Browsing by Subject "Chronic pain"

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  • Rapo-Pylkkö, Susanna; Haanpää, Maija; Liira, Helena (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Chronic, mostly musculoskeletal pain is common among older adults. Little is known about the prognosis of chronic pain and the neuropathic pain qualities in older adults. We studied a cohort of community-dwelling older adults, clinically assessed their pain states, classified their type of pain (nociceptive, neuropathic or combined) and followed them up for a year. Methods At baseline, a geriatrician clinically examined all study patients and classified their type of pain in collaboration with a pain specialist. Pain, quality of life and mental health were measured by questionnaires (BPI, GDS-15, BAI and SF-36) and reassessed after 1 year. Results Despite chronic pain, all patients from the baseline cohort continued to live independently at 1 year. A total of 92 of 106 (87%) patients returned the follow-up questionnaire. Nociceptive pain on its own was present in 48 patients, whereas 44 patients also had neuropathic pain. Most patients (96%) had several pain states at baseline, and 13 patients reported a new pain state at follow-up. On average, there were no significant changes in the pain intensity, pain interference, mood or quality of life in either group between baseline and follow-up. Changes in pain were observed at the individual level, and both intensity and interference of pain at the follow-up had a negative correlation with the baseline value. Conclusions On average, chronic pain was persistent in our patients, but they were able to live independently despite their pain. At the individual level, both relief and exacerbation of pain were observed, supporting the notion that pain is not inevitable and unremitting among older adults.
  • Rapo-Pylkkö, Susanna; Haanpää, Maija; Liira, Helena (2017)
    Background: Chronic, mostly musculoskeletal pain is common among older adults. Little is known about the prognosis of chronic pain and the neuropathic pain qualities in older adults. We studied a cohort of community-dwelling older adults, clinically assessed their pain states, classified their type of pain (nociceptive, neuropathic or combined) and followed them up for a year. Methods: At baseline, a geriatrician clinically examined all study patients and classified their type of pain in collaboration with a pain specialist. Pain, quality of life and mental health were measured by questionnaires (BPI, GDS-15, BAI and SF-36) and reassessed after 1 year. Results: Despite chronic pain, all patients from the baseline cohort continued to live independently at 1 year. A total of 92 of 106 (87%) patients returned the follow-up questionnaire. Nociceptive pain on its own was present in 48 patients, whereas 44 patients also had neuropathic pain. Most patients (96%) had several pain states at baseline, and 13 patients reported a new pain state at follow-up. On average, there were no significant changes in the pain intensity, pain interference, mood or quality of life in either group between baseline and follow-up. Changes in pain were observed at the individual level, and both intensity and interference of pain at the follow-up had a negative correlation with the baseline value. Conclusions: On average, chronic pain was persistent in our patients, but they were able to live independently despite their pain. At the individual level, both relief and exacerbation of pain were observed, supporting the notion that pain is not inevitable and unremitting among older adults.
