Browsing by Subject "Clinical trials"

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  • Hosseini, Seyed Samad; Khalili, Saeed; Baradaran, Behzad; Bidar, Negar; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mosafer, Jafar; Hashemzaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Hamblin, Michael R. (2021)
    Bispecific antibodie (BsAbs) combine two or more epitope-recognizing sequences into a single protein molecule. The first therapeutic applications of BsAbs were focused on cancer therapy. However, these antibodies have grown to cover a wider disease spectrum, including imaging, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and therapy of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. BsAbs can be categorized into IgG-like formats and non-IgG-like formats. Different technologies have been used for the construction of BsAbs including "CrossMAb", "Quadroma", "knobs-into-holes" and molecular cloning. The mechanism of action for BsAbs includes the induction of CDC, ADCC, ADCP, apoptosis, and recruitment of cell surface receptors, as well as activation or inhibition of signaling pathways. The first clinical trials included mainly leukemia and lymphoma, but solid tumors are now being investigated. The BsAbs bind to a tumor-specific antigen using one epitope, while the second epitope binds to immune cell receptors such as CD3, CD16, CD64, and CD89, with the goal of stimulating the immune response against cancer cells. Currently, over 20 different commercial methods have been developed for the construction of BsAbs. Three BsAbs are currently clinically approved and marketed, and more than 85 clinical trials are in progress. In the present review, we discuss recent trends in the design, engineering, clinical applications, and clinical trials of BsAbs in solid tumors. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Tupasela, Aaro; Di Nucci, Ezio (2020)
    Machine learning platforms have emerged as a new promissory technology that some argue will revolutionize work practices across a broad range of professions, including medical care. During the past few years, IBM has been testing its Watson for Oncology platform at several oncology departments around the world. Published reports, news stories, as well as our own empirical research show that in some cases, the levels of concordance over recommended treatment protocols between the platform and human oncologists have been quite low. Other studies supported by IBM claim concordance rates as high as 96%. We use the Watson for Oncology case to examine the practice of using concordance levels between tumor boards and a machine learning decision-support system as a form of evidence. We address a challenge related to the epistemic authority between oncologists on tumor boards and the Watson Oncology platform by arguing that the use of concordance levels as a form of evidence of quality or trustworthiness is problematic. Although the platform provides links to the literature from which it draws its conclusion, it obfuscates the scoring criteria that it uses to value some studies over others. In other words, the platform "black boxes" the values that are coded into its scoring system.
  • Toija, Anu Susanna; Kettunen, Tarja Helena; Leidenius, Marjut Hannele Kristiina; Vainiola, Tarja Hellin Kaarina; Roine, Risto Paavo Antero (2019)
    PurposeBreast cancer is the most common cancer of Finnish women. Peer support could be a way to help breast cancer patients to deal with the disease but studies on its effectiveness have produced conflicting results. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to study the effectiveness of peer support on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of breast cancer patients.MethodsPatients with recently diagnosed breast cancer at the Helsinki University Hospital were randomly allocated to intervention (n=130) or control (n=130) groups. The intervention group patients received peer support via telephone one to five times according to their preference. The control group received usual care only. HRQoL was assessed with generic (15D) and disease-specific (EORTC QLQ-30 and its breast cancer specific module BR23) instruments at baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up points.ResultsThe mean (SD) age of the patients was 60.0 (10.5) years and their baseline mean 15D score 0.922 (0.066). At baseline, the intervention and control groups did not differ from each other. During follow-up, the 15D score deteriorated statistically significantly (p
  • NEO-RACo Study Grp (2018)
    Adverse events (AEs) are common during disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) treatment, but their influence on treatment results is unclear. We studied AEs in relation to disease activity in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Ninety-nine patients started intensive treatment with three conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs) and oral prednisolone, and were randomized to a 6-month induction treatment with infliximab or placebo. All AEs during the first 12 months of treatment were recorded. We scored each AE based on severity (scale 1-4) and defined the burden of AEs as the sum of these scores. Patients were divided into tertiles according to the burden of AEs. As outcomes, we assessed 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) levels and remission rates at 12 and 24 months. Three hundred thirty-one AEs in 99 patients were reported, and 27 (8%) were categorized as severe or serious. Mean burden of AEs per patient was 5.4 +/- 4.3. Seventy-nine AEs (24%) led to temporary (n = 52) or permanent (n = 27) csDMARD discontinuation. Of discontinuations, 1, 21, and 57 were detected in the first, second, and third tertiles, respectively. DAS28 remission rates decreased across tertiles at 12 months (94, 94, and 76%; p for linearity 0.029) and at 24 months (90, 86, and 70%; p for linearity 0.021). Mean DAS28 levels increased across tertiles at 12 months (1.5 +/- 1.0, 1.7 +/- 0.9, and 1.9 +/- 1.2; p for linearity 0.021) and at 24 months (1.4 +/- 0.8, 1.6 +/- 1.0, and 1.9 +/- 1.1; p for linearity 0.007). High burden of AEs is associated with higher disease activity and lower likelihood of remission in early RA.
