Browsing by Subject "Citizenship"

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  • Adebayo, Gabriel O; Mansikka, Jan-Erik (2018)
    This paper discusses citizenship in Finnish religious education (RE) in relation to human security. It traces the characteristics of human security that connect citizenship, religion, and education in Finnish policy documents. The article focuses on basic education (grades 7–9). Its data were analyzed employing qualitative content analysis (QCA). The findings indicate that citizenship in Finnish RE entails personal security concerns dealing with psychological and human rights issues. These are found to be essentially human security as conceptualized by the United Nations (UN). However, Finnish policy documents sparingly utilize human security in explicit terms. Finland rather emphasizes the practical applications of human security. Incorporation of explicit global citizen and human rights issues into RE in the new Finnish curriculum seems to project critical global citizenship. This is found to promote human security. Following Finland’s bid for practical application of human security, we recommend (but cautiously) that human security be explicitly integrated into the Finnish RE curriculum.
  • Koikkalainen, Saara (2019)
    Citizenship is defined in terms of national contexts, institutions, or practices. Apart from noting one’s membership in a certain polity, citizenship can be understood to have – at least – three meanings as follows: it can signify access, identification, and practice. This article examines these three dimensions based on the experiences of highly skilled Finns living in other European Union member states. Do they adopt the legal citizenship of the new country to gain access to legal and civic rights? Do they begin to identify with and assimilate to their new home country? Is citizenship played out in the everyday life as practice? The article concludes that thanks to European citizenship, all three interpretations are present at the same time.
  • De Graeve, Katrien; Mäkinen, Katariina; Rossi, Riikka (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
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  • Nordberg, Camilla Christina (2015)
    In a time of welfare state restructuring, migrant background ‘stay-at-home’ mothers have become a politicised social category, constructed as unproductive and socially disengaged. The article examines the ways newly arrived women, who take care of children at home, enact and negotiate their own and their families’ early citizenisation process, with a particular focus on institutional encounters. Drawing on two case stories from the capital region of Finland, I discuss the dynamics of mothers’ claims-making for a transitionary citizenship, from the sphere of the home via social rights based public daycare to language training and education. I conclude that the constrained agency migrant mothers are subjected to, risks shaping a new gendered and racialised order of parenthood and ultimately of citizenship in the transforming welfare states.
  • Karambiri, Mawa; Brockhaus, Maria (2019)
    Based on an empirical study of struggles concerning access to land and political inclusion (and exclusion) in the context of a forest conservation project in rural Burkina Faso, this paper analyses environmental politics through the lens of citizenship. In Centre-east Burkina Faso, a peasant resistance to a newly demarcated forest conservation zone turns into an identity and political conflict involving an international conservation organization, the state, decentralized and customary authorities. Based on shared history and residency, a new citizenship of migrants had emerged. These new citizens, finding their given lands within the new forest conservation area, rejected the project-proposed forest boundaries, put forward their citizenship entitlements and engaged in resistance. Eventually they also found themselves in conflict with their polity, lost their claims along with their still-fragile citizenship. Consequently, they were evicted from the forest and labelled as les deguerpis, denied citizenship and became denizens. Beyond confirming the fragile, processual, nature of citizenship these findings also bear theoretical and conceptual implications, challenge the mainstream way environmental politics are analysed and suggest the need to understand political belonging and citizenship as the very basis of environmental struggles.
  • Syväoja, Nita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tiivistelmä – Referat – Abstract One of the most critical post-independence issues of nation-building and inclusive national political, economic and social development is inequality between regions and ethnic communities in Namibia. Namibia is a diverse ethno-cultural country, and the plurality of different ethnic and linguistic communities create difficulties considering holistic national development processes since variety of needs should be supported and provided. Although Namibia has been performing well according various developmental indicators since the independence in 1990, a number of ethnic minorities are in vulnerable and marginalized position in the country. The study elaborates the issue of what constitutes the marginalization of ethnic minorities in Namibia in order to understand the mechanisms and forces that maintain certain ethnic communities marginalized in the society, as well as comprehend the developmental impact of marginalization. The question will be examined by investigating three interrelated aspects: 1) The definition and identification of ethnic marginalized communities; 2) How recognition is constituted by the state and what is the impact on the ethnic communities? and; 3) What are the key developmental issues that constitute/maintain the situation? All these issues will be explored by investigating the key interrelated mechanisms and forces that constitute the marginalization of ethnic communities in Namibia including historical patterns of exclusion, ethnic labelling, the state policies and practices, and political and socio-economic citizenship. In order to shed light on the topic, 26 qualitative thematic interviews have been conducted among young Namibian respondents and Namibian and international experts, complemented by a literature review. It was found out, that all respondents as well as the state acknowledge the existence of ethnic marginalized communities and their marginalized position in the country. Further, it is generally acknowledged which ethnic communities are considered to be marginalized. The main argument is, that the situation of certain ethnic communities is worse off in Namibia in relation to other ethnic communities and there are number of internal and external interrelated and partly conditional issues that affect and maintain their marginalization. Firstly, the relation between ethnicity, indigenousness and minority status to marginalization was examined. First and foremost, it was recognized that ethnic background, political and socio-economiccitizenship as well as inidgenousness influence the marginalization of ethnic communities in Namibia.It was also found out that despite the phenomena and terminology regarding indigenousness and minority status are debated and questioned in the Namibian context, the definitions, identification and categorization of these phenomena are applied to some extent. Moreover, the issue of what constitutes the recognition or non-recognition and what is the impact on ethnic marginalized communities was examined. It became evident, that there are different levels and types of recognition. All Namibians are recognized as citizens, but not necessarily as a community that affects the situation of distinct communities e.g. through specific rights or entitlements. The key issue of recognition in Namibia is the official recognition of a traditional authority as per the Traditional Authorities Act (1995). Traditional authorities have power at local and national levels, and they are important e.g. in terms of land allocation. If ethnic community do not have officially recognized traditional authority, they are even in more marginalized position in the country than other marginalized ethnic communities. Lastly, the general political and socio-economic status is one of the strongest determinants that affect and maintain the marginalization of ethnic communities. The key political and socio-economic interrelated internal and external issues identified are e.g. overall discrimination, lack of self-worth and agency, lack of recognition and inadequate political representation, poverty and lack of basic needs, inadequate access to services and opportunities, and lack of secure access to land and resources.