Browsing by Subject "Cartilage"

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  • Multanen, J.; Rantalainen, T.; Kautiainen, H.; Ahola, R.; Jamsa, T.; Nieminen, M. T.; Lammentausta, E.; Hakkinen, A.; Kiviranta, I.; Heinonen, A. (2017)
    It is uncertain whether subjects with mild knee osteoarthritis, and who may be at risk of osteoporosis, can exercise safely with the aim of improving hip bone strength. This RCT showed that participating in a high-impact exercise program improved femoral neck strength without any detrimental effects on knee cartilage composition. No previous studies have examined whether high-impact exercise can improve bone strength and articular cartilage quality in subjects with mild knee osteoarthritis. In this 12-month RCT, we assessed the effects of progressive high-impact exercise on femoral neck structural strength and biochemical composition of knee cartilage in postmenopausal women. Eighty postmenopausal women with mild knee radiographic osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into the exercise (n = 40) or control (n = 40) group. Femoral neck structural strength was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The knee cartilage region exposed to exercise loading was measured by the quantitative MRI techniques of T2 mapping and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC). Also, an accelerometer-based body movement monitor was used to evaluate the total physical activity loading on the changes of femoral neck strength in all participants. Training effects on the outcome variables were estimated by the bootstrap analysis of covariance. A significant between-group difference in femoral neck bending strength in favor of the trainees was observed after the 12-month intervention (4.4%, p <0.01). The change in femoral neck bending strength remained significant after adjusting for baseline value, age, height, and body mass (4.0%, p = 0.020). In all participants, the change in bending strength was associated with the total physical activity loading (r = 0.29, p = 0.012). The exercise participation had no effect on knee cartilage composition. The high-impact training increased femoral neck strength without having any harmful effect on knee cartilage in women with mild knee osteoarthritis. These findings imply that progressive high-impact exercise is a feasible method in seeking to prevent hip fractures in postmenopausal women whose articular cartilage may also be frail.
  • Munukka, M.; Waller, B.; Rantalainen, T.; Hakkinen, A.; Nieminen, M. T.; Lammentausta, E.; Kujala, U. M.; Paloneva, J.; Sipila, S.; Peuna, A.; Kautiainen, H.; Selanne, H.; Kiviranta, I.; Heinonen, A. (2016)
    Objective: To study the efficacy of aquatic resistance training on biochemical composition of tibiofemoral cartilage in postmenopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design: Eighty seven volunteer postmenopausal women, aged 60-68 years, with mild knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grades I/II and knee pain) were recruited and randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 43) and control (n = 44) group. The intervention group participated in 48 supervised aquatic resistance training sessions over 16 weeks while the control group maintained usual level of physical activity. The biochemical composition of the medial and lateral tibiofemoral cartilage was estimated using single-slice transverse relaxation time (T2) mapping and delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC index). Secondary outcomes were cardiorespiratory fitness, isometric knee extension and flexion force and knee injury and OA outcome (KOOS) questionnaire. Results: After 4-months aquatic training, there was a significant decrease in both T2 -1.2 ms (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.3 to -0.1, P = 0.021) and dGEMRIC index -23 ms (-43 to -3, P = 0.016) in the training group compared to controls in the full thickness posterior region of interest (ROI) of the medial femoral cartilage. Cardiorespiratory fitness significantly improved in the intervention group by 9.8% (P = 0.010). Conclusions: Our results suggest that, in postmenopausal women with mild knee OA, the integrity of the collagen-interstitial water environment (T2) of the tibiofemoral cartilage may be responsive to low shear and compressive forces during aquatic resistance training. More research is required to understand the exact nature of acute responses in dGEMRIC index to this type of loading. Further, aquatic resistance training improves cardiorespiratory fitness. (C) 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Klodowski, Adam; Mononen, Mika E.; Kulmala, Juha P.; Valkeapaa, Antti; Korhonen, Rami K.; Avela, Janne; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Mikkola, Aki (2016)
    Understanding joint loading is important when evaluating sports training methods, sports equipment design, preventive training regimens, post-op recovery procedures, or in osteoarthritis' etiology research. A number of methods have been introduced to estimate joint loads but they have been limited by the lack of accuracy in the joint models, including primarily the lack of patient-specific motion inputs in the models with sophisticated, fibril-reinforced material models. The method reported here records and applies patient-specific human motion for in-depth cartilage stress estimation. First, the motion analysis of a subject was conducted. Due to skin motion, multibody simulation was used to correct motion capture. These data was used as an input in a finite element model. The model geometry was based on magnetic resonance imaging and cartilage was modeled as a fibril-reinforced poroviscoelastic material. Based on the experimental motion data (motion analysis and multibody simulation), two models were created: a rotation-controlled and a moment-controlled model. For comparison, a model with motion input from the literature was created. The rotation-controlled model showed the most even stress distribution between lateral and medial compartments and smallest stresses and strains in a depth-wise manner. The model based on the literature motion simulated very high stresses and uneven stress distribution between the joint compartments. Our new approach to determine dynamic knee cartilage loading enables estimations of stresses and strains for a specific subject over the entire motion cycle.
