Browsing by Subject "Children"

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  • Bjorklund, Katja; Liski, Antti; Samposalo, Hanna; Lindblom, Jallu; Hella, Juho; Huhtinen, Heini; Ojala, Tiina; Alasuvanto, Paula; Koskinen, Hanna-Leena; Kiviruusu, Olli; Hemminki, Elina; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Sund, Reijo; Solantaus, Tytti; Santalahti, Paivi (2014)
  • Kaukonen, Riikka; Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Nissinen, Kaija; Korkalo, Liisa; Koivusilta, Leena; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Although evidence exists of the association between children's temperament and weight, only few studies have examined how temperament is associated with actual food consumption among preschoolers. We examined concurrent associations between children's temperament and the consumption of different foods, and investigated whether the association between children's temperament and vegetable consumption is mediated by vegetable-related parenting practices. We utilized the data from the cross-sectional DAGIS study of 864 preschool children aged between three to six and their families, conducted between 2015 and 2016 in Finland. The parents reported their children's temperament, food consumption, and their vegetable-related parenting practices. Adjusted logistic regression analyses found positive associations between surgency and vegetable consumption as well as between effortful control and vegetable consumption. Both associations were mediated by one examined vegetable-related parenting practice: enhanced availability and autonomy support. No associations were found between children's negative affectivity and food consumption or vegetable-related parenting practices. In conclusion, children's temperament may be an important factor behind food-related parenting practices and children's diet. However, further longitudinal research and research covering different food-related parenting practices and home environment factors is necessary to better understand the complex associations between temperament and food consumption among young children.
  • Rosendahl, Jenni; Fogelholm, Mikael; Pelkonen, Anna; Makela, Mika J.; Makitie, Outi; Erkkola, Maijaliisa (2017)
    Background/Aims: Vitamin D insufficiency is common in children. We aimed to evaluate the main determinants of vitamin D status in Finnish school-aged children, including the history of allergic diseases. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 171 ten-year-olds where serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH] D) levels were measured, and data on food consumption and use of vitamin D supplements were collected. The history of allergic diseases was evaluated with a validated questionnaire. Results: Vitamin D insufficiency (
  • Ziemele, Inga; Xu, Man; Vilmane, Anda; Rasa-Dzelzkaleja, Santa; Hedman, Lea; Hedman, Klaus; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Nora-Krukle, Zaiga; Murovska, Modra; Gardovska, Dace (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Human bocavirus 1 is a commonly detected human parvovirus. Many studies have shown human bocavirus 1 as a pathogen in association with acute respiratory tract infections in children. However, because human bocavirus 1 persists in the upper airways for extensive time periods after acute infection, the definition and diagnostics of acute human bocavirus 1 infection is challenging. Until now, detection of human bocavirus 1 exclusively, high viral load in respiratory samples, and viremia have been associated with a clinical picture of acute respiratory illness. There are no studies showing detection of human bocavirus 1 messenger ribonucleic acid in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a diagnostic marker for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Case presentation We report the case of a 17-month-old Latvian boy who presented in intensive care unit with acute bilateral bronchiolitis, with a history of rhinorrhea and cough for 6 days and fever for the last 2 days prior to admission, followed by severe respiratory distress and tracheal intubation. Human bocavirus 1 was the only respiratory virus detected by a qualitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction panel. For the diagnosis of acute human bocavirus 1 infection, both molecular and serological approaches were used. Human bocavirus 1 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected simultaneously in nasopharyngeal aspirate, stool, and blood, as well as in the corresponding cell-free blood plasma by qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, revealing high DNA-copy numbers in nasopharyngeal aspirate and stool. Despite a low-load viremia, human bocavirus 1 messenger ribonucleic acid was found in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. For detection of human bocavirus 1-specific antibodies, non-competitive immunoglobulin M and competitive immunoglobulin G enzyme immunoassays were used. The plasma was positive for both human bocavirus 1-specific immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies. Conclusions The presence of human bocavirus 1 genomic DNA in blood plasma and human bocavirus 1 messenger ribonucleic acid in peripheral blood mononuclear cells together with human bocavirus 1-specific immunoglobulin M are markers of acute human bocavirus 1 infection that may cause life-threatening acute bronchiolitis.
