in extracapsular repair of cranial cruciate ligament rupture, ulnar ostectomy, femoral head and neck excision, arthrotomy and coxofemoral luxation repair. The highest SSI rate (25.0%) was seen in arthrodesis. Omission of antimicrobials did not increase the risk for SSI (P = 0.56; OR 1.7; CI95% 0.4–5.0). Several risk factors for SSI were identified, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carriage (P = 0.02; OR 9.0; CI95% 1.4–57.9) and higher body temperature (P = 0.03; OR 1.69; CI95% 1.0–2.7; mean difference + 0.4 °C compared to dogs without SSI). Conclusions Antimicrobial prophylaxis without postoperative antimicrobials is sufficient to maintain the overall rate of SSI at a level similar to published data in canine clean orthopedic and neurosurgeries.
  • Välkki, Kirsi Johanna; Thomson, Katariina Hanne; Grönthal, Thomas Sven Christer; Junnila, Jouni Juho Tapio; Rantala, Merja Hilma Johanna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi Maria; Mölsä, Sari Helena (2020)
    Background Surgical site infections (SSI) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To lower the incidence of SSI, antimicrobial prophylaxis is given 30-60 min before certain types of surgeries in both human and veterinary patients. However, due to the increasing concern of antimicrobial resistance, the benefit of antimicrobial prophylaxis in clean orthopaedic and neurosurgeries warrants investigation. The aims of this retrospective cross-sectional study were to review the rate of SSI and evaluate the compliance with antimicrobial guidelines in dogs at a veterinary teaching hospital in 2012-2016. In addition, possible risk factors for SSI were assessed. Results Nearly all dogs (377/406; 92.9%) received antimicrobial prophylaxis. Twenty-nine dogs (7.1%) did not receive any antimicrobials and only four (1.1%) received postoperative antimicrobials. The compliance with in-house and national protocols was excellent regarding the choice of prophylactic antimicrobial (cefazolin), but there was room for improvement in the timing of prophylaxis administration. Follow-up data was available for 89.4% (363/406) of the dogs. Mean follow-up time was 464 days (range: 3-2600 days). The overall SSI rate was 6.3%: in orthopaedic surgeries it was 6.7%, and in neurosurgeries it was 4.2%. The lowest SSI rates (0%) were seen in extracapsular repair of cranial cruciate ligament rupture, ulnar ostectomy, femoral head and neck excision, arthrotomy and coxofemoral luxation repair. The highest SSI rate (25.0%) was seen in arthrodesis. Omission of antimicrobials did not increase the risk for SSI (P = 0.56; OR 1.7; CI(95%)0.4-5.0). Several risk factors for SSI were identified, including methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus pseudintermediuscarriage (P = 0.02; OR 9.0; CI(95%)1.4-57.9) and higher body temperature (P = 0.03; OR 1.69; CI(95%)1.0-2.7; mean difference + 0.4 degrees C compared to dogs without SSI). Conclusions Antimicrobial prophylaxis without postoperative antimicrobials is sufficient to maintain the overall rate of SSI at a level similar to published data in canine clean orthopedic and neurosurgeries.
  • Autio, Karoliina P. M.; Ruotsalainen, Janne J.; Anttila, Marjukka O.; Niittykoski, Minna; Waris, Matti; Hemminki, Akseli; Vähä-Koskela, Markus J. V.; Hinkkanen, Ari E. (2015)
    Background: Dogs suffer from spontaneous tumors which may be amenable to therapies developed for human cancer patients, and dogs may serve as large-animal cancer models. A non-pathogenic Semliki Forest virus vector VA7-EGFP previously showed promise in targeting human tumor xenografts in mice, but the oncolytic capacity of the virus in canine cancer cells and the safety of the virus in higher mammals such as dogs, are not known. We therefore assessed the oncolytic potency of VA7-EGFP against canine cancer cells by infectivity and viability assays in two dog solid tumor cell lines. Furthermore we performed a 3-week safety study in two adult Beagles which received a single intravenous injection of similar to 2 x 10(5) plaque forming units of parental A7(74) strain. Results: VA7-EGFP was able to replicate in and kill both canine cancer cell lines tested. No adverse events were observed in either of the two virus-injected adult Beagles and no infective virus could be recovered from any of the biological samples collected over the course of the study. Neutralizing antibodies to Semliki Forest virus became detectable in the dogs at 5 days post infection and remained elevated until study termination. Conclusions: Based on these results, testing of the oncolytic potential of attenuated Semliki Forest virus in canine cancer patients appears feasible.
