Browsing by Subject "Class Teacher, Education"

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  • Särkelä, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Objectives. Sexuality is a part of humanity. Sexuality develops through our lives and includes various stages of growth and development. Sex education is part of human rights and WHO (World Health Organization) has defined Europe wide standards for sex education. Previous studies show that sex education increases more knowledge and strengthens the child’s self-esteem. On the other hand, studies have shown teachers experiencing sex education challenging and they need further education on it. The aim of this research was to determine perceptions and experiences of primary school teachers about sex education. Methods. The data of this qualitative research was collected by interviewing five primary school teachers. The material is analyzed by the method of analysis of the content. Interviews are transcribed and transcribed material decrypted into sections sorted by the topic. These themes emerged from the data itself and on research issues. By using content analysis, the purpose was to create a view of teacher’s perceptions and experiences and reflect them with the theoretical frame of reference of research. Results and conclusions. Teachers considered sex education important and relevant. The world is changing all the time and teacher’s knowledge should keep up with the change. Content areas of sex education were mainly familiar to teachers, but some flaws in their knowledge were also found. Teachers perceived the subject as a natural thing, but they also identified the challenging nature of the subject. Sex education raised some uncertainty among teachers which was mostly due to lack of education. Further education of teachers would improve sex education on primary schools and strengthens teachers’ faith in themselves as sex educators.
  • Pesonen, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The purpose of this Master’s thesis was to research possible tensions between the aims of anti-racism and the Finnish educational institution. The thesis describes situations where these tensions become apparent in the Finnish educational institution and in anti-racist work. The thesis makes use of previous research that sees racism as a process of racialization and othering, as well as understands racism pri- marily as a structure. The thesis is contextualized in the Finnish educational system where the idea of white normativity is maintained. Previous studies have shown that debate on racism is ignored in Fin- nish educational institution even though it is part of everyday reality of the entire school, students and teachers. The purpose of this thesis is to understand the situations that may challenge the introduction of anti-racism into the Finnish educational system. The data consisted of interviews with specialists which were arranged in the spring of 2021. I intervie- wed three specialists of anti-racism who have taken anti-racism forward in Finland. In addition, all specialists had connection to the educational system through their work history or education. I applied thematic analysis in my research. I applied the phases of the thematic analysis of Braun and Clarke in particular. I understood the research process from the perspective of the anti-racist agenda and feminist methodology. My research results are structured through three themes that describe the position of anti-racism in the Finnish educational system. According to the results, the Finnish educational system operated on a white narrative that defined the idea of normal. Based on my results, it can be concluded that the aims of anti- racism are not easily achieved in an inflexible educational system. In educational system, power and institutional racism are easily left out of the debate. The educational system was described through glorifying speech that praised equality and non-discrimination. Teachers were also identified as bene- factors through this speech. However, the results show that the Finnish educational system cannot se- parate itself from racism. Due to the contradiction, it is not easy to incorporate anti-racism or any form of critical pedagogy to a Finnish educational system. The results also showed that racism is easily out- sourced and ignored in the Finnish educational system. This happened through curricula, teachers, and practices in the school system. The inflexibility of the school system and the difficulty to position ins- titutional racism in the Finnish educational system united all the three themes.
  • Karhunen, Nelli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The aim of this study is to examine how much other than Finnish or Finnish as a second language subject teachers use literature education in multidisciplinary teaching and how much they collaborate with Finnish or Finnish as a second language teachers. Previous studies show that while teachers attach great importance to multidisciplinary teaching, cross-subject collaboration requires a lot of extra work from teachers. Research shows that reading literature is holistically linked to the better performance of pupils at school. This study provides information on how much teachers cooperate in literature and what kind of collaboration is. The investigation will also examine the reasons why there is no cooperation. The data of this study have been based on the Finnish and Swedish responses of the survey data sent to other subject teachers in the Lukuklaani project, which received 611 answers. Among the answers to the survey sent to other subject teachers, I looked at the questions that had been used to investigate the literary education carried out by subject teachers. With regard to the answers to closed questions, I examined qualitative indicators and open answers through qualitative content analysis. The results of my research showed that the other subject teachers use very little of literary education in their teaching. In multidisciplinary learning modules, literary education was used as an upwardly differentiated material and in deepening the knowledge of the subject through non-fiction. The reason why literature education was not utilised was that the subject taught by the subject teacher was not involved in the school's multidisciplinary teaching, or that multidisciplinary learning modules were limited. Subject teachers cooperated with Finnish or Finnish as a second language teachers most often every academic year or less often. Closer cooperation was less common. Cooperation was carried out in the teaching of multidisciplinary learning entities, the teaching and evaluation of writing and literacy, language maintenance, expressive skills and the organization of school parties. The reason for the lack of cooperation was the unwillingness of Finnish teachers and the lack of time. The study shows that subject teachers do quite a bit of multidisciplinary cooperation, but do not express a reluctance to cooperate.