  • Miettinen, Jenni; Tainio, Juuso; Jahnukainen, Timo; Pakarinen, Mikko; Lauronen, Jouni; Jalanko, Hannu (2017)
    Anemia and low-grade inflammation are reported to be associated with impaired long-term graft outcome in renal transplant (RTx) recipients. In this study, hemoglobin (Hb) and inflammation marker levels were correlated with measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in 128 pediatric RTx recipients over a median follow-up period of 10 years. Serum levels of erythropoietin (EPO), hepcidin-25, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and GFR was analyzed by Cr-51-EDTA clearance. The median levels of Hb (115 g/L), hsCRP (0.4 mg/L) and IL-6 (1.4 pg/mL) and the median erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR; 19 mm/h) remained stable after the first post-operative year. However, approximately half of the patients had a normocytic, normochromic anemia, and one-third had elevated levels of hsCRP (> 1 mg/L) and ESR (> 25 mm/h), indicating continuous low-grade inflammation. Low Hb levels preceded increased fibrosis in protocol biopsies taken at 1.5 and 3 years after transplantation and preceded decreased GFR by several years. Hb levels showed an inverse correlation with EPO levels (r = -0.206, p = 0.038) and ESR (r = -0.369, p <0.001), but not with hepcidin-25, hsCRP or IL-6 levels. The levels of the major inflammatory markers IL-6 and hsCRP did not show a significant correlation with GFR at either the early maintenance phase or later. In the multivariable analysis, low Hb levels performed better than any other marker with respect to predicting concomitant and subsequent GFR. Anemia, but not elevated inflammatory indices, was associated with poor concomitant and subsequent graft function during a 10-year follow-up in pediatric RTx patients.
  • Kettunen, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Background: ​In adults, vegetarian and vegan diets have been associated with decreased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. At the same time, lower plasma LDL-concentrations are reported in vegans than in omnivores. Classification of a vegetarian diet can be challenging, as the diets vary in the degree and categories of the avoided food products. Recently, plant-based diet indices (PDI), such as the provegetarian food pattern, have been introduced as​ a priori ​method to study vegetarianism as a continuum. Plant-based dietary indices weigh positively foods derived from plant sources, whereas animal foods are weighed negatively. Greater adherence to PDI has been associated with lower CVD mortality and lower incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). Meanwhile, little is known about the associations of plant-based eating and the risk of CVD in children. Aims:​ The aim of this thesis is to study plant-based eating as a continuous phenomenon in a group of Finnish preschoolers. Furthermore, the focus is on the animal source energy and its associations with dietary intakes, and cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. Materials and methods: ​In this thesis, the data from the cross-sectional MIRA Helsinki Study is used. In 2017, City of Helsinki started a pilot project, in which a vegan food option was offered in municipal daycare. At the same year, MIRA Helsinki Study was started to examine the nutritional status of children following a vegan diet. Altogether 42 children, aged 1–7-years, participated. At daycare, 18 of the children consumed a vegan diet, whereas 24 were omnivores. However, these diet categories did not apply to the child’s diet outside daycare. Children’s diet was assessed with 4-day food records and with food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Anthropometric measurements were taken and fasting blood samples collected. Blood samples were analysed with standard laboratory tests. Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) methods were used to examine serum cholesterol metabolism biomarkers and bile acids, respectively. For each food item (n=719) in the food record data, the weight proportion of animal content was estimated. The animal-origin energy content of each food item was calculated by multiplying the known energy content of the food item with the aforementioned score. The proportion of animal source energy (ASE) per subject across the 4-day food record was calculated by dividing the energy derived from animal sources with total energy intake. The correlations of ASE proportion with dietary intakes and surrogate markers of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism were investigated with the Pearson correlation analysis. A multiple linear regression model was used to test whether the ASE proportion explained the plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration when controlling for the child’s sex and maternal education. In addition, the associations between the ASE proportion and serum concentrations of 20 bile acid variables were examined with the Pearson correlation coefficient. The Benjamini-Hochberg procedure was used to correct for multiple analyses. Results: ​Among all of the participants, ASE proportions ranged from 0.00 to 0.52, with a median value of 0.275 (that is, 27.5% of total energy derived from animal sources).