  • Viitanen, S. J.; Lappalainen, A.; Rajamaki, M. M. (2015)
    BackgroundBacterial pneumonia (BP) is an inflammation of the lower airways and lung parenchyma secondary to bacterial infection. The pathogenesis of BP in dogs is complex and the role of canine respiratory viruses has not been fully evaluated. ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of viral co-infections in dogs with BP and to assess demographic or clinical variables as well as disease severity associated with viral co-infections. AnimalsTwenty household dogs with BP caused by opportunistic bacteria and 13 dogs with chronic (>30days) tracheobronchitis caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica (BBTB). MethodsProspective cross-sectional observational study. Diagnosis was confirmed by clinical and laboratory findings, diagnostic imaging, and cytologic and microbiologic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage or transtracheal wash fluid. Canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine adenovirus, canine herpes virus, canine influenzavirus, canine distemper virus, canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) and canine pneumovirus, as well as B.bronchiseptica and Mycoplasma spp. were analyzed in respiratory samples using PCR assays. ResultsCPIV was detected in 7/20 and CRCoV in 1/20 dogs with BP. Respiratory viruses were not detected in dogs with BBTB. There were no significant differences in clinical variables between BP dogs with and without a viral co-infection. Conclusion and Clinical ImportanceRespiratory viruses were found frequently in dogs with BP and may therefore play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of BP. Clinical variables and disease severity did not differ between BP dogs with and without viral co-infection.
  • Toresson, L.; Steiner, J. M.; Razdan, P.; Spodsberg, E.; Olmedal, G.; Suchodolski, J. S.; Spillmann, T. (2018)
    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacies of parenteral and oral cobalamin supplementation protocols in dogs with chronic enteropathies and low cobalamin concentrations. It was hypothesised that both treatments would increase serum cobalamin concentrations significantly. Fifty-three dogs with chronic enteropathies and serum cobalamin concentrations <285 ng/L (reference interval 244-959 ng/L) were enrolled. Dogs were randomised to treatment with either daily oral cobalamin tablets (0.25-1.0 mg cyanocobalamin daily according to body weight) or parenteral cobalamin (0.4-1.2 mg hydroxycobalamin according to body weight). Serum cobalamin concentrations were analysed 28 +/- 5 days and 90 +/- 15 days after initiation of supplementation. After 28 days, all dogs had serum cobalamin concentrations within the reference interval or above. In the parenteral group (n = 26), median (range) cobalamin concentrations were 228 (150-285) ng/L at inclusion, 2107 (725-10,009) ng/L after 28 days and 877 (188-1267) ng/L after 90 days. In the oral group (n = 27), median (range) serum cobalamin concentrations were 245 (150-285) ng/L at inclusion, 975 (564-2385) ng/L after 28 days and 1244 (738-4999) ng/L after 90 days. In both groups, there were significant differences in serum cobalamin concentrations between baseline and 28 days, and between 28 days and 90 days (P <0.001). In conclusion, both parenteral and oral cobalamin supplementation effectively increase serum cobalamin concentrations in dogs with chronic enteropathies and low cobalamin concentrations. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Virtanen, Juhani; Leivo, Joni; Vehkaoja, Antti; Somppi, Sanni; Tornqvist, Heini; Fiedler, Patrique; Vaataja, Heli; Surakka, Veikko (ACM, 2018)
    Measuring the heart rate of animals is an important area of research which can be applied to numerous analyses. In this work we evaluate the performance of two dry contact electrocardiogram (ECG) electrode structures for monitoring the heart rate of domestic pets. The aim was to improve the operation of previously evaluated electrodes with some modifications. First, the thirty-pins of a previously studied polymer electrode with a silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) coating were reduced to 12. Second, a 12-pin gold-plated metal electrode was coated with poly (3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT: PSS). These electrodes were attached to a specifically designed measurement harness and the performance of the electrodes was evaluated in terms of heartbeat detection coverage. The heart rate coverage was measured during four different behaviors: standing, sitting, lying, and walking (N=27/activity). The results were, in general, comparable to the previously reported performance but having fewer pins on a polymer electrode seemed to cause more variation in the coverage values. However, when measures such as the median value of the coverages are considered, there was no obvious difference, especially when the coverage values were observed altogether. Thus, new electrode solutions are worthy of further research.