  • Humalajoki, Samuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Objectives. Studies show that intelligence is declining in Western countries. Researchers ’concerns have widened into a debate over whether society is depleting or whether there is an issue in statistics. The purpose of this study is to sort out the epistemological beliefs of the Mensians in relation to the decline in intelligence. It also explores how incremental theory of intelligence is reflected in the beliefs of Mensians. The aim of the study is to give people who are found to be intelligent the opportunity to describe the evolution of intelligence to broaden the understanding of the phenomenon. Because intelligence is a complex concept, the theoretical background of the study contains broad research of measurement and definition of intelligence. Methods. This qualitative research is part of a phenomenographic research tradition. The material of the study is secondary data from a previous master’s thesis, which examined the beliefs of Mensians in the development of intelligence. This study focuses on the open-ended response in the data, in which Mensians describe why they believe intelligence is declining in the West. In accordance with the phenomenographic research approach, the material was first analysed by classifying the beliefs found in the material into units. Those units were formed into descriptive categories that reflect the relationship between the beliefs associated with the phenomenon in a larger picture. Results and conclusions. According to the results of the study, Mensians widely believe that intelligence is built on a person’s own making. Therefore, incremental beliefs were strongly present in the epistemological beliefs, but entity-theoretic beliefs were also found. The Mensians saw many reasons for the decline in intelligence, the most common being digitalisation and transition in society. Other answers include the breeding of stupid people, chemicalization and life habits. There was concern about the decline in intelligence and it was understood to be part of the negative development of modern society. On the other hand, many Mensans also questioned the whole phenomenon and suspected it as a misunderstanding.
  • Besic, Sameer (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Combining studying and goal-oriented sports is challenging. This master's thesis looks at the path of successful high-level athletes to the top and how they have experienced the combining of two careers. The aim is to look at the experience’s athletes have of combining sports careers and studies at different levels of education and what they have found challenging and what has been, on the other hand, successful. On average, sports careers at the top level are short, and after the end of their careers, many athletes find employment in jobs corresponding to their studies. The best way we can understand athletes' experiences is if we are also aware of how to develop into a top athlete. The data of the study consists of seven interviews. Seven Finnish athletes who have had successful sports careers and who also have had varied study experiences were interviewed for the purpose of the study. The study data was collected in autumn 2021 through a thematic interview. The interviews were recorded and then transcribed. A phenomenographic approach was used in the analysis of the data. Based on the research results, athletes had similar experiences combining study and sports in comprehensive school. Combining these did not require any special effort. However, the sports-oriented classes in comprehensive school provided an opportunity for morning training. In high school, different experiences were experienced. It was possible to combine sports and studies in a regular high school, but it required initiative and support from the school side. In sports schools, it was easier to combine the two careers, and the school provided significant support to promote both athlete careers. In higher education studies, combining sports and studies was considered challenging. In particular, courses requiring attendance slowed down the completion of studies. However, the interviewees agreed that studying and graduating is possible during a sports career. Studying was seen as a counterbalance to the sport. Sports academies aim to simplify the combination of sports and studies. However, not all athletes knew how to take advantage of the services provided by sports academies because most of them were unaware of their existence. In the future, the activities of sports academies should be developed so that it is even more efficient and accessible to athletes.
