Browsing by Subject "Class Teacher (in Swedish)"

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  • Ruokonen, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The appearance ideals of today are very narrow and put excessive pressure on individuals to look a certain way. The ideals are seen as so unrealistic that most people cannot reach them. This has led to an increase in body dysmorphia to a degree where it nowadays is normal to be unsatisfied with one’s body. A negative body image can have several serious consequences, such as mental health problems, eating disorders and social and economic problems. Earlier studies have shown that problems with body image also affect children: the majority of children seem to be unsatisfied with their bodies, and many try to lose weight through unhealthy methods, such as skipping meals. Therefore, there is a big need in supporting children’s body image and researchers have highlighted schools as adequate places for this work. The aim of this study is to examine primary school teachers’ comprehensions about children’s body image, as well as their comprehensions about their possibilities to support their students’ body image in school. Six teachers, who at the time of the study were working in grades 1-6 in the primary school in Finland, participated in this study. Semi-structured interviews were used, and data was analyzed by using thematic analysis that took place in the qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. The teachers in this study considered body image as a highly important topic. The teachers seemed to understand what influences children’s body image and they could observe children’s body image in different situations, such as during school lunch and through paying attention to children’s behavior. They also had a strong will of supporting their students’ body image, but at the same time the teachers felt that the lack of knowledge, resources and guidelines made them feel uncomfortable with working with body image. The teachers disagreed on whether supporting children’s body image really was part of their work responsibilities, but despite of this, there was a consensus of the importance that teachers need to be good role models for their students and that teachers should work for a school where every child feels worthy and safe. Based on the results of this study, it can be said that body image needs to be more emphasized in future school curriculums and that teachers need more knowledge in body image and more tools to feel comfortable with teaching this topic. The results of this study can benefit further studies in body image and studies regarding the school’s role in the work with supporting children’s body image.
  • Bardy, Helena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aim: The purpose of the study was to create an image of the teachers' future vision for the school's activities and to outline an organizational culture that supports this activity. The research questions of the study were: 1. "How do teachers shape a future vision for the school?" and 2. "What kind of organizational culture do teachers experience as supporting for the school's future activities?" The research problem is formed by a time characterized by constant change, which places high demands on schools. The research provides a tool for and is part of a larger development process the school undergoes. Methods: The research was conducted as a case study of a specific school. The school had 15 teachers, nine of which participated in the research. The used data were essays written by teachers using a one-question method and the analysis-method was analysis of narrative. The research approach was of abductive form and the focus of the study was hermeneutical. Results and conclusions: Based on the analyzed data, a future vision for the school's activities has been created and an organizational culture that supports the future activities has been described. The most significant elements in the results are the teachers' common vision of a school as a safe environment where both students and staff feel good, appreciated and taken into account. Concrete actionplans for implementation are also formed. The study presents a collaboratively created vision and action plan for the development of the organizational culture in the school and is used as a tool in the ongoing development process of the school.
  • Lindblad, Christel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Purpose. Effect of the method “Grej of the Day” (GOTD) and sustainability pedagogics about Agenda 2030 is analyzed. The purpose is to support teaching of facts about Agenda 2030, raise the pupils’ motivation for environmental education and improve their attitudes. This study aims to see if pupils get more knowledge and better environmental attitudes after GOTD- microlessons about goals in Agenda 2030. The pupils’ feelings after the GOTD were analyzed. A swedish study shows that teachers think that their pupils get more knowledge and better motivation when teaching SO-subjects (society subjects) with GOTD. Methods. 22 pupils in grades 5–6 participated in this study. This was an action research and the pupils had 4 microlessons about 4 goals (12–15) from Agenda 2030. After the two first lessons a school project was analyzed using content analysis to see if something should be improved. Knowledge and attitudes related to Agenda 2030 were studied with a survey before and after the intervention. The survey also had two open questions about feelings before and after a GOTD-microlesson. Questions about the knowledge were based on Grön Flagg- surveys and results are presented by percentages of right and wrong. The survey about attitudes included statements to take a stand on on a Likert-scale. Results were analyzed using SPSS and presented statistically. The open questions were analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusions. Knowledge before the intervention was very good and all the pupils gave the right answer to 7 of the 24 questions both before and after the intervention. In some questions about Goal 12 Sustainable consumtion and production the pupils lacked some knowledge and the intervention improved their knowledge a little. Attitudes about the environmental goals in Agenda 2030 were good and only a little improvement could be detected after the intervention. The improvement was not statistically significant. Content analysis of the answers to the open questions show that GOTD creates inner motivation for learning. The method “Grej of the Day” appears to be useful as a complement while teaching environmental issues in elementary schools.
