Browsing by Subject "Cardiovascular disease"

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  • Vuori, Matti A.; Harald, Kennet; Jula, Antti; Valsta, Liisa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Salomaa, Veikko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Niiranen, Teemu J. (2020)
    Aims: The objective was to evaluate whether sodium intake, assessed with the gold standard 24-h urinary collections, was related to long-term incidence of death, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods:A cohort of 4630 individuals aged 25-64 years collected 24-h urine samples in 1979-2002 and were followed up to 14 years for the incidence of any CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, heart failure (HF) and DM event, and death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between the baseline salt intake and incident events and adjusted for baseline age, body mass index, serum cholesterol, prevalent DM, and stratified by sex and cohort baseline year. Results: During the follow-up, we observed 423 deaths, 424 CVD events (288 CHD events, 142 strokes, 139 HF events) and 161 DM events. Compared with the highest quartile of salt intake, persons in the lowest quartile had a lower incidence of CVD (hazard ratio [HR] 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.95,p = .02), CHD (HR 0.63 [95% CI 0.42-0.94],p = .02) and DM (HR 0.52 [95% CI 0.31-0.87],p = .01). The results were non-significant for mortality, HF, and stroke. Conclusion: High sodium intake is associated with an increased incidence of CVD and DM.
  • GBD 2015 Eastern Mediterranean Reg (2018)
    To report the burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) during 1990-2015. We used the 2015 Global Burden of Disease study for estimates of mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of different CVD in 22 countries of EMR. A total of 1.4 million CVD deaths (95% UI: 1.3-1.5) occurred in 2015 in the EMR, with the highest number of deaths in Pakistan (465,116) and the lowest number of deaths in Qatar (723). The age-standardized DALY rate per 100,000 decreased from 10,080 in 1990 to 8606 in 2015 (14.6% decrease). Afghanistan had the highest age-standardized DALY rate of CVD in both 1990 and 2015. Kuwait and Qatar had the lowest age-standardized DALY rates of CVD in 1990 and 2015, respectively. High blood pressure, high total cholesterol, and high body mass index were the leading risk factors for CVD. The age-standardized DALY rates in the EMR are considerably higher than the global average. These findings call for a comprehensive approach to prevent and control the burden of CVD in the region.
  • Framke, Elisabeth; Sorensen, Jeppe Karl; Andersen, Per Kragh; Svane-Petersen, Annemette Coop; Alexanderson, Kristina; Bonde, Jens Peter; Farrants, Kristin; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Nyberg, Solja T.; Villadsen, Ebbe; Kivimäki, Mika; Rugulies, Reiner; Madsen, Ida E. H. (2020)
    Aims We examined the extent to which associations between education and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality are attributable to income and work stress. Methods and results We included all employed Danish residents aged 30-59 years in 2000. Cardiovascular disease morbidity analyses included 1 638 270 individuals, free of cardiometabolic disease (CVD or diabetes). Mortality analyses included 41 944 individuals with cardiometabolic disease. We assessed education and income annually from population registers and work stress, defined as job strain, with a job-exposure matrix. Outcomes were ascertained until 2014 from health registers and risk was estimated using Cox regression. During 10 957 399 (men) and 10 776 516 person-years (women), we identified 51 585 and 24 075 incident CVD cases, respectively. For men with low education, risk of CVD was 1.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.58-1.66] before and 1.46 (95% CI 1.42-1.50) after adjustment for income and job strain (25% reduction). In women, estimates were 1.66 (95% CI 1.61-1.72) and 1.53 (95% CI 1.47-1.58) (21% reduction). Of individuals with cardiometabolic disease, 1736 men (362 234 personyears) and 341 women (179 402 person-years) died from CVD. Education predicted CVD mortality in both sexes. Estimates were reduced with 54% (men) and 33% (women) after adjustment for income and job strain. Conclusion Low education predicted incident CVD in initially healthy individuals and CVD mortality in individuals with prevalent cardiometabolic disease. In men with cardiometabolic disease, income and job strain explained half of the higher CVD mortality in the tow education group. In healthy men and in women regardless of cardiometabolic disease, these factors explained 21-33% of the higher CVD morbidity and mortality.