  • Hoglund, K.; Lequarre, A. -S.; Ljungvall, I.; Mc Entee, K.; Merveille, A. -C.; Wiberg, M.; Gouni, V.; Willesen, J. Lundgren; Hanas, S.; Wess, G.; Sorensen, L. Mejer; Tiret, L.; Kierczak, M.; Forsberg, S. K. G.; Seppälä, E.; Lindblad-Toh, K.; Lohi, H.; Chetboul, V.; Fredholm, M.; Haggstrom, J. (2016)
    BackgroundThere are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs. ObjectiveInvestigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration. AnimalsFive-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined at 5 centers (2-4 breeds/center). MethodsProspective observational study. Circulating concentrations of ET-1 and cortisol, and renin activity, were measured using commercially available assays. Absence of organ-related or systemic disease was ensured by thorough clinical investigations, including blood pressure measurement, echocardiography, ECG, blood and urine analysis. ResultsMedian ET-1 concentration was 1.29 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.97-1.82) pg/mL, median cortisol concentration 46.0 (IQR, 29.0-80.8) nmol/L, and median renin activity 0.73 (IQR, 0.48-1.10) ng/mL/h in all dogs. Overall, breed differences were found in ET-1 and cortisol concentrations, and renin activity (P <.0001 for all). Pair-wise comparisons between breeds differed in 67% of comparisons for ET-1, 22% for cortisol, and 19% for renin activity, respectively. Within centers, breed differences were found at 5/5 centers for ET-1, 4/5 centers for cortisol, and 2/5 centers for renin activity. Newfoundlands had highest median ET-1 concentration, 3 times higher than Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, Doberman Pinschers, and Dachshunds. Median renin activity was highest in Dachshunds, twice the median value in Newfoundlands and Boxers. Median cortisol concentration was highest in Finnish Lapphunds, almost 3 times higher than in Boxers. Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceBreed variation might be important to take into consideration when interpreting test results in clinical studies.
