Browsing by Subject "Cattle"

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  • Reinsalu, Olavi; Scheler, Ott; Mikelsaar, Ruth; Mikelsaar, Aavo-Valdur; Hallap, Triin; Jaakma, Ülle; Padrik, Peeter; Kavak, Ants; Salumets, Andres; Kurg, Ants (2019)
    Background: Usage of sexed semen that allows to choose the gender of the calves, is commonly practiced in livestock industry as a profitable breeding alternative, especially in dairy farming. The flow cytometric cell sorting is the only commercially available method for bovine sperm sexing. For validation of the sexing procedure several methods have been developed including sperm fluorescence in situ hybridisation techniques. Latter usually include the use of pre-labelled nucleotides for probe synthesis which is relatively expensive approach compared to combined application of aminoallyl-dUTP and chemical binding of fluorescent dyes. Here a sex determining dual colour bovine sperm fluorescence in situ hybridisation method is presented which is considered more cost-effective technique than the previously reported approaches. Results: The reliability of sex chromosome identifying probes, designed in silico, was proven on bovine metaphase plate chromosomes and through comparison with a commercially available standard method. In the dual colour FISH experiments of unsexed and sexed bovine sperm samples the hybridisation efficiency was at least 98%, whereas the determined sex ratios were not statistically different from the expected. Very few cells carried both of the sex chromosome-specific signals (less than 0.2%). Conclusions: A protocol for a dual colour bovine sperm FISH method is provided which is cost-effective, simple and fast for sex determination of spermatozoa in bull semen samples.
  • Reinsalu, Olavi; Scheler, Ott; Mikelsaar, Ruth; Mikelsaar, Aavo-Valdur; Hallap, Triin; Jaakma, Ülle; Padrik, Peeter; Kavak, Ants; Salumets, Andres; Kurg, Ants (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Usage of sexed semen that allows to choose the gender of the calves, is commonly practiced in livestock industry as a profitable breeding alternative, especially in dairy farming. The flow cytometric cell sorting is the only commercially available method for bovine sperm sexing. For validation of the sexing procedure several methods have been developed including sperm fluorescence in situ hybridisation techniques. Latter usually include the use of pre-labelled nucleotides for probe synthesis which is relatively expensive approach compared to combined application of aminoallyl-dUTP and chemical binding of fluorescent dyes. Here a sex determining dual colour bovine sperm fluorescence in situ hybridisation method is presented which is considered more cost-effective technique than the previously reported approaches. Results The reliability of sex chromosome identifying probes, designed in silico, was proven on bovine metaphase plate chromosomes and through comparison with a commercially available standard method. In the dual colour FISH experiments of unsexed and sexed bovine sperm samples the hybridisation efficiency was at least 98%, whereas the determined sex ratios were not statistically different from the expected. Very few cells carried both of the sex chromosome-specific signals (less than 0.2%). Conclusions A protocol for a dual colour bovine sperm FISH method is provided which is cost-effective, simple and fast for sex determination of spermatozoa in bull semen samples.
  • Iso-Touru, Terhi; Wurmser, Christine; Venhoranta, Heli; Hiltpold, Maya; Savolainen, Tujia; Sironen, Anu; Fischer, Konrad; Flisikowski, Krzysztof; Fries, Ruedi; Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel; Nagy, Szabolcs; Mutikainen, Mervi; Peippo, Jaana; Taponen, Juhani; Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Simonen, Henri; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Andersson, Magnus; Pausch, Hubert (2019)
    Background: Cattle populations are highly amenable to the genetic mapping of male reproductive traits because longitudinal data on ejaculate quality and dense microarray-derived genotypes are available for thousands of artificial insemination bulls. Two young Nordic Red bulls delivered sperm with low progressive motility (i.e., asthenospermia) during a semen collection period of more than four months. The bulls were related through a common ancestor on both their paternal and maternal ancestry. Thus, a recessive mode of inheritance of asthenospermia was suspected. Results: Both bulls were genotyped at 54,001 SNPs using the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead chip. A scan for autozygosity revealed that they were identical by descent for a 2.98Mb segment located on bovine chromosome 25. This haplotype was not found in the homozygous state in 8557 fertile bulls although five homozygous haplotype carriers were expected (P=0.018). Whole genome-sequencing uncovered that both asthenospermic bulls were homozygous for a mutation that disrupts a canonical 5 splice donor site of CCDC189 encoding the coiled-coil domain containing protein 189. Transcription analysis showed that the derived allele activates a cryptic splice site resulting in a frameshift and premature termination of translation. The mutated CCDC189 protein is truncated by more than 40%, thus lacking the flagellar C1a complex subunit C1a-32 that is supposed to modulate the physiological movement of the sperm flagella. The mutant allele occurs at a frequency of 2.5% in Nordic Red cattle. Conclusions; Our study in cattle uncovered that CCDC189 is required for physiological movement of sperm flagella thus enabling active progression of spermatozoa and fertilization. A direct gene test may be implemented to monitor the asthenospermia-associated allele and prevent the birth of homozygous bulls that are infertile. Our results have been integrated in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) database (https://omia.org/OMIA002167/9913/).