  • Vackström, Eveliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract The interest towards the subject of the study awakened because the field of student councelling is in major changes in Finland due to the most recent changes in the law enforcement regarding student councelling and transferring information from the basic education to secondary education. In this study that was put into practice as a qualitative research the articulated phase of basic and secondary education is inspected from the perspective of the student counselling of a pupil with special needs and the transfer of information. Six student counsellors of basic education were interviewed for the study with a structured interview. The data of the study consisted of those interviews. The data of the study was analyzed by theming the research results. It was discovered that there is no overestimating the importance of the articulated phase of basic and secondary education. The student counselor of a pupil with special needs requires getting familiar with the individual needs in education of the pupil and getting familiar with questions of the health of the pupil or other aspects in pupil’s life that may affect the choice of vocation. The student counsellors do a lot of multiprofessional cooperation with the special education teachers and student counsellors of secondary education. Pointing out facts regarding to pupil’s education and other aspects that can affect the choice of vocation was important but the student counsellors also pointed out that supporting the student and their self-image was important as well as encouraging the student. The importance of coopetaring with the pupil’s guarding was also brought up in regards of pondering the choice of vocation and also in regards of getting the permission to transfer information. The discoveries of the study also pointed out that the obligation to maintain secrecy complicates transferring information between basic and secondary education and it needs changes. It was discovered in the study that more coherent courses of action are needed in regarding transferring information throughout the whole country of Finland.
  • Veinola, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Currently in Finland there are very limited number of assessment tools in use to identify mathematical learning difficulties in children aged 9 to 16. This study examines the validity of the FUNA-DB measure for assessing mathematical learning difficulties in terms of concurrent validity. The objective of this study is to determine how FUNA-DB correlates with a previously developed RMAT measure, and how, compared to the RMAT measure, FUNA-DB identifies those children and adolescents who potentially should be suspected to have a mathematical learning difficulty. This research is part of a larger FUNA research project in Finland. The study was performed by having 318 children tested with both FUNA-DB and RMAT measurements. The analysis of the data was performed using quantitative research methods. The correlation of FUNA-DB and RMAT was measured by task sections using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. In addition, configural frequency analysis was used to determine whether both FUNA-DB and RMAT recognize the same weak students. In addition, descriptive statistics were examined. The results of this study showed that FUNA-DB and RMAT correlated with each other for all task sections (p <0.001). In addition, statistically significant correlation was identified between task sections where the tasks did not correspond to each other in terms of content. FUNA-DB and RMAT both identified the same low-performing students (p<0.01). The results of this study confirm that FUNA-DB appears to be a valid and effective assessment tool in identifying mathematical learning difficulties. Moreover, the study showed that the language best spoken by the student was not relevant to the results of the FUNA-DB measurement, while in the RMAT test, those who spoke Finnish outperformed (p<0.05) the students who did not speak Finnish as their mother tongue. Therefore, FUNA-DB does not seem to be tied to a student’s language skills and it specifically measures math proficiency, as it should. However, the as-sessment of the validity and reliability of the FUNA-DB test in this study remains rather one-sided, yet there are ongoing studies which examine the reliability and validity of FUNA-DB in other means.
  • Ronkainen, Inka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims. The aim of the study is to find out what kind of expectancies and values 7 th graders hold in phenomenon-based learning, mathematics, physics and Finnish language. Subjective task values, which are intrinsic value, utility value and attainment value, have been studied a extensively, but phenomenon-based learning is a new perspective in this research field, as it only became established in Finnish schools with the latest curriculum. Subjective expectancies, values, self-efficacy and costs influence adolescents’ performance and school related choices. The study uses expectation value theory applying person-oriented approach. This research answers three research questions: 1) What kind of motivational profiles can be identified in phenomenon-based learning, mathematics, science and Finnish language among middle school students based on expectancies and values? 2) How is the gender distributed in the identified profile groups? 3) Do the identified profile groups differ in terms of school performance? Methods. The data used in the study was collected with an electronic questionnaire, which was answered by 1013 7th grade students from Helsinki. The first research question was studied using latent profile analysis. The second research question was examined by cross-tabulation and the third was examined by one-way analysis of variance. Results and conclusions. Using the profile analysis, five different profile groups were identified from the respondents: phenomenon-oriented (23%), motivated and well-being (24%), weakly motivated (15%), motivated but loaded (16%) and science-oriented (26%). Phenomenon-oriented students were more interested in phenomenon-based learning than in other subjects, although they also considered traditional subjects important. Motivated and well-being were interested and felt competent in all subjects; they were not burdened by studies. Weakly motivated did not value any of the subjects and the study was perceived as burdensome and challenging. Motivated but loaded students hold high attainment value across subject domains but they also showed high cost value. Science-oriented students hold high interest value in mathematics and physics but low interest in phenomenon-based learning. The results were in line with the previous study, but phenomenon-oriented were identified as a new group. Girls were more evenly distributed in all profile groups, while the percentage of boys was clearly lower in phenomenon-oriented group compared to girls. School performance were lower in weakly motivated students compared to other groups.