  • Kallio-Kujala, I. J.; Bennett, R. C.; Raekallio, M. R.; Yatkin, E.; Meierjohann, A.; Savontaus, E.; Scheinin, M.; Spillmann, T.; Vainio, O. M. (2018)
    The commonly used sedative alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine has adverse cardiovascular effects in dogs that can be prevented by concomitant administration of the peripherally acting alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist MK-467. An ancillary effect of dexmedetomidine is to decrease insulin release from the pancreas, whereas MK-467 stimulates insulin release. This study assessed the effects of co-administered dexmedetomidine and MK-467 in a canine glibenclamide-induced hypoglycaemia model. In a randomised, cross-over experiment, eight beagle dogs received five intravenous treatments, comprising two administrations of saline, with dexmedetomidine or dexmedetomidine and MK-467, and three administrations of glibenclamide, with saline, dexmedetomidine or dexmedetomidine and MK-467. Plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, insulin, glucagon and the test drugs were monitored. Administration of glibenclamide significantly increased insulin secretion and decreased blood glucose concentrations. Dexmedetomidine counteracted glibenclamide-evoked hypoglycaemia. This was opposed by the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist MK-467, but the glibenclamide-evoked hypoglycaemia was not potentiated by co-administration of dexmedetomidine and MK-467. None of the dogs developed uncontrolled hypoglycaemia. Thus, the combination of dexmedetomidine and MK-467 appeared to be safe in this canine hypoglycaemia model. Nevertheless, when MK-467 is used to alleviate the undesired cardiovascular effects of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists in dogs, it should be used with caution in animals at risk for hypoglycaemia because of its insulin-releasing and hypoglycaemic effects. (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Lappalainen, Anu Katriina; Mäki, Katariina; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi (2015)
    Background: Intervertebral disc disease (IDD) is a hereditary condition particularly common in Dachshunds. The breed is predisposed to early intervertebral disc degeneration and intervertebral disc calcification (IDC). When calcified, these severely degenerated discs are visible in spinal radiographs. Since the number of calcified discs (NCD) is associated with IDD, spinal radiography can be utilized in screening programmes in attempts to diminish the incidence of IDD in Dachshunds. Our aims were to estimate the heritability and genetic trend of NCD in Dachshunds in Finland and to explore the effect of age at the time of radiographic screening. Since the NCD has a highly skewed distribution, a log-transformed NCD (lnNCD) was also used as an analysed trait. The variance components for both traits were estimated, using the restricted maximum likelihood method. The fixed effects of breed variant, sex, as well as year of screening and the random effects of litter and animal were included in the model. The genetic trends in the NCD and lnNCD were assessed from the estimated breeding values (EBVs) of individual dogs by comparing the mean EBV of dogs born in different years. The breeding values were estimated, using the best linear unbiased prediction animal model. The pedigree in the genetic analyses included a total of 9027 dogs, of which 1567 showed results for NCDs. Results: The heritability estimates of the NCD and lnNCD in Dachshunds were high (0.53 and 0.45, respectively). Small genetic improvements were seen as the mean EBVs increased from 100 to 104 and 105 over a 15-year period. The gain in the entire Dachshund population in Finland may differ from that observed, since less than 10 % of the Dachshunds registered have a screening result for NCD. Age at the time of the screening did not significantly affect the NCD or lnNCD. Conclusions: We recommend systematic radiographic screening for IDC in Dachshunds and adopting EBVs as a tool for selecting breeding dogs. Age at the time of the radiographic screening may not be as important as previously suggested.
  • Tamminen, Tuire; Sahlin, Lena; Masironi-Malm, B.; Dahlbom, Merja; Katila, Terttu; Taponen, Juhani; Vapaavuori, Outi (2019)
    This study aimed to examine the etiology of canine dystocia by measuring the relative expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) mRNA and the concentration of serum progesterone, plasma PGF(2 alpha) metabolite (PGFM), and blood ionized calcium (iCa) near term and in dystocia. Altogether 58 bitches were included in this study, 41 of which underwent cesarean section (CS). The four CS groups were based on history: complete uterine inertia (CUI; n = 7), partial uterine inertia (PUI; n = 13), obstructive dystocia (OD; n = 10), and elective cesarean section (ECS; n = 11). An additional group of medically treated dystocia without CS (MD; n = 8) and a control group (C; n = 9) with normal parturition (without CS and medical treatment) were also formed. Blood samples were taken prior to CS or medical treatment. Progesterone concentrations were highest in the ECS and a significant difference (p <0.05) was observed between the ECS and the OD and between the ECS and the combined