Browsing by Subject "Central Asia"

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  • Sennikov, Alexander; Lazkov, Georgy (2013)
    Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This species is the second member of A. sect. Spathulata F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch, being different from A. spathulatum F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch in larger, broader, obtuse and more intensely purple-coloured tepals, and in a more robust habit. It is a local endemic of Babash-Ata Mt. Range situated east of Fergana Valley in Kyrgyzstan, recommended for legal protection as Endangered because of the very small population size in its only locality.
  • Urinboyev, Rustam; Russian and Eurasian Studies (Aleksanteri Institute) (Media Tryck, 2020)
    Research Report in Sociology of Law
    This research report is a compilation of essays written by guest researchers from Central Asia who spent four to twelve months at the Department of Sociology of Law, Lund University, and conducted research on various topics pertaining to legal cultures, governance and business environments in Central Asia. These guest research stays (secondments) took place in the framework of the EU-funded project “Central Asian Law: Legal Cultures and Business Environments in Central Asia” (project number 870647 H2020 MSCA-RISE 2019-2023), which runs from 01/03/2020 through 28/02/2024. The project is coordinated by Lund University and the project consortium includes European universities (University of Zurich, Charles University Prague, Riga Graduate School of Law, Marmara University, University of Latvia) as well as Central Asian partner institutions (L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Khujand Polytechnic Institute of the Tajik Technical University, SIAR Research and Consulting, Tebigy Kuwwat Public Association, Academy of the General Prosecutor’s Office of Uzbekistan, Westminster International University in Tashkent). This research report consists of introduction and five papers that explore contemporary issues and challenges in Central Asia, such as the problems accompanying the internationalization of higher education and research, anti-corruption legal frameworks and the business climate, cultural branding, legal culture education, and the digital economy. The main idea behind publishing this preliminary research report is to provide a platform for Central Asian guest researchers to present the research projects they developed during their research stay in Lund and share their initial research findings with the Central Asian Law project team and the wider academic and policy audiences. Another equally important aim was to empower our guest researchers, given the fact that many Central Asia-based researchers find it difficult to publish their academic work in Western academic venues due to different academic, economic, and ideological factors.
  • Adams, Laura L; Svensson, Mans; Urinboyev, Rustam (Lexington Books, 2018)
    Contemporary Central Asia: Societies, Politics, and Cultures
    The issue of governance has become a fashionable topic of research in the study of post-Soviet societies. The key argument of this article is that there are multiple paradigms and understandings of ‘good governance’, some of which concur with the global (Western) understanding, while others offer alternative criteria. In this article, we explore the specifics of governance system in Uzbekistan and suggest the notion of ‘everyday life governance’ as shorthand for providing contextual understanding of good governance. This local Uzbek governance system consists of two important interrelated components: a government that heavily relies on coercive infrastructure for maintaining political stability and interethnic peace, but at the same time induces its citizens to engage in informal practices and networks as an alternative (to the formal) source of welfare. This article explores how this system emerged in the post-Soviet period and its impact on societal transformation, governance and development processes in Uzbekistan. These issues will be investigated with reference to observations and informal interviews from post-Soviet Uzbekistan. This study is based on three periods of ethnographic field research between 2009 and 2012 in the Ferghana Province of Uzbekistan.