  • Kivistö, Iina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    According to the National core curriculum for basic education (2014), schools should guide students towards a sustainable lifestyle, as well as understanding that people are part of na-ture and completely dependent on the surrounding ecosystem. Schools should also address emotions related to climate change, as children have experienced, for example, sadness, fear, and helplessness. Studies suggest that climate education in schools is very fragmented and variable and should be improved. Studies show that children’s books are a good way to deal with difficult issues and emotions among children. In this thesis, I examine what climate emotions occur in children’s books on climate change and how the books present climate change. Based on these questions, I evaluate how children's books on climate change could be used in climate education. This thesis is a qualitative study. Four Finnish children's books on climate change published during 2019 and 2020 were used as data. The books are aimed at children of primary school age. The books were analyzed by using content analysis. In the second research question, I used theory-guided content analysis, in which the guiding theory was the model of ecological literacy by Wong and Kumpulainen (2019). The characters in the books had a wide range of climate emotions: distressing emotions from fear to anxiety, worry, and joy and enthusiasm. The climate emotions in the books were simi-lar to emotions that people have related to climate change. The books described climate change and issues related to climate change in many ways. Children's books on climate change can be useful in climate education, as they can help children deal with difficult climate emotions, as well as understand climate change as a wider phenomenon. More research is needed on how books could improve children’s ecological literacy, and more specifically cli-mate literacy.
  • Peuramäki, Milja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The study examined Finnish classroom teachers’ self-compassion and perfectionism in relation to burnout. The study sought to find out how self-compassion and perfectionism affect the burnout experienced by classroom teachers and what kind of relationship there is between self- esteem and perfectionism. Previous studies have shown that perfectionistic concerns are a risk factor for burnout. Self-compassion has been found to affect very positively for a person's well- being and resilience. In Finland, no research has been conducted among teachers about these topics. The data was collected via an online questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to teachers by Luokanopettajat ry -email list and Alakoulun Aarreaitta -Facebook group. The questionnaire measured burnout by Maslach Burnout Invetory, perfectionism by The Short Almost Perfect and self-compassion by Self-Compassion Short Form. Answers were received from 153 classroom teachers. Self-compassion was negatively correlated with perfectionist concerns and all dimensions of burnout. Perfectionist concerns were positively correlated with all dimensions of burnout. Two different groups of perfectionism and self-compassion were found. The second group (46%) consisted of teachers with high self-criticism, high perfectionistic concerns and perfectionistic strivings and low self-compassion This group was named as self-critical teachers. Teachers in the second group (54%) were more self-compassionate and less critical about themselves. This group was named as self-compassionate teachers. Self-critical teachers experienced more exhaustion than self-compassionate teachers. No statistically significant difference was found between these groups for cynicism and inefficacy. Based on the correlation matrix, self- compassion was negatively and perfectionistic concerns were positively related to all the dimensions of burnout. Perfectionistic strivings correlated negatively with inefficacy so striving for perfection seems to be protective factor against inefficacy. According to the study, self- criticism and perfectionist concerns are predisposing factors for burnout. Self-compassion seems to protect teachers from burnout.