​ ​I​ntake of animal source energy correlated positively with SAFA (r=0.815, p<0.000), cholesterol (r=0.707, p<0.000) and protein (r=0.493, p<0.001) intakes. There was a strong negative correlation between the ASE proportion and fibre intake (r=–0.836, p<0.000). In a linear regression model, adjusted for child’s sex and mother’s educational level, the model explained 44% (p<.000) of the variance in the plasma LDL-C concentration. Every 0.1 increase in the ASE proportion (10E% increase in energy derived from animal sources) was associated with a 0.32 mmol/L higher plasma LDL-C concentration. Associations of ASE proportion and cholesterol surrogate markers were present: a higher intake of ASE correlated with lower concentrations of cholesterol absorption markers. A similar negative association with ASE proportion was present for two out of four cholesterol synthesis biomarkers. In addition, the bile acid synthesis biomarker (​7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one) correlated negatively with the ASE proportion. From the 20 serum bile acid variables studied only the ratio of tauro- to glyco-conjugated bile acids was significantly associated with the ASE proportion after correcting for multiple analyses. Conclusion:​ Among the study participants, animal source energy ratio was a powerful predictor of plasma LDL-C concentrations. Dietary patterns characterised by high intake of animal source energy were less likely to meet the dietary recommendations of fatty acid (SAFA and PUFA) intake. Our results on cholesterol metabolism need to be confirmed and replicated in future studies, which should include data on absolute measurements of cholesterol synthesis and absorption.
  • Sillanpaa, Heidi; Skogman, Barbro H.; Sarvas, Heikki; Seppala, Ilkka J. T.; Lahdenne, Pekka (2014)
  • Lehto, Elviira; Lehto, Reetta; Ray, Carola; Pajulahti, Riikka; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a major public health concern, especially in low socioeconomic groups. Sedentary time (SED) is an important predictor of obesity. To be able to diminish SED it is important to find modifiable predictors of sedentary behavior. The home environment associated with children’s SED may vary by parental socioeconomic status. This study aims to clarify the association between parental educational level (PEL) and the home environment of 3–6-year-old children, and to examine how home environment associates with children’s SED, and whether PEL modifies these associations. Methods A cross-sectional Increased health and wellbeing in preschools (DAGIS) study was conducted in 2015–2016 in Finland. The parents (n = 809) filled in questionnaires assessing PEL, and the home physical and social environment related to children’s SED. Children’s SED was measured with accelerometers, which the children (n = 745) wore for 1 week. Results High PEL was associated with a home environment restraining sedentary behaviour compared with low PEL. Stricter descriptive norms about screen time, considering it important to limit the child’s screen time, and satisfaction about the child’s screen time associated with children’s lower SED. The association with parental psychological control and SED was influenced by PEL. In the PEL stratified analyses, however, the associations between psychological control and SED did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Future interventions aiming to decrease SED should pay attention to relevant factors in children’s sedentary behaviour home environment. It is important to acknowledge the possible PEL differences in these factors.
  • Lehto, Elviira; Lehto, Reetta; Ray, Carola; Pajulahti, Riikka; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2021)
    Background: Childhood obesity is a major public health concern, especially in low socioeconomic groups. Sedentary time (SED) is an important predictor of obesity. To be able to diminish SED it is important to find modifiable predictors of sedentary behavior. The home environment associated with children's SED may vary by parental socioeconomic status. This study aims to clarify the association between parental educational level (PEL) and the home environment of 3-6-year-old children, and to examine how home environment associates with children's SED, and whether PEL modifies these associations. Methods: A cross-sectional Increased health and wellbeing in preschools (DAGIS) study was conducted in 2015-2016 in Finland. The parents (n = 809) filled in questionnaires assessing PEL, and the home physical and social environment related to children's SED. Children's SED was measured with accelerometers, which the children (n = 745) wore for 1 week. Results: High PEL was associated with a home environment restraining sedentary behaviour compared with low PEL. Stricter descriptive norms about screen time, considering it important to limit the child's screen time, and satisfaction about the child's screen time associated with children's lower SED. The association with parental psychological control and SED was influenced by PEL. In the PEL stratified analyses, however, the associations between psychological control and SED did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Future interventions aiming to decrease SED should pay attention to relevant factors in children's sedentary behaviour home environment. It is important to acknowledge the possible PEL differences in these factors.