  • Pushkina, Diana (University of Helsinki, 1997)
  • Lehtisaari, Katja Marleena; Burkhanov, Aziz; Turdubaeva, Elira; Pietiläinen, Jukka Pekka (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018)
  • Global Burden of Disease Self-Harm Collaboration; Orpana, H.M.; Doku, D.T.; Meretoja, T.J.; Shiri, R.; Vasankari, T. (2019)
    Objectives To use the estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 to describe patterns of suicide mortality globally, regionally, and for 195 countries and territories by age, sex, and Socio-demographic index, and to describe temporal trends between 1990 and 2016. Design Systematic analysis. Main outcome measures Crude and age standardised rates from suicide mortality and years of life lost were compared across regions and countries, and by age, sex, and Socio-demographic index (a composite measure of fertility, income, and education). Results The total number of deaths from suicide increased by 6.7% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4% to 15.6%) globally over the 27 year study period to 817 000 (762 000 to 884 000) deaths in 2016. However, the age standardised mortality rate for suicide decreased by 32.7% (27.2% to 36.6%) worldwide between 1990 and 2016, similar to the decline in the global age standardised mortality rate of 30.6%. Suicide was the leading cause of age standardised years of life lost in the Global Burden of Disease region of high income Asia Pacific and was among the top 10 leading causes in eastern Europe, central Europe, western Europe, central Asia, Australasia, southern Latin America, and high income North America. Rates for men were higher than for women across regions, countries, and age groups, except for the 15 to 19 age group. There was variation in the female to male ratio, with higher ratios at lower levels of Socio-demographic index. Women experienced greater decreases in mortality rates (49.0%, 95% uncertainty interval 42.6% to 54.6%) than men (23.8%, 15.6% to 32.7%). Conclusions Age standardised mortality rates for suicide have greatly reduced since 1990, but suicide remains an important contributor to mortality worldwide. Suicide mortality was variable across locations, between sexes, and between age groups. Suicide prevention strategies can be targeted towards vulnerable populations if they are informed by variations in mortality rates. © Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited.
  • Urinboyev, Rustam; Eraliev, Sherzod (2022)
    Despite the extensive literature on the nexus between civil society and democratization in non-democratic regimes, most existing scholarship focuses on politically oriented and claim-making civil society organizations. While these accounts provide useful insights, they appear to rely on Western-centric understandings of civil society. Undoubtedly, little space exists in non-democratic regimes within which civil society organizations may engage in overt political activism due to governmental restrictions. Notwithstanding these restrictions, there are politically less threatening social arenas, where it is possible to identify informally organized civil society initiatives with the potential to redefine and influence long-term state–society relations. This article argues that what we might think of as civil society initiatives in non-democratic regimes cannot be satisfactorily understood through the lens of Western-centric understandings of civil society. Instead, we should focus on informal civil society initiatives. These processes will be illustrated through the case study of mahalla institutions in Uzbekistan.
  • Urinboyev, Rustam (University of California Press, 2021)
    While migration has become an all-important topic of discussion around the globe, mainstream literature on migrants' legal adaptation and integration has focused on case studies of immigrant communities in Western-style democracies. We know relatively little about how migrants adapt to a new legal environment in the ever-growing hybrid political regimes that are neither clearly democratic nor conventionally authoritarian. This book takes up the case of Russia—an archetypal hybrid political regime and the third largest recipients of migrants worldwide—and investigates how Central Asian migrant workers produce new forms of informal governance and legal order. Migrants use the opportunities provided by a weak rule-of-law and a corrupt political system to navigate the repressive legal landscape and to negotiate—using informal channels—access to employment and other opportunities that are hard to obtain through the official legal framework of their host country. This lively ethnography presents new theoretical perspectives for studying immigrant legal incorporation in similar political contexts.
  • Talka, Santeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Regional integration in Central Asia (CA) has seen very limited success, despite strong cultural and historical connections and shared grievances. I attempt to identify factors that promote or inhibit intensification of regional cooperation. I use a political economy approach to identify foundational factors, stakeholders and political phenomena that influence deepening regional cooperation. I analyse the formal institutional integration initiatives through realist and constructivist IR theories. I also bind the case study of Central Asia to a broader theoretical debate on the relationship between regionalism and multilateralism in 21st century. The relationship between intraregional dynamics (comprising the CA states) and interregional dynamics (comprising external sponsors or partners contributing to regionalism) is complex, and partially characterized by conflict of interests. CA states lack incentives to promote regional institutions and identities, but are willing to exploit regionalism opportunistically. I analyse CA policy principally through the framework of political elites, emphasizing nationalism and state sovereignty. Simultaneously, CA elites have used open regionalism to meet goals in globalist foreign policy and nationalistic domestic policy. On the other hand, external hegemons perceive strong incentives to promote regionalism under their own leadership. I analyse the external sponsors mostly through a neorealist framework of hegemonic influence. Despite these conflicts, there are some specific areas of shared interests, particularly fighting non- traditional security threats. Use of regional integration initiatives in CA can be perceived as not incompatible with greater multilateralism, even contributing to the integration of the region to a global system on its own terms. Based on this case study, I argue for a complex, non- categorical understanding of regionalism and multilateralism. I argue that new regionalism, and open regionalism in particular, have been used in CA for promoting specifically globalist policy agendas. This conclusion supports the premise that regionalism and multilateralism exist in a dynamic relationship, influencing each other in a mutually supportive manner. Rather than understanding regionalism as a “stumbling block” or temporary “building block”, it should be perceived as a permanent part of the contemporary global system.