  • Vähämurto, Lauri; Pahkala, Katja; Magnussen, Costan G.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Tossavainen, Päivi; Lehtimäki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Telama, Risto; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T. (2019)
    Background and aims: In the 1960s and 1970s, Finland, mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD) was over 30% higher among Finns residing in the east of the country compared with those residing in the west. Today, CHD mortality remains 20% higher among eastern Finns. The higher incidence of CHD mortality among eastern Finns has largely been explained by higher risk factor levels. Using a unique longitudinal cohort, we aimed to determine if participants who resided in eastern Finland during childhood had higher CHD risk factors in adulthood and from childhood to adulthood. Methods: The study population included 2063 participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, born during the period 1962-1977, with risk factor data available from baseline (1980) when participants were aged 3-18 years, and had risk factor data collected again in adulthood (2011) when aged 34-49 years. Results: Adult CHD risk factor profile was similar for those who resided in eastern or western Finland in childhood. Over life-course from 1980 to 2011, those subjects with childhood residency in eastern Finland had, on average, higher systolic (p = 0.006) and diastolic (p = 0.0009) blood pressures, total (p = 0.01) and LDLcholesterol (p = 0.01), triglycerides (p = 0.04), apoB (p = 0.02), and serum glucose (p Conclusions: Our sample of adult Finns aged 34-49 years had a similar CHD risk factor profile irrespective of whether they resided in eastern or western Finland during their childhood. However, when considering participants risk factor profiles over a 31-year period, those who resided in eastern Finland in childhood were associated with a less favorable CHD risk factor profile than those who resided in western Finland in childhood. The observed differences suggest that future CHD mortality might remain higher in eastern Finland compared with western Finland.
  • Iozzo, Patricia; Holmes, Megan; Schmidt, Mathias V.; Cirulli, Francesca; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Berry, Alessandra; Balsevich, Georgia; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Wesselink, Jan-Jaap; Liistro, Tiziana; Gomez-Puertas, Paulino; Eriksson, Johan G.; Seckl, Jonathan (2014)
  • Vornanen, Marleena; Konttinen, Hanna; Peltonen, Markku; Haukkala, Ari (2021)
    Background Perceived disease risk may reflect actual risk indicators and/or motivation to change lifestyle. Yet, few longitudinal studies have assessed how perceived risk relates to risk indicators among different disease risk groups. We examined in a 5-year follow-up, whether perceived risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease predicted physical activity, body mass index (BMI kg/m(2)), and blood glucose level, or the reverse. We examined further whether perceived risk, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs together predicted changes in these risk indicators. Method Participants were high diabetes risk participants (N = 432) and low/moderate-risk participants (N = 477) from the national FINRISK 2002 study who were followed up in 2007. Both study phases included questionnaires and health examinations with individual feedback letters. Data were analyzed using gender- and age-adjusted structural equation models. Results In cross-lagged autoregressive models, perceived risks were not found to predict 5-year changes in physical activity, BMI, or 2-h glucose. In contrast, higher BMI and 2-h glucose predicted 5-year increases in perceived risks (beta-values 0.07-0.15,P-values <0.001-0.138). These associations were similar among high- and low/moderate-risk samples. In further structural equation models, higher self-efficacy predicted increased physical activity among both samples (beta-values 0.10-0.16,P-values 0.005-0.034). Higher outcome beliefs predicted lower BMI among the low/moderate-risk sample (beta-values - 0.04 to - 0.05,P-values 0.008-0.011). Conclusion Perceived risk of chronic disease rather follows risk indicators than predicts long-term lifestyle changes. To promote sustained lifestyle changes, future intervention studies need to examine the best ways to combine risk feedback with efficient behavior change techniques.
  • Finndiane Study Grp (2018)
    Aims/hypothesisThe aim of this study was to assess the potential dose-dependent effects of smoking on the risk of CHD, heart failure and stroke in individuals with type 1 diabetes.MethodsThe study included 4506 individuals with type 1 diabetes who were participating in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) study. Intensity of smoking was estimated by packs per day and cumulative smoking by pack-years. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the risk of incident CHD, heart failure or stroke during follow-up.ResultsOne pack per day significantly increased the risk of incident CHD in current smokers compared with never smokers (HR 1.45 [95% CI 1.15, 1.84]), after adjustment for age, sex, HbA(1c), hypertension, duration of diabetes and BMI. The risk of CHD in former smokers was similar to the risk in never smokers. The risk of incident heart failure was 1.43 (95% CI 1.03, 1.97) in current smokers per one pack per day and 1.37 (95% CI 1.05, 1.77) in former smokers, while the risk of incident stroke was 1.70 (95% CI 1.26, 2.29) and 1.49 (95% CI 1.14, 1.93), respectively. After further adjustments for lipids, however, the difference in the risk of heart failure in current and former smokers was no longer significant. Cumulative smoking data were similar to smoking intensity data.Conclusions/interpretationThere is a dose-dependent association between smoking and cardiovascular disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes. In men in particular, the risk of incident stroke remains high even after smoking cessation and is increased in current and former smokers independently of other risk factors.
  • Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Rod, Naja H.; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Ferrie, Jane; Shipley, Martin; Kivimäki, Mika; Westerlund, Hugo (2020)
    Job insecurity has been linked to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Our aim was to assess the extent to which this association is mediated through life style, physiological, or psychological factors. A total of 3917 men and women free from CHD provided data on job insecurity in the Whitehall II cohort study in 1997-1999. The association between job insecurity and CHD was decomposed into a direct and indirect effect mediated through unhealthy behaviors (smoking, high alcohol consumption, physical inactivity), sleep disturbances, 'allostatic load', or psychological distress. The counterfactual analyses on psychological distress indicated a marginally significant association between job insecurity and incident CHD (hazard ratio (HR) 1.32; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.75). This association was decomposed into a direct (HR 1.22, 95 %CI 0.92-1.63) and indirect association (1.08, 95 %CI 1.01-1.15), suggesting that about 30 % of the total relationship was mediated by psychological distress. No mediation was indicated via health behaviors, sleep disturbances, or allostatic load, although job insecurity was related to disturbed sleep and C-reactive protein, which, in turn were associated with CHD. In conclusion, our results suggest that psychological distress may play a role in the relation between job insecurity and CHD.
  • Ference, Brian A.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Graham, Ian; Ray, Kausik K.; Packard, Chris J.; Bruckert, Eric; Hegele, Robert A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Raal, Frederick J.; Schunkert, Heribert; Watts, Gerald F.; Boren, Jan; Fazio, Sergio; Horton, Jay D.; Masana, Luis; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; van de Sluis, Bart; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Landmesser, Ulf; Laufs, Ulrich; Wiklund, Olov; Stock, Jane K.; Chapman, M. John; Catapano, Alberico L. (2017)
    Aims To appraise the clinical and genetic evidence that low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Methods and results We assessed whether the association between LDL and ASCVD fulfils the criteria for causality by evaluating the totality of evidence from genetic studies, prospective epidemiologic cohort studies, Mendelian randomization studies, and randomized trials of LDL-lowering therapies. In clinical studies, plasma LDL burden is usually estimated by determination of plasma LDL cholesterol level (LDL-C). Rare genetic mutations that cause reduced LDL receptor function lead to markedly higher LDL-C and a dose-dependent increase in the risk of ASCVD, whereas rare variants leading to lower LDL-C are associated with a correspondingly lower risk of ASCVD. Separate meta-analyses of over 200 prospective cohort studies, Mendelian randomization studies, and randomized trials including more than 2 million participants with over 20 million person-years of follow-up and over 150 000 cardiovascular events demonstrate a remarkably consistent dose-dependent log-linear association between the absolute magnitude of exposure of the vasculature to LDL-C and the risk of ASCVD; and this effect appears to increase with increasing duration of exposure to LDL-C. Both the naturally randomized genetic studies and the randomized intervention trials consistently demonstrate that any mechanism of lowering plasma LDL particle concentration should reduce the risk of ASCVD events proportional to the absolute reduction in LDL-C and the cumulative duration of exposure to lower LDL-C, provided that the achieved reduction in LDL-C is concordant with the reduction in LDL particle number and that there are no competing deleterious off-target effects. Conclusion Consistent evidence from numerous and multiple different types of clinical and genetic studies unequivocally establishes that LDL causes ASCVD.