dystocia (CUI, PUI, OD, MD) groups (COMB). Highest concentrations of PGFM was observed in the C, the difference being significant (p <0.05) between the C and the ECS and between the C and the COMB group. The progesterone:PGFM ratio was significantly (p <0.05) higher in the ECS than in the C and the COMB group. No significant difference (p> 0.05) was observed in iCa concentrations between the groups. Relative OXTR mRNA expression was evaluated with real-time PCR from full-thickness uterine samples taken from the incision site during CS. The expression was highest in the ECS and the difference in expression was significant (p <0.05) between the ECS and the OD and between ECS and the combined dystocia (CUI, PUI, OD) groups (COMB2). The study supports previous reports of decreasing progesterone and increasing PGFM during prepartum luteolysis. Upregulation of OXTR occurs near term. In obstructive dystocia, a prolonged influence of oxytocin and uterine exhaustion may lead to downregulation of OXTR. Complete primary uterine inertia may have a different etiology as no clear decrease in OXTR was observed in CUI as in OD. It remains unclear if parturition ceases because of uterine inertia or if uterine inertia occurs because of ceased parturition and desensitization of receptors. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Frosini, S-M; Bond, R.; Rantala, M.; Grönthal, T.; Rankin, S. C; O’Shea, K.; Timofte, D.; Schmidt, V.; Lindsay, J.; Loeffler, A. (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Concern exists that frequent use of topically-applied fusidic acid (FA) and chlorhexidine (CHX) for canine pyoderma is driving clinically relevant resistance, despite rare description of FA and CHX genetic resistance determinants in canine-derived staphylococci. This study aimed to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and investigate presence of putative resistance determinants for FA and CHX in canine-derived methicillin-resistant (MR) and -susceptible (MS) staphylococci. Plasmid-mediated resistance genes (fusB, fusC, fusD, qacA/B, smr; PCR) and MICs (agar dilution) of FA and CHX were investigated in 578 staphylococci (50 MR S. aureus [SA], 50 MSSA, 259 MR S. pseudintermedius [SP], 219 MSSP) from Finland, U.S.A., North (NUK) and South-East U.K. (SEUK) and Germany. In all isolates with FA MIC ≥64 mg/L (n = 27) fusA and fusE were amplified and sequenced. Results FA resistance determinants (fusA mutations n = 24, fusB n = 2, fusC n = 36) were found in isolates from all countries bar U.S.A. and correlated with higher MICs (≥1 mg/L), although 4 SP isolates had MICs of 0.06 mg/L despite carrying fusC. CHX MICs did not correlate with qacA/B (n = 2) and smr (n = 5), which were found in SEUK SA, and SP from NUK and U.S.A. Conclusions Increased FA MICs were frequently associated with fusA mutations and fusC, and this is the first account of fusB in SP. Despite novel description of qacA/B in SP, gene presence did not correlate with CHX MIC. Selection pressure from clinical use might increase prevalence of these genetic determinants, but clinical significance remains uncertain in relation to high skin concentrations achieved by topical therapy.
  • Jokinen, Olli; Appleby, David; Sandbacka-Saxen, Sofi; Appleby, Tuulia; Valros, Anna (2017)
    Homing puppies before 8 weeks has been associated with lower instance of avoidance and types of aggression in adult dogs. The current study aimed to further assess the impact of homing age on these behaviours in adult dogs. Finnish dogs provide an interesting population for this further study, as based on the clinical experience of the co-authors, puppies in Finland are predominantly reared in domestic maternal environments before first homing, which was not the case in the countries where previous studies have been performed. Online questionnaire-based data on frequencies of problematic behaviours (n = 3689) were analysed using Chi-Square, comparing adult dogs homed at 6-7 weeks (6-7), 8 weeks (8), 9-12 weeks (9-12) and 13-16 weeks (13-16). 31% were 6-7, 41% 8, 23% 9-12, 5% 13-16. If an overall association was observed, pairwise comparisons between homing age groups were conducted. All of the dogs included in the study came from domestic maternal environments, where the puppies were kept in the breeders' living quarters. Homing age was associated with avoiding, growling and snapping at unfamiliar people when away from the home environment (p = 0.004, p = 0.02 and p = 0.008, respectively); avoiding, barking at, growling at and snapping at unfamiliar people visiting the home (p = 0.02, p = 0.02, p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively) and barking at unfamiliar dogs when away from the home environment (p = 0.001). With one exception, dogs homed later than 8 weeks, namely during weeks 9-12 and 13-16, had higher than expected prevalence of avoidance and aggressive behaviour than dogs homed at other ages. The exception being that for the measure, barking at unfamiliar dogs away from the home environment, there were higher than expected values in dogs homed at 8 and 13-16 weeks and lower in dogs homed at 6-7 and 9-12 weeks. This research supports the view that homing age is associated with instances of avoidance behaviour and some types of aggression in adult dogs.