  • Lindstrom, R.; Lepistö-Paisley, T.; Makkonen, T.; Reinvall, O.; Nieminen-von Wendt, T.; Alen, R.; Kujala, T. (2018)
    Objective: The present study explored the processing of emotional speech prosody in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but without marked language impairments (children with ASD [no LI]). Methods: The mismatch negativity (MMN)/the late discriminative negativity (LDN), reflecting pre-attentive auditory discrimination processes, and the P3a, indexing involuntary orienting to attention-catching changes, were recorded to natural word stimuli uttered with different emotional connotations (neutral, sad, scornful and commanding). Perceptual prosody discrimination was addressed with a behavioral sound-discrimination test. Results: Overall, children with ASD (no LI) were slower in behaviorally discriminating prosodic features of speech stimuli than typically developed control children. Further, smaller standard-stimulus event related potentials (ERPs) and MMN/LDNs were found in children with ASD (no LI) than in controls. In addition, the amplitude of the P3a was diminished and differentially distributed on the scalp in children with ASD (no LI) than in control children. Conclusions: Processing of words and changes in emotional speech prosody is impaired at various levels of information processing in school-aged children with ASD (no LI). Significance: The results suggest that low-level speech sound discrimination and orienting deficits might contribute to emotional speech prosody processing impairments observed in ASD. (C) 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Wibroe, Morten; Cappelen, Johan; Castor, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels; Grillner, Pernilla; Gudrunardottir, Thora; Gupta, Ramneek; Gustavsson, Bengt; Heyman, Mats; Holm, Stefan; Karppinen, Atte; Klausen, Camilla; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Mathiasen, Rene; Nilsson, Pelle; Nysom, Karsten; Persson, Karin; Rask, Olof; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Sehested, Astrid; Thomassen, Harald; Tonning-Olsson, Ingrid; Zetterqvist, Barbara; Juhler, Marianne (2017)
    Background: Central nervous system tumours constitute 25% of all childhood cancers; more than half are located in the posterior fossa and surgery is usually part of therapy. One of the most disabling late effects of posterior fossa tumour surgery is the cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) which has been reported in up to 39% of the patients but the exact incidence is uncertain since milder cases may be unrecognized. Recovery is usually incomplete. Reported risk factors are tumour type, midline location and brainstem involvement, but the exact aetiology, surgical and other risk factors, the clinical course and strategies for prevention and treatment are yet to be determined. Methods: This observational, prospective, multicentre study will include 500 children with posterior fossa tumours. It opened late 2014 with participation from 20 Nordic and Baltic centres. From 2016, five British centres and four Dutch centres will join with a total annual accrual of 130 patients. Three other major European centres are invited to join from 2016/17. Follow-up will run for 12 months after inclusion of the last patient. All patients are treated according to local practice. Clinical data are collected through standardized online registration at pre-determined time points pre- and postoperatively. Neurological status and speech functions are examined pre- operatively and postoperatively at 1-4 weeks, 2 and 12 months. Pre- and postoperative speech samples are recorded and analysed. Imaging will be reviewed centrally. Pathology is classified according to the 2007 WHO system. Germline DNA will be collected from all patients for associations between CMS characteristics and host genome variants including pathway profiles. Discussion: Through prospective and detailed collection of information on 1) differences in incidence and clinical course of CMS for different patient and tumour characteristics, 2) standardized surgical data and their association with CMS, 3) diversities and results of other therapeutic interventions, and 4) the role of host genome variants, we aim to achieve a better understanding of risk factors for and the clinical course of CMS - with the ultimate goal of defining strategies for prevention and treatment of this severely disabling condition.