  • Immonen, Tiia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Matriksin metalloproteinaasi-8 on pääasiassa ihmisen yleisimpien valkosolujen eli neutrofiilien tuottama entsyymi. MMP-8 varastoidaan solunsisäisissä rakkuloissa ja se vaatii aktivaation toimiakseen. Sen tehtävänä on mahdollistaa neutrofiilien kulku tulehdusalueelle soluväliainetta muokkaamalla. Aktivoitu MMP-8 pilkkoo tyypin I kollageenia ja muita soluväliaineen rakenneosia. MMP-8 on mukana monissa fysiologisissa ja patologisissa prosesseissa, kuten haavan paranemisessa, sikiön kehityksessä, sekä monissa sairauksissa kuten parodontiitissa ja sydän- ja verisuonisairauksissa ja syövässä. Tämän kirjallisuuskatsauksen tarkoituksena on selvittää MMP-8:n molekyylibiologista taustaa, kuten rakennetta, toimintaa ja genetiikkaa sekä MMP-8:n hyödyntämistä diagnostiikassa. Tieteelliset artikkelit kirjallisuuskatsaukseen kerättiin PubMed – tietokannasta. MMP-8:n toiminnan ymmärtäminen on olennaista, sillä se on selkeä edistävä tekijä monissa vakavissa sairauksissa. Tieteellisiä tutkimuksia MMP-8:sta löytyy vuosikymmenien ajalta ja ne vahvistavat käsitystä MMP-8:n laaja-alaisesta toiminnasta. Molekyylin eritys ja aktivaatio on tarkasti säädeltyä ja rajoitettu lähinnä tulehdusalueille. MMP-8:n estäjänä voi toimia TIMP (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase) – proteiiniperheen lisäksi muun muassa tetrasykliini-ryhmään kuuluvat antibiootit, kuten doksisykliini. MMP-8:n genetiikan tutkimus on vasta aluillaan, mutta joitain yhteyksiä MMP-8:n geenin variaatioiden eli polymorfismien ja parodontiitin ja peri-implantiitin välillä on kyetty löytämään. Tutkijat ovatkin kiinnostuneet MMP-8:sta diagnostisena apuvälineenä, mutta lisää tutkimusta aiheesta tarvitaan. MMP-8:aan liittyvää lisätutkimusta tarvitaan erityisesti, jotta elimistön eri nesteistä mitattavaa MMP-8-konsentraatiota voidaan soveltaa laajamittaisesti kliiniseen käyttöön eri tautitiloissa.
  • Coleman, Ruth L.; Scott, Charles A. B.; Lang, Zhihui; Bethel, M. Angelyn; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Holman, Rury R. (2019)
    Background Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) have been shown to reduce incident type 2 diabetes but their impact on cardiovascular (CV) disease remains controversial. We sought to identify the overall impact of AGIs with respect to incident type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and CV outcomes in those with IGT or type 2 diabetes. Methods We used PubMed and SCOPUS to identify randomized controlled trials reporting the incidence of type 2 diabetes and/or CV outcomes that had compared AGIs with placebo in populations with IGT or type 2 diabetes, with or without established CV disease. Eligible studies were required to have >= 500 participants and/or >= 100 endpoints of interest. Meta-analyses of available trial data were performed using random effects models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident type 2 diabetes and CV outcomes. Results Of ten trials identified, three met our inclusion criteria for incident type 2 diabetes and four were eligible for CV outcomes. The overall HR (95% CI) comparing AGI with placebo for incident type 2 diabetes was 0.77 (0.67-0.88), p <0.0001, and for CV outcomes was 0.98 (0.89-1.10), p = 0.85. There was little to no heterogeneity between studies, with I-2 values of 0.03% (p = 0.43) and 0% (p = 0.79) for the two outcomes respectively. Conclusions Allocation of people with IGT to an AGI significantly reduced their risk of incident type 2 diabetes by 23%, whereas in those with IGT or type 2 diabetes the impact on CV outcomes was neutral.
  • Coleman, Ruth L; Scott, Charles A B; Lang, Zhihui; Bethel, M. A; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Holman, Rury R (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) have been shown to reduce incident type 2 diabetes but their impact on cardiovascular (CV) disease remains controversial. We sought to identify the overall impact of AGIs with respect to incident type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and CV outcomes in those with IGT or type 2 diabetes. Methods We used PubMed and SCOPUS to identify randomized controlled trials reporting the incidence of type 2 diabetes and/or CV outcomes that had compared AGIs with placebo in populations with IGT or type 2 diabetes, with or without established CV disease. Eligible studies were required to have ≥ 500 participants and/or ≥ 100 endpoints of interest. Meta-analyses of available trial data were performed using random effects models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident type 2 diabetes and CV outcomes. Results Of ten trials identified, three met our inclusion criteria for incident type 2 diabetes and four were eligible for CV outcomes. The overall HR (95% CI) comparing AGI with placebo for incident type 2 diabetes was 0.77 (0.67–0.88), p < 0.0001, and for CV outcomes was 0.98 (0.89–1.10), p = 0.85. There was little to no heterogeneity between studies, with I2 values of 0.03% (p = 0.43) and 0% (p = 0.79) for the two outcomes respectively. Conclusions Allocation of people with IGT to an AGI significantly reduced their risk of incident type 2 diabetes by 23%, whereas in those with IGT or type 2 diabetes the impact on CV outcomes was neutral.