  • Usmonov, Mansur; Tojibaev, Komiljon; Jang, Chang-Gee; Sennikov, Alexander N. (2021)
    Background Cousinia knorringiae Bornm. (Asteraceae) belongs to C. sect. Subappendiculatae Tscherneva, a group of the species-rich and taxonomically difficult genus Cousinia Cass. This species is narrowly distributed in the Western Tian-Shan and has been known as endemic to Kyrgyzstan. It inhabits bare rocks and screes at elevations of 1200-1500 m above sea level. This species is of conservation interest because of its small population size and limited distribution. New information Cousinia knorringiae is reported for the first time from eastern Uzbekistan on the basis of specimens collected on Ungur-Tepa Mt., a south-western outlier of the Bozbu-Too Mts. (Western Tian-Shan). The conservation status of the species is assessed as Endangered (EN), based on criterion D (estimated population size 200-250 mature individuals), according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (version 3.1). A new distribution map and a line drawing for C. knorringiae are provided and its type locality is clarified. The new knowledge suggests that the species is endemic to the East Fergana botanical hotspot, which includes a transborder territory shared between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan and should, therefore, be subjected to international conservation measures. The southern extension of Ungur-Tepa Mt. harbours important plant species, which cannot be found elsewhere in Uzbekistan and may, therefore, be proposed for legal protection.
  • Gafforov, Yusufjon; Ordynets, Alexander; Langer, Ewald; Yarasheva, Manzura; de Mello Gugliotta, Adriana; Schigel, Dmitry; Pecoraro, Lorenzo; Zhou, Yu; Cai, Lei; Zhou, Li-Wei (2020)
    Uzbekistan, located in Central Asia, harbors high diversity of woody plants. Diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi in the country, however, remained poorly known. This study summarizes the wood-inhabiting basidiomycte fungi (poroid and corticoid fungi plus similar taxa such as Merismodes, Phellodon, and Sarcodon) (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) that have been found in Uzbekistan from 1950 to 2020. This work is based on 790 fungal occurrence records: 185 from recently collected specimens, 101 from herbarium specimens made by earlier collectors, and 504 from literature-based records. All data were deposited as a species occurrence record dataset in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility and also summarized in the form of an annotated checklist in this paper. All 286 available specimens were morphologically examined. For 138 specimens, the 114 ITS and 85 LSU nrDNA sequences were newly sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. In total, we confirm the presence of 153 species of wood-inhabiting poroid and corticioid fungi in Uzbekistan, of which 31 species are reported for the first time in Uzbekistan, including 19 that are also new to Central Asia. These 153 fungal species inhabit 100 host species from 42 genera of 23 families. Polyporales and Hymenochaetales are the most recorded fungal orders and are most widely distributed around the study area. This study provides the first comprehensively updated and annotated the checklist of wood-inhabiting poroid and corticioid fungi in Uzbekistan. Such study should be expanded to other countries to further clarify species diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi around Central Asia.
  • Sennikov, Alexander N.; Lazkov, Georgy A. (2021)
    Background National checklists of alien plants and detailed databases of non-native plant occurrences are required to study and control regional and global plant invasions. No country in Central Asia has a national checklist of alien plants. A recent inventory counted 183 alien plant species in Kyrgyzstan, including archaeophytes and neophytes, established and casual. This preliminary checklist, which was developed for the Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species in 2018, served as a starting point for the present study. New information A complete inventory of Xanthium in Kyrgyzstan has revealed that three alien species are resident in the country. Their correct nomenclature is X. orientale (syn. X. albinum, X. californicum, X. sibiricum auct.; invasive neophyle of the period of extensive grain import to the USSR after the Second World War), X. spinosum (invasive neophyte of the period of the Second World War, which arrived as a contaminant on the relocated livestock) and X. strumarium (syn. X. chinense, X. sibiricum; archaeophyte of the Neolithic period, introduced with wheat cultivation, which had lost its invasive status and appeared on the verge of extinction when its pool was no longer renewed by contaminated grain). A history of introduction to Central Asia is uncovered for all the species of Xanthium. A further spread is documented for Bunias orientalis, with a new record extending its distribution to the Eastern Tian-Shan; a complex history of its introduction to Europe and Central Asia is inferred from the archaeological data and its recent dispersal, and the pathways of its introduction to Kyrgyzstan are established. Erigeron annuus s.str. is reported as new to Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, and E. lilacinus as new to Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Nepal and Tajikistan (it was previously recorded as E. annuus s.l. from the three latter countries, in which the presence of E. annuus s.str. is not confirmed). These closely related species differ in their pathways of introduction and invasion status: E. annuus s.str. is an invasive established alien which was imported as a contaminant of forage, whereas E. lilacinus is mostly a casual (locally persisting) alien introduced with contaminated seed of ornamental plants or nursery material, and also intentionally introduced and locally established in the Botanical Garden in Bishkek. Bidens tinctoria (syn. Coreopsis tinctoria) is newly recorded as a casual alien from a single locality in Kyrgyzstan; this species name is validly published here in conformity with the phylogeny of Coreopsideae. Point maps of species distributions in Kyrgyzstan are provided on the basis of a complete inventory of the literature data, herbarium specimens and documented observations, and our recent fieldwork. The maps are documented with a dataset of herbarium specimens and observations. Period and pathways of introduction, vectors of dispersal, current and historical invasion status, evidence of impact and distributional trend are established or inferred for each species. Each species is discussed in the context of plant invasions in Central Asia as a whole. These species accounts are part of the national database of alien plants which aims at producing a comprehensive overview and analysis of plant invasions in Kyrgyzstan.
  • Heusala, Anna-Liisa (2018)
    The article analyzes the evolution of Russian migration policy vis-à-vis national security thinking in a historical perspective. The idea put forward is that Russian migration policy is built on the early Soviet experiences of population control, in which ‘national security’ was an essential component of policy developments. In today’s conditions, the interconnectedness of transnational security challenges, such as large-scale migration, is an important factor that officially motivates Russia to emphasize pragmatic institutional choices. Russia has followed the global trend of securitization of legislation and administrative policies underlying the re-emergence of national security as an important policy framework. This ambitious framework is constrained by unfinished institutional changes and legacies rooted in the Soviet past. Migration continues to be an arena of policy-making where different interests override each other. Russian migration policy can best be described as an attempt to find a balance between economic incentives and security concerns, or between institutional pathologies and recycled dysfunctions and the need for modernization.
  • Katsui, Hisayo (2005)
    This study focused on political approach of civic activism in the field of disability. The political approach refers to rights-oriented approach that challenges existing unequal power structure so that ultimate goal of equality is fulfilled. This approach was elaborated through a project investigation of a Finnish disabled people's organisation in Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. In order to understand this organisational reality, its background context, namely daily experiences of disabled people in Central Asia, was also scrutinised. The aims were to clarify vulnerability creation mechanism, complex reality of the Finnish intervention in Central Asia and possibility of the political approach in Central Asia. Final goal was that this thesis, including its process, both academically and practically contributes to the disability movement and their equality. Basic qualitative methodology with deep, personal interviews and observation was applied. Perspective of disabled people was central. Data analysis applied similar method as qualitative content analysis and was made with disability theories: social and political models of disability. The main findings are three-folded. Firstly, the study clarified the main factors of the vulnerability creation mechanism that makes and reinforces the deviant role of disabled people in Central Asia. This clarification proves that disability is a human construction not only in Western countries but also in ex-socialist countries. That is, West-oriented social model of disability makes sense in these countries. Secondly, heterogeneity of disabled people became clear despite of the existence of the social mechanism. Having acknowledged the multiplicity, fighting against disability needs multiple approaches firstly to deal with the multiple layers of the mechanism, secondly to deal also with other discrimination against sex, age, ethnic origin etc. and thirdly to meet needs of individuals. Thirdly, implications toward equality were elaborated. This study found out that political approach can play a role in localised manner in Central Asia. It is important for all actors in the society to realise that even a small change can make a difference. Especially active role of disabled people to make a difference with the political approach was highlighted after they are aware of their rights and ownership.
  • Spur, Maristella (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis investigates the roots of Koryo-mar, an endangered language currently spoken by Korean diaspora communities (also called Koryo-saram, lit. ‘Koryo-people’) in post-Soviet countries, such as Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, to which they had been deported in 1937 from the Russian Far East (RFE). By the end of the 19th century, the language of the first Korean immigrants to the RFE, for the most part peasants from the Northeastern province of Hamgyŏng, had already caught the interest of a few scholars, among which can be distinguished Mikhail P. Pucillo, the author of the first Russian-Korean dictionary. Such volume, the Opyt Russko-Korejskogo Slovarja (1874) was based on the speech of the Koreans he was in contact with, and represents one of the earliest sources for the study of Koryo-mar. On the other hand, the actual research on the Koryo-saram begun in earnest only in the second half of the 20th century, and the work of Songmoo Kho, Koreans in Soviet Central Asia (1987), is often considered one of the most complete surveys on the history and the culture of Central Asian Koreans. It also contains a chapter devoted to Koryo-mar, that includes several wordlists of both native items and loanwords from Russian and other local languages. By comparing the data extracted from the above-mentioned texts, on a lexical and orthographic level, and highlighting their similarities and variations, this research aims at illustrating the genetic ties between the dialects of Northern Hamgyŏng and Koryo-mar, as well as the relationship between the spoken and the written language. Additional information has also been drawn from secondary sources in Early Modern Korean, such as Hŏ Kyung’s Hong Kiltong Chŏn (16th-17th century), Chang Kyehyang’s Ŭmsik Timibang (1670s), and J. S. Gale’s translation of J. Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress (1895). The research concludes that the forty elements common to Pucillo (1874) and Kho (1987) can be framed into five different relationship scenarios, which describe not only the continuation of lexical and orthographic material between the two texts and their languages, but also assess the latter’s connection to Standard Korean and its historical variants. Moreover, the examination of Pucillo’s usage of Cyrillic in transcribing Korean provides relevant details concerning the articulatory habits of Northeastern Koreans in the late 1800s, which are contextualised within and in contrast to the writing practices of Early Modern Korean, that are known to be extremely inconsistent. This study, based on a philological approach, can aid in outlining a literary tradition that encompasses the historical development of Koryo-mar, which is still an unrecognised minority language, while the analysis of orthographic peculiarities can shed light on the chronology of the spread of certain phonological changes across the whole Korean peninsula.
  • Pietiläinen, Pihla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This Master’s thesis seeks to explain the reasons why some autocratic regimes remain stable for long periods of time, whereas others experience greater degrees of instability. The task is approached through a comparative case study approach, where three Central Asian countries that share multiple historical and cultural characteristics but differ in their outcomes are compared with one another. The theoretical background of the thesis encompasses well-established theories on governance strategies and legitimation, which are then evaluated against the Central Asian example. Three countries, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan were selected for the case study. The economic and social characteristics of these countries, as well as the governance strategies adopted by their regimes, were then evaluated in detail. The sources utilized in the analysis included economic and demographic data from the World Bank, survey data from the World Values Survey and reports from international organisations such as Human Rights Watch and Freedom House. Previous scholarship was also consulted. It was discovered that many different mechanisms have kept incumbents in power in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The leaders of both countries have been successful in promoting a narrative of themselves as guarantors of stability, largely accounting for their docile populations. Kazakhstan, with its extensive oil wealth, has been able to co-opt both elites and significant sectors of the population. Uzbekistan has also benefitted from more modest resource wealth, which has facilitated the co-optation of neopatrimonial support networks, as well as the devotion of resources to state security apparatus. More limited resources have, however, forced the Uzbek regime to rely on coercion more extensively. The thesis concludes with the finding that authoritarian failure is a sum of unfavourable circumstances and poor decision making on the part of the autocrat, especially when elite networks are neglected. Like its neighbours, Kyrgyzstan’s presidents have largely depended on neopatrimonial networks for support. The limited resources available to the regime, however, as well as their excessive concentration in the hands of the president’s immediate family, contributed to elite defections both in 2005 and 2010. These disaffected elites were then able to mobilise large sections of the disillusioned population, suffering both economic hardship and frustration with the corrupt regime. Lacking the coercive capabilities to suppress these uprisings, presidents Akaev and Bakiyev had no option but to step down in 2005 and 2010, respectively.