  • Höglund, K.; Häggström, J.; Hanås, S.; Merveille, A. -C.; Gouni, V.; Wiberg, M.; Willesen, J. Lundgren; Mc Entee, K.; Sorensen, L. Mejer; Tiret, L.; Seppälä, E. H.; Lohi, H.; Chetboul, V.; Fredholm, M.; Lequarre, A. -S.; Ljungvall, I. (2018)
    Introduction: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has several biological functions. In different species, excessive 5-HT has been linked to valvular lesions, similar to those seen in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease. Previous studies suggest higher 5-HT in healthy Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs), a breed highly affected by myxomatous mitral valve disease, compared to other breeds. Objective: To investigate potential interbreed variation in serum 5-HT in healthy dogs. Animals: 483 healthy dogs of nine breeds aged 1-7 years. Methods: Dogs were examined at five European centers. Absence of cardiovascular, organ-related, or systemic diseases was ensured by thorough clinical investigations including echocardiography. Serum was frozen and later analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Median 5-HT concentration was 252.5 (interquartile range = 145.5-390.6) ng/mL. Overall breed difference was found (p Conclusions: Interbreed variation in serum 5-HT concentration was found in healthy dogs aged 1-7 years. These differences should be taken into account when designing clinical studies. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Piirainen, Kirsi Johanna; Viitanen, Sanna Johanna; Lappalainen, Anu Katriina; Mölsä, Sari Helena (2018)
    Background: Tracheal tumors are rarely diagnosed in veterinary medicine and the majority of tracheal neoplasia reported in adult dogs are malignant. Intratracheal lipoma has not been previously reported in the veterinary literature. Case presentation: A 7-year-old Briard dog was evaluated for inspiratory dyspnoea and an inspiratory wheeze. Cervical radiographs and tracheoscopic examination revealed an intratracheal mass that was surgically removed. The dog has been asymptomatic after the surgery. Conclusions: Based on histopathology, the mass was diagnosed as lipoma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published report of an intratracheal lipoma in the veterinary literature.
  • Piirainen, Kirsi J; Viitanen, Sanna J; Lappalainen, Anu K; Mölsä, Sari H (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Tracheal tumors are rarely diagnosed in veterinary medicine and the majority of tracheal neoplasia reported in adult dogs are malignant. Intratracheal lipoma has not been previously reported in the veterinary literature. Case presentation A 7-year-old Briard dog was evaluated for inspiratory dyspnoea and an inspiratory wheeze. Cervical radiographs and tracheoscopic examination revealed an intratracheal mass that was surgically removed. The dog has been asymptomatic after the surgery. Conclusions Based on histopathology, the mass was diagnosed as lipoma. To the authors‘ knowledge, this is the first published report of an intratracheal lipoma in the veterinary literature.
  • Haggstrom, J.; Boswood, A.; O'Grady, M.; Joens, O.; Smith, S.; Swift, S.; Borgarelli, M.; Gavaghan, B.; Kresken, J. -G.; Patteson, M.; Ablad, B.; Bussadori, C. M.; Glaus, T.; Kovacevic, A.; Rapp, M.; Santilli, R. A.; Tidholm, A.; Eriksson, A.; Belanger, M. C.; Deinert, M.; Little, C. J. L.; Kvart, C.; French, A.; Ronn-Landbo, M.; Wess, G.; Eggertsdottir, A.; O'Sullivan, M. Lynne; Schneider, M.; Lombard, C. W.; Dukes-McEwan, J.; Willis, R.; Louvet, A.; DiFruscia, R. (2013)