  • Litwin, Linda; Sundholm, Johnny K. M.; Rönö, Kristiina; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Sarkola, Taisto (2020)
    Aims We aimed to investigate associations between pre-pregnancy obesity, gestational diabetes (GDM), offspring body composition, and left ventricular diastolic and systolic function in early childhood. Methods This is an observational study, including 201 mother-child pairs originating from the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study (RADIEL; 96 with GDM, 128 with pre-pregnancy obesity) with follow-up from gestation to 6-year postpartum. Follow-up included dyads anthropometrics, body composition, blood pressure, and child left ventricular function with comprehensive echocardiography (conventional and strain imaging). Results Offspring left ventricular diastolic and systolic function was not associated with gestational glucose concentrations, GDM, or pregravida obesity. Child body fat percentage correlated with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI in the setting of maternal obesity (r = 0.23,P = 0.009). After adjusting for child lean body mass, age, sex, systolic BP, resting HR, maternal lean body mass, pre-gestational BMI, and GDM status, child left atrial volume increased by 0.3 ml (95% CI 0.1, 0.5) for each 1% increase in child body fat percentage. Conclusions No evidence of foetal cardiac programming related to GDM or maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was observed in early childhood. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with early weight gain. Child adiposity in early childhood is independently associated with increased left atrial volume, but its implications for long-term left ventricle diastolic function and cardiovascular health remain unknown.
  • Heikkila, Katriina; Coughlin, Patrick A.; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Halonen, Jaana (2019)
    Background and aims: Physical activity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and an important therapy in individuals with intermittent claudication. However, its role in the development of peripheral artery disease (PAD) is unclear. We have examined the evidence of the association between physical activity and development of PAD. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL Plus in August 2018 for original studies of physical activity and PAD. Studies reporting prevalence or incidence of PAD by categories of physical activity (an amount of activity per unit of time) were included. In addition, we analysed unpublished individual-level data from two register-linked cohort studies, Finnish Public Sector Study (n=63,924) and Whitehall II (n=10,200). Due to heterogeneity in the assessment of physical activity and PAD, we provide a qualitative synthesis of the findings. Results: Evidence from 18 studies (15 cross-sectional/case-control and 7 prospective studies) of the association between physical activity and PAD in total of 152,188 participants, including 3971 PAD patients, suggests that individuals with a diagnosis or clinical findings of PAD were less physically active, regardless of whether activity was self-reported or measured using accelerometers. The findings from the longitudinal studies point to more intense physical activity being associated with lower odds of developing PAD; however, the study-specific findings lacked power to precisely estimate this relationship. Conclusions: Individuals with PAD were less physically active than those without PAD. The longitudinal findings suggest that physical activity decreases the risk of PAD, although better powered studies are needed to confirm this.
  • Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J.; Akram, Asif; Seshasai, Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally; Cole, Della; Watts, Gerald F.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kastelein, John J. P.; Mata, Pedro; Raal, Frederick J.; Santos, Raul D.; Soran, Handrean; Freiberger, Tomas; Abifadel, Marianne; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Alnouri, Fahad; Alonso, Rodrigo; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Banach, Maciej; Bogsrud, Martin P.; Bourbon, Mafalda; Bruckert, Eric; Car, Josip; Ceska, Richard; Corral, Pablo; Descamps, Olivier; Dieplinger, Hans; Do, Can T.; Durst, Ronen; Ezhov, Marat V.; Fras, Zlatko; Gaita, Dan; Gaspar, Isabel M.; Genest, Jaques; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Jiang, Lixin; Kayikcioglu, Meral; Lam, Carolyn S. P.; Latkovskis, Gustavs; Laufs, Ulrich; Liberopoulos, Evangelos; Lin, Jie; Lin, Nan; Maher, Vincent; Majano, Nelson; Marais, A. David; Maerz, Winfried; Mirrakhimov, Erkin; Miserez, Andre R.; Mitchenko, Olena; Widen, Elisabeth; EAS Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (2016)
    Background: The potential for global collaborations to better inform public health policy regarding major non-hypercholesterolaemia (FH), a common genetic disorder associated with premature cardiovascular disease, is yet to be reliably ascertained using similar approaches. The European Atherosclerosis Society FH Studies Collaboration (EAS FHSC) is a new initiative of international stakeholders which will help establish a global FH registry to generate large-scale, robust data on the burden of FH worldwide. Methods: The EAS FHSC will maximise the potential exploitation of currently available and future FH data (retrospective and prospective) by bringing together regional/national/international data sources with access to individuals with a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of heterozygous or homozygous FH. A novel bespoke electronic platform and FH Data Warehouse will be developed to allow secure data sharing, validation, cleaning, pooling, harmonisation and analysis irrespective of the source or format. Standard statistical procedures will allow us to investigate cross-sectional associations, patterns of real-world practice, trends over time, and analyse risk and outcomes (e.g. cardiovascular outcomes, all-cause death), accounting for potential confounders and subgroup effects. Conclusions: The EAS FHSC represents an excellent opportunity to integrate individual efforts across the world to tackle the global burden of FH. The information garnered from the registry will help reduce gaps in knowledge, inform best practices, assist in clinical trials design, support clinical guidelines and policies development, and ultimately improve the care of FH patients. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • Karjalainen, Liisa; Tikkanen, Minna; Rantanen, Kirsi; Laivuori, Hannele; Gissler, Mika; Ijäs, Petra (2019)
    BackgroundPregnancy-associated stroke is a rare but life-threatening event, with an estimated incidence of 30/100000 deliveries. Data on the risk of stroke recurrence and the risk of other adverse pregnancy outcomes are essential for adequate counselling and surveillance in subsequent pregnancies. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the implications of a pregnancy-associated stroke for the future health of these women.MethodsWe searched Ovid Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and CINAHL for articles published in 1980-2018. Articles including women with pregnancy-associated stroke and information on at least one of the following outcomes were included: 1) recurrence of stroke during subsequent pregnancy, 2) number and course of subsequent pregnancies and their outcomes and 3) subsequent cardiovascular health.ResultsTwelve articles were included in the review, with six providing information on subsequent pregnancies, four on subsequent maternal health and two on both. The included articles varied greatly in terms of study design, length of follow up and reported outcomes. We found 252 women with pregnancy-associated stroke for whom the outcomes of interest were reported: 135 women with information on subsequent pregnancies and 123 women with information on future health. In total, 55 pregnancies after stroke were found. In the majority of studies, the incidence of pregnancy complications was comparable to that of the general population. The risk of stroke recurrence during pregnancy was 2%. Data on subsequent health of these women were limited, and the quality of the data varied between the studies.ConclusionsData on subsequent pregnancies and health of women with a history of pregnancy-associated stroke are limited. Further research on this topic is essential for adequate counselling and secondary prevention.
  • Karjalainen, Liisa; Tikkanen, Minna; Rantanen, Kirsi; Laivuori, Hannele; Gissler, Mika; Ijäs, Petra (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Pregnancy-associated stroke is a rare but life-threatening event, with an estimated incidence of 30/100000 deliveries. Data on the risk of stroke recurrence and the risk of other adverse pregnancy outcomes are essential for adequate counselling and surveillance in subsequent pregnancies. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the implications of a pregnancy-associated stroke for the future health of these women. Methods We searched Ovid Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and CINAHL for articles published in 1980–2018. Articles including women with pregnancy-associated stroke and information on at least one of the following outcomes were included: 1) recurrence of stroke during subsequent pregnancy, 2) number and course of subsequent pregnancies and their outcomes and 3) subsequent cardiovascular health. Results Twelve articles were included in the review, with six providing information on subsequent pregnancies, four on subsequent maternal health and two on both. The included articles varied greatly in terms of study design, length of follow up and reported outcomes. We found 252 women with pregnancy-associated stroke for whom the outcomes of interest were reported: 135 women with information on subsequent pregnancies and 123 women with information on future health. In total, 55 pregnancies after stroke were found. In the majority of studies, the incidence of pregnancy complications was comparable to that of the general population. The risk of stroke recurrence during pregnancy was 2%. Data on subsequent health of these women were limited, and the quality of the data varied between the studies. Conclusions Data on subsequent pregnancies and health of women with a history of pregnancy-associated stroke are limited. Further research on this topic is essential for adequate counselling and secondary prevention.