  • Rapo-Pylkkö, Susanna; Haanpää, Maija; Liira, Helena (2016)
    Objective: To present the occurrence, characteristics, etiology, interference, and medication of chronic pain among the elderly living independently at home. Design/setting: A total of 460 subjects in three cohorts aged 75, 80 and 85 years respectively received visits by communal home-care department nurses for a cross-sectional survey. Of them, 175 had chronic (duration 3 months) pain with an average intensity of 4/10 and/or moderate interference in daily life. Main outcome measures: Clinical assessment was performed for consenting subjects to define the location, intensity, etiology, type, interference and medications of chronic pain. Results: According to home visits, elderly people with chronic pain rated their health and mobility worse and felt sadder, lonelier and more tired than those without chronic pain. A geriatrician made clinical assessments for 106 patients with chronic pain in 2009-2013. Of them, 66 had three, 35 had two and 5 had one pain condition. The worst pain was musculoskeletal in 88 (83%) of patients. Pain was pure nociceptive in 61 (58%), pure neuropathic in 9 (8%), combined nociceptive and neuropathic pain in 34 (32%), and idiopathic in 2 (2%) patients. On a numerical rating scale from 0 to 10, the mean and maximal intensity of the worst pain was 5.7 and 7.7, respectively, while the mean pain interference was 5.9. Mean pain intensity and maximal pain intensity decreased by age. Duration of pain was longer than 5 years in 51 (48%) patients. Regular pain medication was used by 82 (77%) patients, most commonly paracetamol or NSAIDs. Although pain limited the lives of the elderly with chronic pain, they were as satisfied with their lives as those without chronic pain. Conclusions: Elderly people in our study often suffered from chronic pain, mostly musculoskeletal pain, and the origin of pain was neuropathic in up to 40% of these cases. However, elderly people with chronic pain rarely used the medications specifically for neuropathic pain. Based on increased loneliness, sadness and tiredness, as well as decreased subjective health and mobility, the quality of life was decreased among those with chronic pain compared with those without pain.
  • Pierides, Georgios A.; Paajanen, Hannu E.; Vironen, Jaana H. (2016)
    Introduction: Chronic postherniorrhaphy pain is the foremost setback of today's inguinal hernia repair. Finding predictors for it affects implants, operative techniques and allows for preventive measures. Methods: Prospectively collected data from 932 outpatient open inguinal hernia operations between 2003 and 2010 were subjected to regression analysis. Visual analogue scale score (VAS) at least a year after operation and a measurement of chronic pain at one year were the target variables. Results: Chronic pain was present in 99 (11.5%) patients one year after operation. Independent predictors for the occurrence of chronic pain were positively recurrence (Odds ratio, OR 6.77 vs. no recurrence, P = 0.005), complication (OR 5.16 vs. no complication, P = 0.002), mid-density mesh (OR 2.28 vs. lightweight mesh, P = 0.012), higher preoperative VAS score (OR 1.15, P = 0.006) and negatively higher age (OR 0.98, P = 0.027). Predictors for a higher postoperative VAS score were recurrence (regression coefficient, RC, 1.49 vs. no recurrence, P = 0.001), complication (RC 0.76 vs. no complication, P = 0.016), heavyweight mesh (RC 0.50 vs. lightweight mesh, P = 0.046) and higher preoperative VAS level (RC 0.10, P <0.001). Conclusions: Recurrence, complication, mesh weight, preoperative VAS score and age are predictors for the occurrence chronic pain after open mesh based inguinal hernia repair. Recurrence, complication, mesh weight and preoperative VAS score are predictors of postherniorrhaphy VAS level. (C) 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Vartiainen, Pekka; Heiskanen, Tarja; Sintonen, Harri; Kalso, Eija; Roine, Risto P. (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measurement aims to capture the complete, subjective health state of the patients and to comprehensively evaluate treatment outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess, using the 15D HRQoL instrument, HRQoL in a sample of 1528 chronic pain patients, referred to the multidisciplinary pain clinic of the Helsinki University Hospital during 2004 to 2012. The 15D results of the chronic pain patients were compared with those of a matched general population. To analyse the properties of the 15D, the results were compared with the preadmission questionnaire of the pain clinic, containing questions about background factors, aspects of the pain, and its impact on life. The mean 15D score of the chronic pain patients was one of the lowest reported using 15D; 0.710 vs 0.922 in the general population. It equalled the score of advanced cancer patients in palliative care. The 15D scores were normally distributed, and 15D showed both statistically and clinically significant discriminative power in pain-related background factors. Visual analogue scale on pain intensity, visual analogue scale on pain-related distress, and the impact of pain on daily life correlated well with the 15D score. Pain intensity did not have independent predictive value on the score. The results indicate heavy perceived burden of illness in chronic pain patients. In light of the questions analysed, 15D appears sensitive and discriminative in chronic pain patients in tertiary care. Instead of pain intensity, the impaired HRQoL in chronic pain was mainly because of the psychosocial aspects of pain.