  • Pollanen, Petra M.; Lempainen, Johanna; Laine, Antti-Pekka; Toppari, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Vahasalo, Paula; Ilonen, Jorma; Siljander, Heli; Knip, Mikael (2017)
    Aims/hypothesis In this study, we aimed to characterise rapid progressors to type 1 diabetes among children recruited from the general population, on the basis of HLA-conferred disease susceptibility. Methods We monitored 7410 HLA-predisposed children participating in the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) study for the development of beta cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes from birth over a median follow-up time of 16.2 years (range 0.9-21.1 years). Islet cell antibodies (ICA) and autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), GAD (GADA) and islet antigen 2 (IA-2A) were assessed as markers of beta cell autoimmunity. Rapid progression was defined as progression to clinical type 1 diabetes within 1.5 years of autoantibody seroconversion. We analysed the association between rapid progression and demographic and autoantibody characteristics as well as genetic markers, including 25 non-HLA SNPs predisposing to type 1 diabetes. Results Altogether, 1550 children (21%) tested positive for at least one diabetes-associated autoantibody in at least two samples, and 248 (16%) of seroconverters progressed to type 1 diabetes by the end of 2015. The median time from seroconversion to diagnosis was 0.51 years in rapid progressors (n = 42, 17%) and 5.4 years in slower progressors. Rapid progression was observed both among young (<5 years) and early pubertal children (> 7 years), resulting in a double-peak distribution of seroconversion age. Compared with slower progressors, rapid progressors had a higher frequency of positivity for multiple (>= 2) autoantibodies and had higher titres of ICA, IAA and IA-2A at seroconversion, and there was a higher prevalence of the secretor genotype in the FUT2 gene among those carrying the high-risk HLA genotype. Compared with autoantibody-positive non-progressors, rapid progressors were younger, were more likely to carry the high-risk HLA genotype and a predisposing SNP in the PTPN22 gene, had higher frequency of ICA, IAA, GADA and IA-2A positivity and multipositivity, and had higher titres of all four autoantibodies at seroconversion. Conclusions/interpretation At seroconversion, individuals with rapid progression to type 1 diabetes were characterised by a younger age, higher autoantibody titres, positivity for multiple autoantibodies and higher prevalence of a FUT2 SNP. The double-peak profile for seroconversion age among the rapid progressors demonstrates for the first time that rapid progression may take place not only in young children but also in children in early puberty. Rapid progressors might benefit from careful clinical follow-up and early preventive measures.
  • Pöllänen, Petra (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Aims/hypothesis To characterise rapid progressors to type 1 diabetes among children recruited from the general population based on HLA-conferred disease susceptibility. Methods We observed 7410 HLA-predisposed children participating in the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study from birth for development of beta cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes over a median follow-up time of 16.2 (range 0.9-21.1) years. Islet cell antibodies, and autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), GAD (GADA), and islet antigen 2 (IA-2A) were analysed as markers of beta cell autoimmunity. Rapid progression was defined as progression to clinical type 1 diabetes within 1.5 years after autoantibody seroconversion. We analysed the association between rapid progression and demographic and autoantibody characteristics as well as genetic markers including 25 non-HLA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predisposing to type 1 diabetes. Results Altogether 1645 children (22%) tested positive for at least one diabetes-associated autoantibody, and 248 (15%) of the seroconverters progressed to type 1 diabetes by the end of 2015. The median time from seroconversion to diagnosis was 0.51 years in rapid progressors (n=42, 17%), and 5.4 years in slower progressors. Rapid progression was observed both among young and early pubertal children. Compared to slower progressors, rapid progressors had higher frequency of multipositivity, higher titres of ICA, IAA, and IA-2A at seroconversion, and higher prevalence of the secretor genotype in the FUT2 gene. Compared to autoantibody-positive non-progressors, rapid progressors were younger, carried more often the high-risk HLA genotype, the FUT2 secretor genotype, and a predisposing SNP in the PTPN22 gene, had higher frequency of ICA, IAA, GADA, IA-2A, and multipositivity, and higher titres of all four autoantibodies at seroconversion. Conclusions At seroconversion, individuals with rapid progression to type 1 diabetes are characterised by young age, higher autoantibody titres, positivity for multiple autoantibodies, and higher prevalence of a FUT2 SNP. The double-peak profile of seroconversion age among the rapid progressors demonstrates for the first time that rapid progression may take place not only in young children, but also in children in early puberty. Rapid progressors might benefit from careful clinical follow-up and early preventive measures.
  • Lyly, Annina; Kontturi, Antti; Salo, Eeva; Nieminen, Tea; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna (2020)
    Objective Cervicofacial lymphadenitis caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is commonly treated with surgery or antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to analyze the utility of our new blood-based diagnostic method and the treatment protocol, surgery or observation alone, in NTM lymphadenitis in children. Methods All patients under 16 years of age with cervicofacial NTM lymphadenitis diagnosed and treated at Children’s Hospital or at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Helsinki University Hospital (Helsinki, Finland) in 2007-2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Results Fifty-two patients, 33 (63%) of whom were girls, were included in the study. The median age at initial presentation of the NTM lymphadenitis was 2.9 years. The novel blood-test had been performed on 49 (94%) of the patients and in all of them it was indicative of NTM infection. A sample for mycobacterial culture was available from 34 patients, and Mycobacterium avium was the most common species detected. Most patients (n=33, 63%) were treated conservatively with observation alone. Of these, nine patients (27%) did not develop a skin fistula, and the lymphadenitis resolved without drainage. Conclusions The novel blood test is clinically feasible method for diagnosing childhood cervicofacial NTM lymphadenitis noninvasively. Observation alone is a good alternative to surgery, without the risk of complications.
  • Määttä, Suvi; Gubbels, Jessica; Ray, Carola; Koivusilta, Leena; Nislin, Mari; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    The physical environment in preschool, covering all indoor and outdoor equipment, and the surfaces of the preschool yard, may have a large potential for increasing children's physical activity (PA). However, it is less clear which specific physical environmental factors are associated with children's PA. Cross-sectional associations between the individual observed items (e.g. fixed and portable equipment, surfaces, terrain in the grounds) as well as composite scores for the PA equipment on the one hand, and children's PA, measured by accelerometers, on the other, were investigated in a sample of 3-6 year old children (N = 778) attending preschool in Finland. Having balance equipment and trampolines in group facilities, having balance equipment, gym mats and sticks in the gym and having skipping ropes, sand and mostly hilly terrain on the outdoor playground were associated with children's higher PA, regardless of gender. On the contrary, having gravel as the terrain in the playground and having a seesaw outdoors were associated with lower PA levels, regardless of gender. Four significant interactions with gender were found, but none of the environmental predictors remained significant in the post-hoc gender-stratified analyses. Variety in PA equipment and playground terrain may be beneficial for increasing children's PA in preschools. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Lommi, Sohvi; Viljakainen, Heli T.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta (2020)
    Purpose To validate the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) in the Finnish population. Materials and methods In total 339 children (age 10-15 years) from primary schools in Southern Finland were evaluated at two time points. They answered the ChEAT and SCOFF test questions, and had their weight, height and waist circumference measured. Retesting was performed 4-6 weeks later. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using intra-class correlation (ICC), and internal consistency was examined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient (C-alpha). ChEAT was cross-calibrated against SCOFF and background variables. Factor analysis was performed to examine the factor structure of ChEAT. Results The 26-item ChEAT showed high internal consistency (C-alpha 0.79), however, a 24-item ChEAT showed even better internal consistency (C-alpha 0.84) and test-retest reliability (ICC 0.794). ChEAT scores demonstrated agreement with SCOFF scores (p <0.01). The mean ChEAT score was higher in overweight children than normal weight (p <0.001). Exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors (concerns about weight, limiting food intake, pressure to eat, and concerns about food), explaining 57.8% of the variance. Conclusions ChEAT is a valid and reliable tool for measuring eating attitudes in Finnish children. The 24-item ChEAT showed higher reliability than the 26-item ChEAT.
  • Lundin, Catarina; Forestier, Erik; Andersen, Mette Klarskov; Autio, Kirsi; Barbany, Gisela; Cavelier, Lucia; Golovleva, Irina; Heim, Sverre; Heinonen, Kristiina; Hovland, Randi; Johannsson, Johann H.; Kjeldsen, Eigil; Nordgren, Ann; Palmqvist, Lars; Johansson, Bertil; Nordic Soc Pediat Hematology Oncol; Swedish Cytogenetic Leukemia Study; NOPHO Leukemia Cytogenetic Study G (2014)
  • Nousiainen, Pauliina; Merras-Salmio, Laura; Aalto, Kristiina; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2014)
  • Leppänen, Marja H.; Ray, Carola; Wennman, Heini; Alexandrou, Christina; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Koivusilta, Leena; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Background: Recent 24-h movement guidelines for the early years established recommendations for physical activity (PA), screen time (ST), and sleep. To date, few studies have focused on compliance with meeting the guidelines and their associations with health outcomes. Thus, we aimed to investigate: 1) compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, and 2) associations between compliance and anthropometry in Finnish preschoolers. Methods: We utilized DAGIS survey data that were collected in 2015-2016 (N = 864). PA was assessed 24 h/day over 7 days using a waist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer. ST and sleep were reported by the parents during the same 7 days. Anthropometry was assessed using body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (WC, cm). Children were classified as meeting the guidelines if they averaged >= 180 min/day of PA, which consisted of >= 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity; Results: Children were physically active on average 390 (+/- 46.2) min/day and spent 86 (+/- 25.5) min/day in moderate-to-vigorous PA. They spent 76 (+/- 37.4) min/day on ST and had on average 10:21 (+/- 0:33) h:min/day of sleep. The compliance rate in meeting all three movement guidelines overall was 24%. The highest compliance rate was found for PA (85%), followed by sleep (76%) and ST (35%). Meeting guidelines separately for PA or sleep, or for both, were associated with lower WC (PA: B = -1.37, p <0.001; Sleep: B = -0.72, p = 0.009; PA + Sleep: B = -1.03, p <0.001). In addition, meeting guidelines for sleep or for both PA and sleep were associated with lower BMI (Sleep: B = -0.26, p = 0.027; PA + Sleep: B = -0.30, p = 0.007). There were no significant associations found regarding ST. Conclusions: Meeting recommendations for PA and sleep may have an important role in supporting a healthy weight status in young children. However, there is still a need to improve compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, especially for ST.
  • Leppänen, Marja H; Ray, Carola; Wennman, Heini; Alexandrou, Christina; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Koivusilta, Leena; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Recent 24-h movement guidelines for the early years established recommendations for physical activity (PA), screen time (ST), and sleep. To date, few studies have focused on compliance with meeting the guidelines and their associations with health outcomes. Thus, we aimed to investigate: 1) compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, and 2) associations between compliance and anthropometry in Finnish preschoolers. Methods We utilized DAGIS survey data that were collected in 2015–2016 (N = 864). PA was assessed 24 h/day over 7 days using a waist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer. ST and sleep were reported by the parents during the same 7 days. Anthropometry was assessed using body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and waist circumference (WC, cm). Children were classified as meeting the guidelines if they averaged ≥180 min/day of PA, which consisted of ≥60 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity; ≤60 min/day of ST; and 10–13 h/day of sleep. In total, 778 children (51% boys, mean age: 4.7 ± 0.9 years) were included in the study. The compliance with meeting the 24-h movement guidelines was calculated for each behavior separately and in combinations. Adjusted linear regression analyses were applied to examine associations of compliance with BMI and WC. Results Children were physically active on average 390 (±46.2) min/day and spent 86 (±25.5) min/day in moderate-to-vigorous PA. They spent 76 (±37.4) min/day on ST and had on average 10:21 (±0:33) h:min/day of sleep. The compliance rate in meeting all three movement guidelines overall was 24%. The highest compliance rate was found for PA (85%), followed by sleep (76%) and ST (35%). Meeting guidelines separately for PA or sleep, or for both, were associated with lower WC (PA: B = -1.37, p < 0.001; Sleep: B = -0.72, p = 0.009; PA + Sleep: B = -1.03, p < 0.001). In addition, meeting guidelines for sleep or for both PA and sleep were associated with lower BMI (Sleep: B = -0.26, p = 0.027; PA + Sleep: B = -0.30, p = 0.007). There were no significant associations found regarding ST. Conclusions Meeting recommendations for PA and sleep may have an important role in supporting a healthy weight status in young children. However, there is still a need to improve compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, especially for ST.