  • Iso-Touru, Terhi; Wurmser, Christine; Venhoranta, Heli; Hiltpold, Maya; Savolainen, Tujia; Sironen, Anu; Fischer, Konrad; Flisikowski, Krzysztof; Fries, Ruedi; Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel; Nagy, Szabolcs; Mutikainen, Mervi; Peippo, Jaana; Taponen, Juhani; Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Simonen, Henri; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Andersson, Magnus; Pausch, Hubert (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Cattle populations are highly amenable to the genetic mapping of male reproductive traits because longitudinal data on ejaculate quality and dense microarray-derived genotypes are available for thousands of artificial insemination bulls. Two young Nordic Red bulls delivered sperm with low progressive motility (i.e., asthenospermia) during a semen collection period of more than four months. The bulls were related through a common ancestor on both their paternal and maternal ancestry. Thus, a recessive mode of inheritance of asthenospermia was suspected. Results Both bulls were genotyped at 54,001 SNPs using the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead chip. A scan for autozygosity revealed that they were identical by descent for a 2.98 Mb segment located on bovine chromosome 25. This haplotype was not found in the homozygous state in 8557 fertile bulls although five homozygous haplotype carriers were expected (P = 0.018). Whole genome-sequencing uncovered that both asthenospermic bulls were homozygous for a mutation that disrupts a canonical 5′ splice donor site of CCDC189 encoding the coiled-coil domain containing protein 189. Transcription analysis showed that the derived allele activates a cryptic splice site resulting in a frameshift and premature termination of translation. The mutated CCDC189 protein is truncated by more than 40%, thus lacking the flagellar C1a complex subunit C1a-32 that is supposed to modulate the physiological movement of the sperm flagella. The mutant allele occurs at a frequency of 2.5% in Nordic Red cattle. Conclusions Our study in cattle uncovered that CCDC189 is required for physiological movement of sperm flagella thus enabling active progression of spermatozoa and fertilization. A direct gene test may be implemented to monitor the asthenospermia-associated allele and prevent the birth of homozygous bulls that are infertile. Our results have been integrated in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) database ( https://omia.org/OMIA002167/9913/ ).
  • Haapala, V.; Herva, T.; Härtel, H.; Pitkänen, E.; Mattila, J.; Rautjoki, P.; Pelkonen, S.; Soveri, T.; Simojoki, H. (2019)
    Detecting Mycoplasma bovis on cattle farms represents a challenge in the absence of an outbreak or cases of M. bovis mastitis, yet identification of an infection is essential to control the spread of the disease successfully. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine whether meat inspection records can aid identification of cattle farms supporting M. bovis infection, and (2) to compare the average daily weight gain estimated from carcass weight for cattle originating from farms differing in M. bovis test-status. Meat inspection records were collected from two abattoirs in 2015; 80 677 animals in total. All the dairy and mixed breed cows and bulls used for meat production were categorized according to known M. bovis infection status of the farms from which the cattle were derived; positive, contact or control farms. The associations between animals from different M. bovis categories and lung lesions of bulls and cows (pneumonia and pleuritis), identified during meat inspection, and estimated average daily gain (ADG) of bulls, were investigated. The odds ratios for lung lesions, especially pleuritis, were higher in M. bovis test-positive or contact farms compared with control farms. Additionally, odds ratios for pleuritis were higher among animals from M. bovis test-positive farms and animals from contact slaughtering farms originating from M. bovis-free rearing farms. Bulls originating from M. bovis test-positive farms had higher estimated average daily gain than cattle from control farms. Meat inspection records can be used alongside other methods to detect M. bovis-positive farms where M. bovis causes lung lesions. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Suokorpi, Annika; Autio, Tiina; Ruotsalainen, Eeva; Björkstrand, Marit; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska (2019)