  • Ahonen-Siirtola, Mirella; Nevala, Terhi; Vironen, Jaana; Kössi, Jyrki; Pinta, Tarja; Niemeläinen, Susanna; Keränen, Ulla; Ward, Jaana; Vento, Pälvi; Karvonen, Jukka; Ohtonen, Pasi; Mäkelä, Jyrki; Rautio, Tero (2020)
    Purpose Laparoscopic incisional ventral hernia repair (LIVHR) is often followed by seroma formation, bulging and failure to restore abdominal wall function. These outcomes are risk factors for hernia recurrence, chronic pain and poor quality of life (QoL). We aimed to evaluate whether LIVHR combined with defect closure (hybrid) follows as a diminished seroma formation and thereby has a lower rate of hernia recurrence and chronic pain compared to standard LIVHR. Methods This study is a multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial. From November 2012 to May 2015, 193 patients undergoing LIVHR for primary incisional hernia with fascial defect size from 2 to 7 cm were recruited in 11 Finnish hospitals. Patients were randomised to either a laparoscopic (LG) or a hybrid (HG) repair group. The main outcome measure was hernia recurrence, evaluated clinically and radiologically at a 1-year follow-up visit. At the same time, chronic pain scores and QoL were also measured. Results At the 1-year-control visit, we found no difference in hernia recurrence between the study groups. Altogether, 11 recurrent hernias were found in ultrasound examination, producing a recurrence rate of 6.4%. Of these recurrences, 6 (6.7%) were in the LG group and 5 (6.1%) were in the HG group (p > 0.90). The visual analogue scores for pain were low in both groups; the mean visual analogue scale (VAS) was 1.5 in LG and 1.4 in HG (p = 0.50). QoL improved significantly comparing preoperative status to 1 year after operation in both groups since the bodily pain score increased by 7.8 points (p <0.001) and physical functioning by 4.3 points (p = 0.014). Conclusion Long-term follow-up is needed to demonstrate the potential advantage of a hybrid operation with fascial defect closure. Both techniques had low hernia recurrence rates 1 year after operation. LIVHR reduces chronic pain and physical impairment and improves QoL. Trial Registry: Clinical trial number NCT02542085.
  • Kress, Hans-Georg; Ahlbeck, Karsten; Aldington, Dominic; Alon, Eli; Coaccioli, Stefano; Coluzzi, Flaminia; Huygen, Frank; Jaksch, Wolfgang; Kalso, Eija; Kocot-Kepska, Magdalena; Mangas, Ana Cristina; Margarit Ferri, Cesar; Morlion, Bart; Mueller-Schwefe, Gerhard; Nicolaou, Andrew; Perez Hernandez, Concepcion; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Schaefer, Michael; Sichere, Patrick (2014)
  • Morlion, Bart; Coluzzi, Flaminia; Aldington, Dominic; Kocot-Kepska, Magdalena; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Mangas, Ana Cristina; Ahlbeck, Karsten; Kalso, Eija (2018)
    Objective: Pain is one of the most common reasons for an individual to consult their primary care physician, with most chronic pain being treated in the primary care setting. However, many primary care physicians/non-pain medicine specialists lack enough awareness, education and skills to manage pain patients appropriately, and there is currently no clear, common consensus/formal definition of pain chronification. Methods: This article, based on an international Change Pain Chronic Advisory Board meeting which was held in Wiesbaden, Germany, in October 2016, provides primary care physicians/non-pain medicine specialists with a narrative overview of pain chronification, including underlying physiological and psychosocial processes, predictive factors for pain chronification, a brief summary of preventive strategies, and the role of primary care physicians and non-pain medicine specialists in the holistic management of pain chronification. Results: Based on currently available evidence, we propose the following consensus-based definition of pain chronification which provides a common framework to raise awareness among non-pain medicine specialists: Pain chronification describes the process of transient pain progressing into persistent pain; pain processing changes as a result of an imbalance between pain amplification and pain inhibition; genetic, environmental and biopsychosocial factors determine the risk, the degree, and time-course of chronification. Conclusions: Early intervention plays an important role in preventing pain chronification and, as key influencers in the management of patients with acute pain, it is critical that primary care physicians are equipped with the necessary awareness, education and skills to manage pain patients appropriately.
  • Kakko, Johan; Gedeon, Charlotte; Sandell, Mikael; Grelz, Henrik; Birkemose, Inge; Clausen, Thomas; Rúnarsdóttir, Valgerður; Simojoki, Kaarlo; Littlewood, Richard; Alho, Hannu; Nyberg, Fred (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Long-term use of opioid analgesics (OA) for chronic pain may result in opioid use disorder (OUD). This is associated with adverse outcomes for individuals, families and society. Treatment needs of people with OUD related to chronic pain are different compared to dependence related to use, and also injection, of illicit opioids. In Nordic countries, day-to-day practical advice to assist clinical decision-making is insufficient. Aim To develop principles based on expert clinical insights for treatment of OUD related to the long-term use of OA in the context of chronic pain. Methods Current status including an assessment of barriers to effective treatment in Finland, Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden was defined using a patient pathway model. Evidence to describe best practice was identified from published literature, clinical guidelines and expert recommendations from practice experience. Results Availability of national treatment guidelines for OUD related to chronic pain is limited across the Nordics. Important barriers to effective care identified: patients unlikely to present for help, healthcare system set up limits success, diagnosis tools not used, referral pathways unclear and treatment choices not elucidated. Principles include the development of a specific treatment pathway, awareness/ education programs for teams in primary care, guidance on use of diagnostic tools and a flexible treatment plan to encourage best practice in referral, treatment assessment, choice and ongoing management via an integrated care pathway. Healthcare systems and registries in Nordic countries offer an opportunity to further research and identify population risks and solutions. Conclusions There is an opportunity to improve outcomes for patients with OUD related to chronic pain by developing and introducing care pathways tailored to specific needs of the population.
  • Kakko, Johan; Gedeon, Charlotte; Sandell, Mikael; Grelz, Henrik; Birkemose, Inge; Clausen, Thomas; Runarsdottir, Valgerour; Simojoki, Kaarlo; Littlewood, Richard; Alho, Hannu; Nyberg, Fred (2018)
    Background: Long-term use of opioid analgesics (OA) for chronic pain may result in opioid use disorder (OUD). This is associated with adverse outcomes for individuals, families and society. Treatment needs of people with OUD related to chronic pain are different compared to dependence related to use, and also injection, of illicit opioids. In Nordic countries, day-to-day practical advice to assist clinical decision-making is insufficient. Aim: To develop principles based on expert clinical insights for treatment of OUD related to the long-term use of OA in the context of chronic pain. Methods: Current status including an assessment of barriers to effective treatment in Finland, Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden was defined using a patient pathway model. Evidence to describe best practice was identified from published literature, clinical guidelines and expert recommendations from practice experience. Results: Availability of national treatment guidelines for OUD related to chronic pain is limited across the Nordics. Important barriers to effective care identified: patients unlikely to present for help, healthcare system set up limits success, diagnosis tools not used, referral pathways unclear and treatment choices not elucidated. Principles include the development of a specific treatment pathway, awareness/education programs for teams in primary care, guidance on use of diagnostic tools and a flexible treatment plan to encourage best practice in referral, treatment assessment, choice and ongoing management via an integrated care pathway. Healthcare systems and registries in Nordic countries offer an opportunity to further research and identify population risks and solutions. Conclusions: There is an opportunity to improve outcomes for patients with OUD related to chronic pain by developing and introducing care pathways tailored to specific needs of the population.