  • Dahlstrom, Emma; Sandholm, Niina (2017)
    Purpose of Review Diabetic complications affecting the kidneys, retina, nerves, and the cardiovasculature are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetes. This paper aims to review the current understanding of the genetic basis of these complications, based on recent findings especially from genome-wide association studies. Recent Findings Variants in or near AFF3, RGMA-MCTP2, SP3-CDCA7, GLRA3, CNKSR3, and UMOD have reached genome-wide significance (p value <5 x 10(-8)) for association with diabetic kidney disease, and recently, GRB2 was reported to be associated at genome-wide significance with diabetic retinopathy. While some loci affecting cardiovascular disease in the general population have been replicated in diabetes, GLUL affects the risk of cardiovascular disease specifically in diabetic subjects. Summary Genetic findings are emerging for diabetic complications, although the studies remain relatively small compared to those for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In addition to pinpointing specific loci, the studies also reveal biological information on correlated traits and pathways.
  • The FinnDiane Study Group; Jansson, Fanny J.; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Thorn, Lena M.; Wadén, Johan; Elonen, Nina; Ahola, Aila J.; Saraheimo, Markku; Groop, Per-Henrik (2018)
    Aims/hypothesis Our aim was to assess regression of albuminuria and its clinical consequences in type 1 diabetes. Methods The analysis included 3642 participants from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study with a 24 h urine sample and a history of albuminuria available at baseline. A total of 2729 individuals had normal AER, 438 a history of microalbuminuria and 475 a history of macroalbuminuria. Regression was defined as a change from a higher category of albuminuria pre-baseline to a lower category in two out of the three most recent urine samples at baseline. The impact of regression on cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary procedure) and mortality was analysed over a follow-up of 14.0 years (interquartile range 11.9-15.9). Results In total, 102 (23.3%) individuals with prior microalbuminuria and 111 (23.4%) with prior macroalbuminuria had regressed at baseline. For individuals with normal AER as a reference, the age-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for cardiovascular events were 1.42 (0.75, 2.68) in individuals with regression from microalbuminuria, 2.62 (1.95, 3.54) in individuals with sustained microalbuminuria, 3.15 (2.02, 4.92) in individuals with regression from macroalbuminuria and 5.49 (4.31, 7.00) in individuals with sustained macroalbuminuria. Furthermore, for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates, HRs in regressed individuals were comparable with those with sustained renal status at the achieved level (i.e. those who did not regress but remained at the most advanced level of albuminuria noted pre-baseline). Conclusions/interpretation Progression of diabetic nephropathy confers an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and premature death. Notably, regression reduces the risk to the same level as for those who did not progress.
  • Parente, Erika B; Harjutsalo, Valma; Lehto, Markku; Forsblom, Carol; Sandholm, Niina; Groop, Per-Henrik (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background ABO blood groups have previously been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. This study aimed to investigate the potential relationship between ABO blood groups and CVD in individuals with type 1 diabetes according to diabetic nephropathy (DN) status. Methods Adults with type 1 diabetes (4531 individuals) from the FinnDiane Study were evaluated. DN was determined by two out of three measurements of urinary albumin excretion rate. Albuminuria was defined as an excretion rate above 20 µg/min. CVD events were identified by linking the data with the Finnish Care Register for Health Care and the Finnish Cause of Death Register. Follow-up ranged from the baseline visit until a CVD event, death or the end of 2017. The impact of ABO blood groups on CVD risk was estimated by multivariable Cox-regression analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors. Results At baseline, the median age was 38.5 (IQR 29.2–47.9) years, 47.5% were female and median duration of diabetes was 20.9 (11.4–30.7) years. There were 893 incident ischemic heart disease (IHD) events, 301 ischemic strokes (IS), and 415 peripheral artery disease (PAD) events during a median follow up of 16.5 (IQR 12.8–18.6) years. The A blood group showed the highest risk of IHD versus the O blood group, when microalbuminuria was present. Comparing the population with microalbuminuria with those with normoalbuminuria, only the A blood group elevated the risk of IHD. This increased risk was neither explained by the FUT2 secretor phenotype nor by the A-genotype distribution. The risk of IS or PAD was no different among the ABO blood groups regardless of diabetic nephropathy stage. Conclusion The A blood group is a risk factor for IHD in individuals with type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria.