Browsing by Subject "Cerebellum"

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  • Jalanko, Petri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Physical fitness has declined during the last decades in adolescents. Furthermore, several studies have found a positive association between physical fitness and brain volume in adolescents, which is noteworthy since the adolescent brain undergoes substantial changes during growth and maturation. However, despite the importance of the cerebellum on adolescents' cognition and coordination, there remains a paucity of evidence on the associations between physical fitness and cerebellum characteristics. Thus, a cross-sectional approach was used to explore the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), power, speed-agility, coordination and overall neuromuscular performance index (NPI) with total gray matter (GM) volume of the cerebellum as well as lobules VI & VIIb, and crus I volume in 40 (22 girls; 18 boys) adolescents. Peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak) was measured by the maximal ramp test on a cycle ergometer, lower limb power was determined with standing long jump (SLJ), speed-agility was assessed with the 10 x 5-m shuttle-run test, upper limb coordination was determined with the Box and Block Test (BBT) and NPI was calculated as the sum of SLJ, BBT and shuttle-run z-values. Lean mass (LM) and body fat percentage (BF%) were measured using a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Cerebellum GM volume, lobules VI & VIIb, and crus I volumes were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results demonstrated that V̇O2peak/LM was negatively associated (β = -.045 P= .014) with cerebellum GM volume. No statistically significant associations were found between SLJ, shuttle-run, BBT scores or NPI and cerebellum characteristics in all participants. However, a poorer shuttle-run time was associated (β = -.363 P = .024) with smaller crus I volume in girls and V̇O2peak/LM was negatively associated (β = -.501 P = .031) with lobule VIIb volume in boys. These findings suggest that, in general, CRF and speed agility are associated with cerebellum characteristics in adolescents and there may be sex differences. The results extend our knowledge of the associations between physical fitness and brain volume, but more studies should be conducted to understand the relationship further.
  • Wibroe, Morten; Cappelen, Johan; Castor, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels; Grillner, Pernilla; Gudrunardottir, Thora; Gupta, Ramneek; Gustavsson, Bengt; Heyman, Mats; Holm, Stefan; Karppinen, Atte; Klausen, Camilla; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Mathiasen, Rene; Nilsson, Pelle; Nysom, Karsten; Persson, Karin; Rask, Olof; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Sehested, Astrid; Thomassen, Harald; Tonning-Olsson, Ingrid; Zetterqvist, Barbara; Juhler, Marianne (2017)
    Background: Central nervous system tumours constitute 25% of all childhood cancers; more than half are located in the posterior fossa and surgery is usually part of therapy. One of the most disabling late effects of posterior fossa tumour surgery is the cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) which has been reported in up to 39% of the patients but the exact incidence is uncertain since milder cases may be unrecognized. Recovery is usually incomplete. Reported risk factors are tumour type, midline location and brainstem involvement, but the exact aetiology, surgical and other risk factors, the clinical course and strategies for prevention and treatment are yet to be determined. Methods: This observational, prospective, multicentre study will include 500 children with posterior fossa tumours. It opened late 2014 with participation from 20 Nordic and Baltic centres. From 2016, five British centres and four Dutch centres will join with a total annual accrual of 130 patients. Three other major European centres are invited to join from 2016/17. Follow-up will run for 12 months after inclusion of the last patient. All patients are treated according to local practice. Clinical data are collected through standardized online registration at pre-determined time points pre- and postoperatively. Neurological status and speech functions are examined pre- operatively and postoperatively at 1-4 weeks, 2 and 12 months. Pre- and postoperative speech samples are recorded and analysed. Imaging will be reviewed centrally. Pathology is classified according to the 2007 WHO system. Germline DNA will be collected from all patients for associations between CMS characteristics and host genome variants including pathway profiles. Discussion: Through prospective and detailed collection of information on 1) differences in incidence and clinical course of CMS for different patient and tumour characteristics, 2) standardized surgical data and their association with CMS, 3) diversities and results of other therapeutic interventions, and 4) the role of host genome variants, we aim to achieve a better understanding of risk factors for and the clinical course of CMS - with the ultimate goal of defining strategies for prevention and treatment of this severely disabling condition.
  • Karppinen, Atte (2020)
    Chiarin tyypin 1 epämuodostuma (CM1) on yleinen sattumalöydös pään ja kaularangan magneettikuvauksessa. Yleensä sen radiologisena kriteerinä pidetään vähintään 5 mm:n pikkuaivoherniaatiota. CM1:tä aiheuttavat useat tekijät, mutta suurimmalla osalla potilaista pikkuaivoherniaation syytä ei voida tunnistaa. Jos niska-aukko on ahtautunut, saattaa esiintyä oireita. Niistä tavallisin on takaraivolle paikantuva ponnisteluun ja rasitukseen liittyvä lyhytkestoinen päänsärky. CM1 on tavallisin syringomyelian aiheuttaja. Leikkaushoitoa tarjotaan yleensä oireisille potilaille. Parhaiten leikkaus auttaa tyypilliseen CM1:n kriteerit täyttävään päänsärkyyn ja syringomyeliaan. Lasten leikkaustulokset ovat hieman aikuisia paremmat. Oireettoman tai vähäoireisen CM1-potilaan ennuste on hyvä ilman leikkaustakin.
  • Pelzer, Esther A.; Pauls, K. Amande M.; Braun, Nina; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Timmermann, Lars (2020)
    The ventrolateral thalamic nucleus (VL), as part of the ‘motor thalamus’, is main relay station of cerebellar and pallidal projections. It comprises anterior (VLa) and posterior (VLpd and VLpv) subnuclei. Though the fibre architecture of cerebellar and pallidal projections to of the VL nucleus has already been focus in a numerous amount of in vitro studies mainly in animals, probabilistic tractography now offers the possibility of an in vivo comparison in healthy humans. In this study we performed a (a) qualitative and (b) quantitative examination of VL-cerebellar and VL-pallidal pathways and compared the probability distributions between both projection fields in the VL after an (I) atlas-based and (II) manual-based segmentation procedure. Both procedures led to high congruent results of cerebellar and pallidal connectivity distributions: the maximum of pallidal projections was located in anterior and medial parts of the VL nucleus, whereas cerebellar connectivity was more located in lateral and posterior parts. The median connectivity for cerebellar connections in both approaches (manual and atlas-based segmentation) was VLa > VLpv > VLpd, whereas the pallidal median connectivity was VLa ~ VLpv > VLpd in the atlas-based approach and VLpv > VLa > VLpd in the manual approach.