  • Kantanen, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Continuous learning, identity and ecology are strong phenomena in our time. They are also quite wide-ranging. Previous research has shown an interaction between learning and identity. However, there is just little research on the link between learning and identity and there has been a need for it. Previous research has found that, for example, individual-relevant learning subjects has influenced his or her willingness to learn. Thus, the meanings contained in identity affect in its own way continuous learning. The aim of this research was to study continuous learning and the meanings of learning subjects in the context of coloring with natural dyes. The aim of this research is to determine, analyze and construe the learning and the meanings contained in identity that take place in the learning process related to natural coloring. Research material consisted of 26 interviews, which were interviewed as part of the BioColour research project led by Riikka Räisänen. Interviews were transcribed by an outside party. The research material was analyzed by content analysis. The research material was coded, classified and themed. The classifications were made based on previous research, but the subcategories come from the research material. The themed was done through themes that come from the research material. Using content analysis, it was possible to create a wide picture of the topic under this research. Those, who dye with natural colorants, learn in many ways. They learn especially through oblique knowledge transfer, where different courses were the largest class in the learning process. The interviewees described also that they learned, among other things, through their experiments. Those, who dye with natural colorants, experienced meanings on the learning subject. They experienced personal meanings: related to health, self and emotions, as well as ethical meanings: environmental and traditional meanings. Based on the results, it could be said that the those, who dye with natural colorants, experienced meanings on the subject that they were during their lifetime, but the connection between this experienced meaningful subject and their learning cannot be studied with this research.
  • Pauloaho, Nina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Goals. At the heart of this study are two significant phenomena, motivation and interest. The study focuses on verifying the relationship between these two phenomena as well as examining the relationship of the set background variables to perceived motivation. In terms of its theoretical background, the study draws on the theory of self-determination developed by Deci and Ryan (1985) and on the theory of interest of Schiefel and Krapp (1981). The theories were selected as part of the study partly because they have been used together in similar studies in the past (see, for example, Müller & Louw, 2004), but motivation theory especially because it is currently one of the most prevalent motivation theories in Finland. This study focuses on the study motivation of students at the University of Helsinki's Faculty of Education, especially class teacher students, as well as their interest in their studies. The aim is to find both explanatory factors for students' study motivation and differences in study motivation, and to find out whether the perceived interest in one's own studies correlates with the perceived study motivation. Methods. The research material of the study consists of the answers of 234 students of the Faculty of Education of the University of Helsinki to a three-part questionnaire, which included, in addition to background questions, questions related to study motivation and interest in one's own studies. The study used AMS (Academic Motivation Scale) and SIQ (Study Interest Questionnaire) scales based on the background theory of the study to measure motivation and interest, both of which are widely used, especially in the study of university students. The focus of the study was on class teacher students (N = 124) and the answers of other students of the Faculty of Education (N = 110) were used as a control group. The responses were also examined as coherent material. The analysis of the data was performed with IBM SPSS software and the analysis methods include exploratory factor analysis, correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results and conclusions. The motivation and interest scales used could be found to be functional in structure, and factor analysis was used to generate factor models that support the theory. Examining the correlations between background variables and study motivation, a few statistically significant associations were found between, among other things, age and amotivation and intrinsic motivation. Regression analysis could be used to produce an explanatory model that showed interest in explaining learning motivation in quite a number of different areas of motivation. Background variables, in turn, did not produce a statistically significant explanatory model for study motivation. The most important result of this study turned out to be the verification of the connection between interest and study motivation.
  • Äärilä, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Aims. Mild disturbances to a calm working environment are part of the everyday life in school. These disturbances can emerge through a wide variety of reasons, and often either the teacher or the teaching assistant will need to intervene to address disruptive behaviour. The teacher or the teaching assistant may intervene in the disruptive behaviour by verbal or non-verbal means. One of the means of non-verbal communication is physical touch. Physical touch is a natural element of multimodal interactions between people and has been found to have various developmental benefits as well as positive effects on well-being. The aim of this thesis was to examine situations where the calm working environment is disturbed and the teaching assistant intervenes by using physical touch. What are the multimodal elements that constitute these situations, how can these elements be grouped, and how does the teaching assistant’s intervention take shape? Methods. The thesis was a qualitative case study based on a data set of 13 lessons that had been video recorded and pre-transcribed for the ‘Long Second’ research project. The data was categorized and five video clips (in total 47s) were selected from the data for closer examination. These clips were selected as they featured specific instances, interpreted as situations where the calm working environment was disturbed and the teaching assistant intervened by using physical touch. The videos were viewed multiple times and the events that unfolded were narrated and recorded with a neutral voice. The events in the videos were then studied by means of microethnography, reflecting back to existing research. Results and conclusions. The thesis puts forward a new nine-dimensional classification of disturbances to calm working environment, extending from the classification developed by Madsen et al. (1968). The situations, interpreted as instances where the calm working environment was disturbed, and where the teaching assistant intervened by using physical touch, consisted of various multimodal elements, such as speech, bodily movement, and fiddling with an object. The teaching assistant’ interventions that employed physical touch comprised two or three distinct parts, and the intervention had an either activating or deactivating effect on the pupil. As the thesis is a case study its findings are not generalizable. However, the findings significantly enhance our understanding of those specific situations where the calm working environment is interpreted to be disturbed and the teaching assistant intervenes by using physical touch.
  • Kartano, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Children in primary school age already use the internet and social media, but they are miss-ing media literacy skills. Children may also be exposed to several different risks while using the internet. Therefore, while social media is playing a more significant role also in children's lives it would be important that there would be accurate and truthful information available for them too. Children value news but they think news organizations don’t understand the lives of young people and don’t cover the issues that matter to them. Yle Mix by Finnish Broadcasting Company (Yle) tries to answer this need by producing news journal-ism for children about current topics and the matters of the lives of the children. After all, the news has a great influence on our ideas of the world and the news produced for children in-creases their inclusion in society. Nevertheless, there’s no previous research done from the content of Yle Mix news. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine Yle Mix as a news genre and study media education discourses produced in the analysed news videos. In this study three different Yle Mix news videos related to issues of media education were analysed. All three news videos were available on the internet. News videos were studied as multisemiotic texts where the combination of the text, picture and audio together con-structs the meaning of the news video. The genre of Yle Mix news was studied, and the da-ta were analysed with discourse analysis in order to present the media education discours-es produced in the news videos. The results of this the study shows that the Yle Mix news differ from the genre of televised news but there are also similarities between them. In the data there were three main media education discourses presented: risks of children's media usage, teaching of media skills and normalizing the children's media usage. According to the analysis the media education of the news videos was presented trough the potential risks of children’s media usage, but this point of view was also challenged in the data. However, the risk discourse and teach-ing discourse were hegemonic while discourse that emphasised children's inclusion and rep-resented children's media usage as normal were subordinate to the previous.
  • Huotari, Ella (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Objectives. The objective of this master’s thesis is to examine child’s role in Chinese family structure by reflecting through children’s stories. The motivation for the thesis originates from increasing multiculturalism in societies, which is conveyed to encounters with children from different backgrounds. International story crafting provides information about the lives of people living in different environments (Karlsson, 2014, 123, 118, 123), that is used as medium to increase understanding of role of a child in China which in general is poorly known and understood (Haw & Kankaansivu, 2015, 11). According to Alanen (2009, 12, 22–23), public debates worldwide have raised concerns about shortening of childhood or, at worst, its early end. However, in these discussions, the primary focus has been around child’s inner circle such as parents and teachers instead of the child itself. The involvement of children and their own voices have largely been underheard (Alanen, 2009, 12, 22–23) and therefore the purpose of this thesis is to get an understanding of child's position in a family through children's voices and stories. Methods. This thesis is qualitative research where which is conducted by using content analysis as the research method. The objective the content analysis was to outline main themes which are analyzed in detail in the thesis. The literature consists of 38 stories made by Chinese children which have been collected in a kindergarten in Hunan Province, China in 2010. The children ranged from 3 to 5 years of age. Eighteen stories were collected from 5-year-olds, seven stories from 4-year-olds, and eight stories from 3-year-olds. The story crafting was conducted in Chinese, and the stories were translated to Finnish in 2011–2012. In story crafting method, an adult records a story told by a child just as the child has told it (Karlsson, Lähteenmäki & Lastikka, 2019, 37). Results and conclusions. The role of mothers was highlighted in the children’s stories. Mothers acted as a cook, caretaker, and authority. Fathers were mentioned only in four stories. Studies in China have found that the role of the father in raising children is minor (Wu, An & An, 2013, 304, 310) and in the light of the literature study, it appears that fathers have been overshadowed by mothers. Siblings and grandparents played also lesser roles. Playing with parents came up as a common activity. Compared to Western childhood, childhood in China is short and it is evident that the childhood in terms of fairy tales and play often ends at the start of school (Manninen, 2016, 103–107.). Fear of abandonment came across as a general emotion in children’s stories in relation to the family. There are an estimated 200,000 “left behind children” in Hunan Province, meaning that parents have moved to cities in pursuit of a better life (Suomen lähetysseura, 2021). The importance of childhood should thefore be acknowledged as valuable period of life.
  • Tikkanen, Tinja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    In the spring of 2020, our daily lives changed as the corona pandemic became part of our everyday life. The corona pandemic has created significant societal changes, also bringing challenges to the realization of holistic well-being. Previous studies have shown how even before the global pandemic, the mental health problems of children and young people had increased significantly. The foundation of mental health is built in childhood, and the role of school institutions in promoting well-being has been widely demonstrated. The purpose of this thesis is to find out how the mental health of children and young people has been promoted in school institutions during the corona pandemic. In addition, up-to-date information on the promotion of mental health in teachers' job descriptions is added. Theoretical framework of the thesis is based on six methods of mental health promotion (Anttila et al., 2016; THL, 2021e), on the basis of which the aim is to deepen the understanding of mental health promotion and to create new current information. The thesis was carried out between May and December 2021. The material was collected during May and June with an open questionnaire from four different Facebook groups in the field of education. The sample of the thesis consisted of 41 Finnish primary and secondary school teachers, 37 of whom identified themselves as women and 4 as men. Participants ranged in age from 30 to 61, working in a total of 16 different provinces. The data analysis process was carried out during October and November by means of qualitative data-based content analysis, following a phenomenographic research design. The thesis revealed the role of interprofessional cooperation and the teacher as promoters of mental health during the corona pandemic, however, with a lack of resources in the background. Other challenges raised by the corona pandemic were also widely highlighted in the responses from both primary and secondary school teachers. In addition, the research results emphasized timely, empathic interaction that takes children and young people holistically into account. With the help of the research results, it is possible to examine the value base for promoting the well-being of the Finnish school world, at the same time drawing attention to the underlying shortcomings of our society. The research results could be applied in further research, for example, to compare the promotion of mental health in upper secondary schools and vocational schools, to examine the well-being of teachers at work, and to carry out quantitative research. This thesis creates relevant and up-to-date information for the well-being of children and young people, teachers, school communities and our society.
  • Fredriksson-Nurmi, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Previous research about students becoming primary school teachers has shown, that student’s species identification skills are quite weak. However, species identification skills and species knowledge are important expertise because primary school teachers are supposed to teach their pupils to identify species. Species knowledge and positive connectedness to the nature have an important role in environmental and biology education because there is a connection between them and the ability to understand biodiversity. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the perception of species and species identification skills of student teachers, who in the future should teach pupils in primary schools and secondary schools. Secondary school teachers major in biology. The purpose of this study was to find out, how teacher student groups perceive plants and is there differences between groups of students in the ways of perception and ability to use species knowledge in applied tasks. A total of ten student teachers, five primary school student teachers and five secondary school student teachers attended to study, which was implemented as part of Helsinki university’s Cultivating Expertise in Learning of Life Sciences- project. Data was collected by eye tracking tools, connectedness to nature scale, species identification tests and applied task. Analysis of statistical data was used. Primary school teacher student`s identification skills of plants turned out to be weak and especially weaker than skills of secondary school teacher students. The results showed that there are some differences, where two student groups lay their perception when looking at plants. Primary school teacher students looked more often at some specific parts of the plant than secondary school teachers. Secondary school teacher students examined plants more systematic way: they looked at more parts of the plants than primary school teacher students. Secondary school teacher students also used longer time on the pictures. Connectedness to the nature and species identification skills did not affect the time used in perception or scores of the applied task. These results verify previous research results. Primary school teacher students should get in the university guidance to the perception and identification of different species and give some tools to learn from and teach in the nature.
  • Dima, Oliver (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aim of the study. The aim of the study is to find out what kind of tools novice teachers have to support students with ADHD symptoms. This study aims to find out how much novice teachers know about ADHD and the challenges it brings to the students with ADHD. The research examines the tools, that novice teachers use to support students with ADHD symptoms and the solutions they have found out to be the most useful in supporting students with ADHD. The study also focuses on the co-operation between school staff and student’s parents, and evaluates the key aspects behind succesful co-operation, that provides the best possible help for the student with ADHD symptoms. Methods. This research is conducted as a qualitative interview research. The interviews were conducted as half-structured theme interviews. The interviews were transcribed and the findings from the interviews was compared to previous studies. Five primary school teachers with less than five years of experience participated in the interviews. Results and conclusions. This research found out, that good co-operation between school and student’s home supports students with ADHD symptoms. The key to good co-operation is active communication between the different stakeholders. According to this research, novice teachers have a good acknowledge of ADHD and the challenges it brings, but the novice teachers believe, that they don’t have enough knowhow on how to provide the best possible support. Good knowledge about the students was considered important and the most important factor in supporting students was to provide clear written instructions and to have a good structure when providing the assignments and when planning the studies.
  • Niemelä, Pepita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Previous research has discovered that the safety competence of Finnish teachers and safety-related content in teacher education are inadequate. This research aimed to discover what factors influence the occupational self-efficacy of the student teachers at the University of Helsinki in school violence situations. The other aim was to investigate the experiences of the abilities for dealing with school violence the student teachers have gained during the university studies and as substitute teachers. Teachers' experience of their occupational competence in specific situations can be observed through occupational self-efficacy. This research will create a picture of the sources of self-efficacy of teacher students in school violence situations and their experiences of the abilities they have gained during university studies and work-life for preventing, managing, and dealing with school violence situations. 78 teacher students from the University of Helsinki participated in this research. The data was collected with an online questionnaire developed explicitly for this research. The results for the first research question were analysed with linear regression analysis between background and compound variables. Compound variables were compiled with theory-based exploratory factor analysis. The second research question was answered with a descriptive depiction of the answers to different queries. The teacher students evaluated the abilities to deal with school violence situations they had gained from university studies and work-life mainly as insufficient. The main factor influencing teacher students' self-efficacy in school violence situations was their knowledge about the Basic Education Act. The relationship between teacher students’ work experience and knowledge of Basic Education Act was statistically significant. Adding law- and safety-related content to teacher base education would enhance teacher self-efficacy in school violence situations.
  • Vuorinen, Juuso (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Aim of the study. The coronavirus pandemic has forced different learning institutions to implement remote studies as part of their daily routines. Before the pandemic, remote studies were mainly cho-sen to ease students’ everyday life and planning of the studies. This study aims to find out how class teacher students experience remote studies. The study focuses on observing which aspects of remote studies the class teacher students feel negatively or positively about. These results may be useful in the future when class teacher studies are being planned. The theoretical framework of this study is based on a constructivist concept of learning. Methods. The data of this study was gathered by semi-structured theme interviews. Six class teacher students participated in these interviews. The interviewed students had experiences of both the tradi-tional studies and the remote studies. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The gathered data was analyzed by using the theory-based content analysis. Results and conclusions. The results of the interviews were examined in relation to previous studies about remote studies. This research found out that the class teacher students experienced remote studies very differently. The students felt that remote studies required a lot of self-discipline and self-control. Due to remote studies the amount of interaction and feedback was mainly experienced as too little, and the quality of interaction and feedback as weakened. The abundance of autonomy of remote studies was seen both as a positive and freedom-increasing activity and, at the same time, as an activity that increases the challenges and unpleasantness of learning. Remote studies had a positive and negative effect on the development of teamwork skills. The learning environment was found to be an important factor of pleasantness of remote studies. Some participants wanted to study at the university, while some wanted to study at home. The results of this study were mainly in line with previous studies about remote studies.