  • Bourgery, Matthieu; Ekholm, Erika; Fagerlund, Katja; Hiltunen, Ari; Puolakkainen, Tero; Pursiheimo, Juha-Pekka; Heino, Terhi; Määttä, Jorma; Heinonen, Jussi; Yatkin, Emrah; Laitala, Tiina; Säämänen, Anna-Marja (2021)
    Long-bone fracture is a common injury and its healing process at the fracture site involves several overlapping phases, including inflammation, migration of mesenchymal progenitors into the fracture site, endochondral ossification, angiogenesis and finally bone remodelling. Increasing evidence shows that small noncoding RNAs are important regulators of chondrogenesis, osteogenesis and fracture healing. MicroRNAs are small singlestranded, non-coding RNA-molecules intervening in most physiological and biological processes, including fracture healing. Angiogenin-cleaved 5' tRNA halves, also called as tiRNAs (stress-induced RNAs) have been shown to repress protein translation. In order to gain further understanding on the role of small noncoding RNAs in fracture healing, genome wide expression profiles of tiRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs were followed up to 14 days after fracture in callus tissue of an in vivo mouse model with closed tibial fracture and, compared to intact bone and articular cartilage at 2 months of age. Total tiRNA expression level in cartilage was only approximately one third of that observed in control D0 bone. In callus tissue, 11 mature 5 ' end tiRNAs out of 191 tiRNAs were highly expressed, and seven of them were differentially expressed during fracture healing. When comparing the control tissues, 25 miRNAs characteristic to bone and 29 miRNAs characteristic to cartilage tissue homeostasis were identified. Further, a total of 54 out of 806 miRNAs and 5420 out of 18,700 mRNAs were differentially expressed (DE) in callus tissue during fracture healing and, in comparison to control bone. They were associated to gene ontology processes related to mesenchymal tissue development and differentiation. A total of 581 miRNA-mRNA interactions were identified for these 54 DE miRNAs by literature searches in PubMed, thereby linking by Spearman correlation analysis 14 downregulated and 28 upregulated miRNAs to 164 negatively correlating and 168 positively correlating miRNA-mRNA pairs with chondrogenic and osteogenic phases of fracture healing. These data indicated that tiRNAs and miRNAs were differentially expressed in fracture callus tissue, suggesting them important physiological functions during fracture healing. Hence, the data provided by this study may contribute to future clinical applications, such as potential use as biomarkers or as tools in the development of novel therapeutic approaches for fracture healing.
  • Vasara, Anna; Paatela, Teemu; Kiviranta, Ilkka (2016)
    •Al­le 40-vuo­tiai­den vam­ma­pe­räi­siä oi­rei­le­via rus­to­vau­rioi­ta voi­daan hoi­taa useil­la me­ne­tel­mil­lä. •Pie­niin vau­rioi­hin so­pi­via me­ne­tel­miä ovat mik­ro­mur­tu­ma­me­ne­tel­mä ja luu-rus­to­sy­lin­te­ri­siir­re. •Rus­to­so­lu­siir­re­hoi­to­jen hin­ta on nous­sut kor­keak­si, ei­vät­kä hoi­don edut mui­hin hoi­to­muo­toi­hin näh­den ole osoit­tau­tu­neet ko­vin suu­rik­si, jo­ten käyt­tö tu­li­si ra­joit­taa eri­tyis­ta­pauk­siin ja yk­sik­köi­hin, jois­sa me­ne­tel­mäs­tä on ko­ke­mus­ta. •Uu­te­na hoi­to­muo­to­na vai­kei­den rus­to­puu­tos­ten hoi­dos­sa voi­daan käyt­tää elin­luo­vut­ta­jil­ta saa­ta­via ­luu-rus­to­tuo­re­ku­dos­siir­tei­tä. •Uu­sien bio­ma­te­riaa­lei­hin tai me­sen­kyy­mi­kan­ta­so­lui­hin pe­rus­tu­vien hoi­to­muo­to­jen ke­hi­tys­työ on vil­kas­ta, mut­ta me­ne­tel­mät ovat edel­leen pääa­sias­sa ko­keel­li­sia. •Oi­reet­to­mia rus­to­vau­rioi­ta ei pi­dä hoi­taa ki­rur­gi­ses­ti, ei­kä rus­to­vau­rioi­den ki­rur­gi­ses­ta hoi­dos­ta ­ny­ky­me­ne­tel­min ole hyö­tyä ni­vel­ri­kon hoi­dos­sa.