  • Främling, Niels (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Previous studies have shown that school fatigue and school related burnout has increased among upper secondary school students, furthermore psychological wellbeing in general has decreased among youths. Top level athletes who seek to combine studies with sports are also at a high risk of burning out in school or in sport. Earlier studies have shown that interventions based on positive psychology can support both studies and sports and thus help prevent burnout. The purpose of this study is to explore how top-level athletes in Finnish upper secondary school experience that an intervention course based on positive psychology can support them in their sport, studies and well-being in general. The research material was composed of seven (7) semi-structured interviews with top-level athletes currently studying at a general upper secondary school in Finland. All participants had completed the course “Studera starkt” during the schoolyear 2020-2021. The interviews were conducted during the spring of 2021 by videocall and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. All participants expressed that the course had supported them in their athletic career in some way. All participants except one also experienced that the course had helped them with their schoolwork. On top of this all participants expressed that the course had improved their well-being in general. The conclusion was that the course “Studera starkt” effectively supported top-level athletes who also studied at a general upper secondary school with their athletic career, schoolwork and well-being.
  • Carpentier, Carola (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Purpose. Around 3-15% of all pupils have dyslexia. According to the core curriculum, student assessment should be conducted in a comprehensive way, considering students’ individual difficulties. However, assessment instructions might be considered vague. Earlier studies have also shown that teachers may perceive assessment as complicated, particularly when it comes to students with special needs. The purpose of the study is to describe, analyze and interpret how secondary school teachers experience assessment and grading of pupils with dyslexia. The purpose is also to explore how pupils are enabled to show their knowledge in an adequate way. Furthermore, teachers’ perceptions of assessment fairness with regard to pupils with dyslexia are discussed. Methods. The research was conducted as a qualitative study with a phenomenographic research approach. The material consists of eight semi-structured, individual interviews with teachers working in two Swedish-speaking secondary schools i Finland. The collected material was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results and conclusions. Teachers expressed a genuine will to support pupils with dyslexia and they stated that they could assess pupils in a flexible way. Cooperation with special education teachers was perceived as important. The versatility of the core curriculum was regarded as an advantage for students with dyslexia. The most used accommodations were oral responses, extended time and test writing in a small group. Double assessment, prioritized content and adapted tests were also used, but teachers had different approaches. A student’s positive lesson activity could lead to a better grade. Language teachers struggled with the assessment of misspelled words. IT software was not widely used. The teachers stated that they did their best to take students’ difficulties into consideration when giving them grades, and they normally also thought their assessment was fair. The study shows that teachers do their very best to assess students with dyslexia, but there are differences in procedures between teachers, which might lead to unequal assessment.
  • Mäkelä, Viola (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    COVID-19 has had a large impact on education since schools around the world had to quickly move to distance learning. Consequently, this has possibly affected the equality of education. The main focus of this study is to find out how equality is constructed in Finnish teachers’ survey replies about their experiences during the state of emergency and to find out how these teachers in basic education have taken pupils from lower social classes into account according to their experiences when they have been distance teaching. This study was executed as a qualitative study. The research approach of this study was phenomenological. The study was conducted as a part of the project DISKO, digitalisation and distance education in Swedish-speaking school. The data collection was conducted through the E-lomake e-form. 17 teachers from basic education participated in the study from both Swedish-speaking and Finnish-speaking schools in Finland. The analysis in this study was conducted as a thematic analysis. The majority of teachers in basic education have experienced that schools have not been equal during the Corona spring of 2020. However, this study shows that there are teachers that have experienced this period as equal. The way distance education has been organised has varied between schools. Support measures have also not been organised according to guidelines. Living circumstances and digital equipment in relation to equality were also highlighted during this period. Teachers in basic education have taken pupils from lower social classes into account by lending computers and calling the pupils. Distance education has also been planned out so that pupils who do not get any support from their homes are able to do the exercises by themselves. However, it emerged that there were teachers and schools that had not taken pupils’ socioeconomic status into account. Results in this study indicate that education has not been equal for all children during the state of emergency in the spring of 2020 according to teachers’ experiences. The future holds, how severe the effects of COVID-19 have been on children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds.
  • Anderson, Polly (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Previous studies have shown that teachers' job satisfaction has decreased in recent years and that teachers at the beginning of their careers are at great risk of leaving the profession at an early stage. Satisfaction with work and career has shown several positive consequences, including well-being, willingness to stay in the profession and work engagement. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine how satisfied Finnish newly qualified class teachers are with their careers, and to identify their career success criteria. The purpose is also to investigate whether the class teachers feel that their degree has been adequate and if it has prepared them for working life, and to investigate what a class teacher earns. The relationships between career satisfaction, teacher education adequacy and salary are examined. The research problems are examined regarding gender, additional education, and employment relation. The study involved 137 alumni from the University of Helsinki's class teacher education who gradu-ated between 2012 and 2015. The informants responded electronically to Aarresaari's national career follow-up questionnaire. The research design for the study was triangulation with the aim of analyzing quantitative and qualitative data parallelly. The material was analyzed quantitatively with the statisti-cal program SPSS, while open answers were analyzed with thematic content analysis. The class teachers were fairly satisfied with their careers, they deemed that the teacher education was adequate and that it provided them with the necessary skills. Important career success criteria were type of employment relation, career advancement, professional agent, nature of work, school, and social relations. Although the quantitative results showed that the class teachers considered the education to be adequate, the thematic content analysis revealed that there were several shortcom-ings including student relations, cooperation, and teacher role. The correlation test showed that ca-reer satisfaction had weak but positive correlations with salary and adequacy of the education. Class teachers earn on average 3002 euros a month, and men earn more than women. Newly qualified class teachers' career success criteria should be important assets for promoting career satisfaction and retaining class teachers in the profession. Class teacher education needs to be sensitive to changes in society, while newly qualified class teachers should be offered appropriate support in adapting to the practical work.
  • Yliaho-Lehtonen, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The Finnish language might even feel foreign to many Swedish-speaking people in Ostrobothnia as they seldom get to use their Finnish language skills in daily life. Due to this, it might turn out to be challenging to motivate pupils to learn Finnish in school. In this study I have analysed the problem to see whether there is a recalcitrance against learning Finnish among the Swedish-speaking pupils in Ostrobothnia. Do these pupils find the Finnish language unnecessary in their lives? If so – what are the underlying causes? In what way is this problem handled by the teachers? The main purpose for this study is two-pieced: I want to learn how pupils think about the language teaching they get – are they motivated to learn Finnish in school, and do they have negative attitudes against learning the language? I also want to know what kind of teaching solutions the teachers have for motivating their pupils. Do the teachers recall motivation-loss among the pupils? I have used The Self Determination Theory by Deci and Ryan (2002) and The Expectancy Value Theory by Eccles and Wigfield (2000) as my theoretical background. I have also used some of the extensive research among bilingualism of Slotte-Lüttge and Forsman (2013) in this study.This is a qualitative research and the data is collected through interviews with four Finnish-teachers in both 2005 and 2018 and eight eight-graders in 2019. I have found out what the motivation for learning Finnish looks like amongst pupils in Swedish-speaking schools in Ostrobothnia. And I have also got to learn how the teachers take notice to these aspects in their planning of the language-teaching in the classroom. The Finnish-teachers witness great difficulties with the Finnish language among the pupils as the teachers often are the only representatives of the language. The pupils almost never get to use their Finnish language skills outside of school. There has been a progress in language teaching and the digitalization has resulted in a more versatile language education during the years 2005 and 2019. The pupils expect more opportunities for communicative language skills and there is a great need of authentic Finnish language environments in the Swedish-speaking parts of Ostrobothnia.
  • Ansa, Patrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Purpose: Studies show that Finnish children and youth are insufficiently physically active. The program Liikkuva koulu (author’s free translation from Finnish: ”A school in motion”) began as a pilot project in 2010, but has since grown to be a nationwide program. The aim of the program is to provide students with physically more active and pleasant schooldays, to support their learning and increase their well-being. The activity itself for Liikkuva koulu can in many ways be seen to require a student-focused approach to teaching. Thus the theoretical background for this study came to comprise of ”Approaches to Teaching” by Prosser & Trigwell (1999). The aim of this study is to examine teachers’ experiences of physical activity as a part of their teaching. Furthermore an objective for this study is to explore in what way a teacher’s approach to teaching may relate to those experiences and execution of physically active lessons. Methods: The research was conducted as a quantitative study. A survey was sent to five Swedish-speaking elementary schools within the Helsinki region. The survey included 30 multiple-choice questions/statements along with 4 open-ended questions. A total of N = 27 teachers participated in the study by responding to the survey. The data was mainly analyzed quantitatively (qualitative data analysis was applied to the open-ended questions). Results and conclusions: The teachers mainly implemented physically active lessons and their experiences of Liikkuva koulu were as well mainly positive. For many of these positive experiences, they correlated with each other. The teachers reported mainly a student-focused approach to teaching. The study found a correlation between higher teacher-focused approach to teaching and a stronger experience of Liikkuva koulu being experienced as an additional burden within teaching. There was also a dim correlation between the teacher’s (increased) age and less experience of Liikkuva koulu providing for increased students’ participation.
  • Larma, Sonja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aim. According to the law, every finish child has the right to a safe school environment. Research indicates that schools play a vital role in preventing cyberbullying. For efficient prevention of cyberbullying in schools, schools need for example a carefully planned anti-bullying policies with correct definitions of both bullying and cyberbullying. The plans should also contain methods for prevention and intervention. The supply of research on cyberbullying in elementary schools is limited, and thus this study will examine the guidelines elementary schools have against cyberbullying, how schools actively are preventing cyberbullying and how school personnel perceive the current work done against cyberbullying. Methods. The data for this study was collected qualitatively, through semi-structured interviews with a phenomenographic research approach. The seven interviewees who participated consisted of principals, school counsellors and class teachers in two Swedish speaking schools. The data was analysed using a thematic analysis in the program Atlas.ti 8. Results and conclusions. The results of this study shows that the schools do not have an extensive definition of cyberbullying nor have they included preventive measures against cyberbullying in their anti-bullying policies. The schools do however prevent cyberbullying for example through scheduled discussions with the pupils. According to the participants the schools work against cyberbullying works relatively well. The majority of the participants thought that the schools could have clearer and more comprehensive guidelines against cyberbullying in their policies. The schools anti-bullying policies do not include how the schools will act in case cyberbullying occurs outside school but among the schools pupils. Based on the results the schools could review their policies and clarify the responsibility among school personnel. This would lead to a more consistent approach and have long-lasting effects.
  • Mansner-Lönnqvist, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Purpose. The law on equality between women and men forms the basis of the schools' gender equality work. The law also aims to prevent discrimination on the grounds of gender identity or expression. Previous research has shown that to conduct successful gender equality work it is not sufficient that teachers have a personal interest in gender equality since this often leads to temporary and random efforts and great confusion about how gen-der equality work should be done. The purpose of the study is to describe, analyze and interpret how gender is expressed in schools' gender equality plans, as both the Act on Gender Equality and the curriculum foundations can be considered to require a diverse gender perspective in all school activities. Methods. The survey was conducted as a critical discourse analysis by analyzing the gender equality plans of seven Finnish Swedish primary schools. As an analysis model, Fairclough's three-dimensional analysis model was used. Results and conclusions. The survey culminated in three gender discourses: the gender inequality discourse, the two-gender discourse and the discourse of fear. The texts showed a clear division between girls and boys and a lack of gender diversity. A fear of making mistakes in the work on gender equality also emerged. The survey shows that gender equality work focuses on girls and boys and that those who do not identify themselves as girls or boys remain invisible.
  • Enberg, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Purpose. There has been a rapid technological development in our society. New inventions have made many jobs easier, but in return there is a demand for educated personnel. This in turn puts higher demands on peoples literacy. In the Pisa surveys the Finnish pupils have shown a high level of reading literacy, but unfortunately the trend has been negative and the number of pupils with low levels of literacy have increased. This development can be observed especially among boys. In Pisa 2018 20% of the boys were weak readers with a literacy not sufficient for further studies. The same survey found a decline in attitudes towards reading and 63% of the boys replied that they read only if they have to. The goal of this thesis is to investigate if the same patterns can be found among pupils in a primary school. The study examines how often the pupils read for enjoyment on their spare time and what motivates their reading behaviour. Furthermore, the study will examine whether there are differences between boys and girls or between pupils at different grades. Methods. The study was conducted in the autumn of 2020 in a Finnish primary school. The data was collected with a survey. The pupils took part in the study during schooltime. The sample consisted of all the pupils from grades 3 to 6 in the investigated school (N=236). The study received 157 responses of which 156 were accepted and analysed. The material was analysed with the statistical program SPSS. Results and conclusions. The results of the study showed big differences in pupils reading behaviour already in the primary school. 79% of the pupils read regularly on their spare time, but 21% read more sporadically or not at all. The result also showed that the girls read more often on their spear time than the boys do. The pupils showed a strong self-efficacy and a positive attitude toward reading There was a tendency for a decline in intrinsic motivation and attitude among older pupils. In this study the reading behaviour could be explained by gender, intrinsic motivation, attitude, and the perception that you read only if you have to.
  • Siebrand, Sander (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    There’s a discrepancy between what class teacher students learn during their educational programs and the reality they face in the classroom. Oftentimes class teachers are not prepared for the complexity of the classroom. This corresponds with the difference between theory and practice. Hardly any theory can be applied directly. Here, reflection can form a bridge between the contends of the education program and the real-life teacher practice. In this study I have examined how simulation as a method supports pre-service teachers' reflections, and more specifically what kind of reflections simulation induces in them. The methods I have used are threefold: observation, stimulated recall and interviewing. The study was structured in such a way that it corresponds reflection-in-action, reflection-on-action and reflection-for-action. I observed and recorded students when they were engaging in a simulation, afterwards we discussed the reflections the simulation brought about, and lastly, I interviewed them about the implications of carrying out the simulation for the future. The study showed that simulation induces refection on a technical, practical as well as critical level. On all three levels the number of themes was about the same. When comparing the different forms of reflection, one could say that simulation induced certain themes, and that these themes were discussed in more depth during the discussion afterwards. In the light of the results, simulation would be a useful addition to internships for students to develop reflective skills in teacher education.
  • Sirelius, Lia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Purpose. Equality is seen as the value that is the basis for inclusive school. Inclusive school can be seen as meaning each individual student's participation in their own local school community regardless of any challenges. More and more schools are working towards the goal of creating a common school for all students and thus inclusion is a current theme. The aim of this study was to get an idea of teachers' attitudes and possible prejudices towards inclusion which in themselves may have an inhibiting effect on the development work related to inclusive procedures by answering the research questions: "What kind of perceptions, values and possible prejudices does teachers express regarding inclusion?", "What challenges does inclusion entail in teachers' work?" and "What are the positive aspects of inclusion for students and teachers?" Theory and methods. For this quantitative research data was collected by using the Teacher's Attitude to Inclusion Scale (TAIS). TAIS includes questions and statements that are answered on a liking scale. The measuring instrument's 30 statements have been categorized according to the themes "Expected outcomes", "Workload", "Inclusion as a value" and "Children's rights". The analysis method is descriptive statistical. Reliability, variations and correlations have been examined in IBM SSPS version 26. Results and conclusions. The results show that teachers perceive inclusion as demanding. Both negative attitudes and prejudices towards inclusion emerge, which itself can complicate the development of inclusive procedures at school level. Nevertheless, teachers express that inclusion of students with special educational needs in general education groups has a promoting effect on both understanding and acceptance of differences in the group's other students.
  • Vikström, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    One of the fundamental principles of the Finnish basic education is promoting equality and preventing inequality on different levels. This means that every school is obliged to ensure equal access to education for all students, but also to foster a so-called equity education and support the students into becoming good human beings, that strive for equality and positive change themselves. Deduced from theory and previous research, this study assumed that the teacher’s approach to diversity as well as the school’s equity task affects the prerequisites to foster equity education. The aim of this study is thus to gain insight into Finnish teachers’ perceptions of both the ideal and practical aspects of the equity work in primary school, as well as how the approach to diversity relates to this. The empirical research that was conducted to meet this aim was based on the following research questions: 1) How is the diversity-category constructed in teacher-discourses? 2) How are prerequisites for equity in primary school created in teacher-discourses? The empirical part of the study relied on a discourse analytical research design, and the data was gathered through qualitative interviews with five teachers in total from three different schools. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed according to discourse analytical principles using Fairclough’s three-dimensional model for analysis on three levels: text, discourse practice, and sociocultural practice. The results showed that the teachers had varying perceptions of diversity as well as what the school’s equity task really entails. Some understood diversity as a concept entailing all students, while others understood it as something deviant and non-Finnish. The perception of diversity also had implications for the equity work; the previously mentioned understanding of diversity as non-Finnish positioned Finnishness as the direct opposite of the diversity-category, and subsequently Finnishness was considered both the norm and the base for equality. Said understanding, as well as a lack of knowledge and critical perspectives, subsequently weakened teachers’ prerequisites for equity education. In conclusion, the results show that comprehensive and relevant education for all teachers in the field would be beneficial.
  • Niiranen, Alexandra (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this thesis is to identify what perceptions, working methods and experiences subject-teachers have of student athletes in secondary school. Student athletes in secondary school have a great burden with their dual careers combining sports and education. Previous research shows that a dual career can be stressful but also very rewarding both within sports and life overall. The assessment of students in secondary school is done by subject teachers, which puts them in a significant role for the academic future of young athletes. In particular, subjects as mother tongue tuition and mathematics have been given an important place as these subjects are emphasized more in the admission to further education after secondary school. This study aims to analyze teachers’ perceptions of student athletes and their education using three main research questions; (1) what perceptions do teachers have about student athletes’ education and academic achievements, (2) what factors including self-regulation play a role in student athletes’ school performance from a teacher perspective, and (3) what type of educational support do teachers feel they can offer student athletes? This thesis is based on a qualitative study. The research material consists of eight interviews of teachers in Swedish and literature as well as mathematics, that work in secondary schools in the capital region. The material was collected with the help of semi-structured interviews and analyzed using a phenomenographic method. The result of this study shows that teachers perceive student athletes as caring both in their schoolwork and in how they plan and structure their time. The assessment of student athletes is to a certain extent perceived to be more difficult, but since the assessment extends over several criteria, individual challenges are not seen as a problem. Student athletes with a dual career are perceived to need and develop more self-regulatory abilities than other students, but an apparent need for a broad support network is also noticeable. However, the results also indicate that teachers are concerned over the overall load that student athletes experience and the many demands they face from sports, school and their families.
  • Niemi, Kia-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Despite an increasing need for intercultural education, a lack of successful implementation seems to prevail both in Finland and internationally. This thesis offers insight into how student teachers talk about intercultural education in their respective teacher education pro-grams. Based on Gorski’s instructional challenges and previous research on student teachers’ perceived resistance towards intercultural education, this thesis seeks to examine and analyse current discourses among student teachers in Finland. To accomplish this, Gee’s model of discourse analysis was used to examine interviews with 25 student teachers, from four different teacher education programs across Finland. The interviews were conducted as semi-structured interviews in the beginning of 2016, and they were either group interviews or individual interviews. The findings of this study echo previous research, mirroring student teacher’s resistance towards and the use of intercultural education. Student teachers seem to view intercultural education as an abstract concept and something they must teach students as a subject matter, rather than an approach to teaching. The results, however, indicate that existing resistance originates from superficial learning experiences regarding intercultural education and misconceptions, as student teachers almost without exception use ethnicity and intercultural education interchangeably. Implications, including international collaboration between teacher education programs and mandatory substitution periods are additionally discussed
  • Sundqvist, Matilda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The religious landscape in Finland and Europe is changing. Due to secularization, interest in religion has long diminished and religion has been considered part of history and irrelevant to the modern, secular society. With globalization and new religious movements, however, religion has gained renewed relevance and religious diversity in Europe is growing. With religious diversity, the need for religious literacy, or general knowledge of religion, is also increasing. Globalization has also given rise to the educational approach global education, i.e. education for the future and for justice, equality and sustainable development. Although religion undeniably has a big influence on many parts of our world and its people, religious dimensions or religious literacy is not taken into account in global education. This study provides insight into how religious teachers perceive religious literacy and its forms of expression in lower secondary school, where this is a knowledge requirement, and how religious literacy is related to global education and global citizenship. The empirical material was collected through interviews with seven teachers who teach religion in grades 7 - 9. The interviews held via the digital meeting service Zoom, were then transcribed and analyzed using Braun and Clarke's (2006) model for thematic analysis. The analysis resulted in 5 themes with 8 sub-themes on the first research question and 3 themes with 5 sub-themes on the second. The results showed that the religious teachers had a broad view of religious literacy which included both theoretical knowledge and practical skills - with an emphasis on the practical. The development of religious literacy was described by the teachers as a long and complex process that is often not completed in comprehensive school, although this is a knowledge requirement for the end of grade 9. Concerning the relationship between religious literacy and global education, the teachers expressed that religious literacy can promote global education and sustainable development since a religiously literate person is better able to carry out these tasks. The teachers also emphasized the relevance of religious literacy in the future and pointed to many potential consequences of religious illiteracy. A conclusion of the study is that the inclusion of religious literacy within the framework of global education, could contribute to strengthening the general religious literacy.
  • Laitinen, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Finnish teachers’ workload has been high for a long time and because of the Covid- 19 pandemic their workload has further grown (Eskonen, 2018; FSL, 2019; Korkeakivi, 2018; Kröger, 2020; OAJ, 2018a; OAJ, 2018b; OAJ, 2020; Råholm, 2020). Which means that the Finnish teachers’ heavy workload is an issue that needs to be solved. Previous studies have shown that co- teaching can have a positive impact on teachers’ workload (Ahtiainen et al., 2011, s. 36–37; Pulkkinen & Rytivaara, 2015, s. 9; Walther-Thomas, 1997, s. 401). Therefore, the aim of this study is to form an understanding of teachers’ experiences of co- teaching and its impact on their workload in basic education. The participants of the study consisted of 24 teachers in basic education in Swedish speaking schools in Finland. The data collection was done through qualitative surveys in an electronic format. The data was analyzed by using thematic analysis. The teachers in the study experienced that they, through the co- teaching partnership, had more social support, could share their work responsibilities and learn from each other. In addition to this, the participants experienced that they had better opportunities to form an inclusive and differentiated classroom through co-teaching. Therefore, co- teaching can lessen teachers’ workload. Although, the participants of the study also experienced lack of resources, as well as conflicts and an unfair work distribution in the co-teaching partnership. Through this, co- teaching can also lead to a greater workload. Lastly, the teachers in the study also experienced that resources, good collaboration and positive attitudes towards co-teaching promotes the use of co- teaching. Consequently, lack of recourses, poor collaboration and negative attitudes hinders the use of successful co- teaching. However, some teachers experienced that there is nothing that hinders the use of co- teaching.
  • Sandström, Daniela (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The summer vacation in Finland is currently 10-11 weeks long and lasts from week 22 to the middle of August. The curriculum doesn't address the summer vacation at all despite the length of the summer vacation. Also, the guidelines regarding summer vacation in the law of basic education are few. Previous research has shown that the length of the summer vacation has a negative impact on the students' achievements. At the same time, mathematics is valued most important in the new admission reform upon admission to third stage education. Given the lack of guidelines for the summer vacation, previous research, and the renewed admission reform, I want to map out how class teachers perceive the summer vacation length, time, and impact on the students' learning and achievements in mathematics. The purpose of this master's thesis is to examine what class teachers think about the time and length of the summer vacation, and how they perceive the summer vacations impact on students' learning and achievements in mathematics. This study has been conducted as a qualitative study with a phenomenographic research approach. The material has been collected through semi-structured interviews where a total of eight class teachers from three different schools have been interviewed. The material from the interviews has been analyzed through content analysis. The results indicate that the teachers' perceptions regarding the time of the summer vacation varies, while the teachers' perceptions regarding the length seemed to be quite similar. The perceptions regarding the summer vacation time varied between that some teachers think the time is good, while others want to move the summer vacation two weeks forward, or, earlier so the summer vacation always would start in May. Regarding the length of the summer vacation, all teachers considered the length good as it is. Further, the results indicate that the teachers experience the summer vacation both positively and negatively regarding the students' learning. For example, the teachers find the summer vacation positive for the students' mental health. The negative impact, according to the teachers, is that the students' language skills deteriorate. Also, the teachers experience both positive, negative, and neutral impacts, regarding the impact of the summer vacation on students' achievements in mathematics. The positive effects were psychological factors, and the negative was, according to the teachers, that the students seemed to forget some mathematics.