  • Ference, Brian A.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Graham, Ian; Ray, Kausik K.; Packard, Chris J.; Bruckert, Eric; Hegele, Robert A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Raal, Frederick J.; Schunkert, Heribert; Watts, Gerald F.; Boren, Jan; Fazio, Sergio; Horton, Jay D.; Masana, Luis; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; van de Sluis, Bart; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Landmesser, Ulf; Laufs, Ulrich; Wiklund, Olov; Stock, Jane K.; Chapman, M. John; Catapano, Alberico L. (2017)
    Aims To appraise the clinical and genetic evidence that low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Methods and results We assessed whether the association between LDL and ASCVD fulfils the criteria for causality by evaluating the totality of evidence from genetic studies, prospective epidemiologic cohort studies, Mendelian randomization studies, and randomized trials of LDL-lowering therapies. In clinical studies, plasma LDL burden is usually estimated by determination of plasma LDL cholesterol level (LDL-C). Rare genetic mutations that cause reduced LDL receptor function lead to markedly higher LDL-C and a dose-dependent increase in the risk of ASCVD, whereas rare variants leading to lower LDL-C are associated with a correspondingly lower risk of ASCVD. Separate meta-analyses of over 200 prospective cohort studies, Mendelian randomization studies, and randomized trials including more than 2 million participants with over 20 million person-years of follow-up and over 150 000 cardiovascular events demonstrate a remarkably consistent dose-dependent log-linear association between the absolute magnitude of exposure of the vasculature to LDL-C and the risk of ASCVD; and this effect appears to increase with increasing duration of exposure to LDL-C. Both the naturally randomized genetic studies and the randomized intervention trials consistently demonstrate that any mechanism of lowering plasma LDL particle concentration should reduce the risk of ASCVD events proportional to the absolute reduction in LDL-C and the cumulative duration of exposure to lower LDL-C, provided that the achieved reduction in LDL-C is concordant with the reduction in LDL particle number and that there are no competing deleterious off-target effects. Conclusion Consistent evidence from numerous and multiple different types of clinical and genetic studies unequivocally establishes that LDL causes ASCVD.
  • Chmielarz, Piotr; Saarma, Mart (2020)
    Background Neurotrophic factors are endogenous proteins promoting the survival of different neural cells. Therefore, they elicited great interest as a possible treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's Disease (PD). PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, scientifically characterized more than 200 years ago and initially linked with motor abnormalities. Currently, the disease is viewed as a highly heterogeneous, progressive disorder with a long presymptomatic phase, and both motor and non-motor symptoms. Presently only symptomatic treatments for PD are available. Neurohistopathological changes of PD affected brains have been described more than 100 years ago and characterized by the presence of proteinaceous inclusions known as Lewy bodies and degeneration of dopamine neurons. Despite more than a century of investigations, it has remained unclear why dopamine neurons die in PD. Methods This review summarizes literature data from preclinical studies and clinical trials of neurotrophic factor based therapies for PD and discuss it from the perspective of the current understanding of PD biology. Results Newest data point towards dysfunctions of mitochondria, autophagy-lysosomal pathway, unfolded protein response and prion protein-like spreading of misfolded alpha-synuclein that is the major component of Lewy bodies. Yet, the exact chain of events leading to the demise of dopamine neurons is unclear and perhaps different in subpopulations of patients. Conclusions Gaps in our understanding of underlying disease etiology have hindered our attempts to find treatments able to slow down the progression of PD. Graphic abstract
  • Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine; Binder, Andreas; Bouhassira, Didier; Cruccu, Giorgio; Finnerup, Nanna B.; Haanpää, Maija; Hansson, Per; Huellemann, Philipp; Jensen, Troels S.; Freynhagen, Rainer; Kennedy, Jeffrey D.; Magerl, Walter; Mainka, Tina; Reimer, Maren; Rice, Andrew S. C.; Segerdahl, Marta; Serra, Jordi; Sindrup, Soren; Sommer, Claudia; Toelle, Thomas; Vollert, Jan; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; German Neuropathic Pain Res Networ; EUROPAIN; NEUROPAIN Consortia (2017)
    Patients with neuropathic pain are heterogeneous in etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical appearance. They exhibit a variety of painrelated sensory symptoms and signs (sensory profile). Different sensory profiles might indicate different classes of neurobiological mechanisms, and hence subgroups with different sensory profilesmight respond differently to treatment. The aim of the investigation was to identify subgroups in a large sample of patients with neuropathic pain using hypothesis-free statistical methods on the database of 3 large multinational research networks (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS), IMI-Europain, and Neuropain). Standardized quantitative sensory testing was used in 902 (test cohort) and 233 (validation cohort) patients with peripheral neuropathic pain of different etiologies. For subgrouping, we performed a cluster analysis using 13 quantitative sensory testing parameters. Three distinct subgroupswith characteristic sensory profileswere identified and replicated. Cluster 1 (sensory loss, 42%) showed a loss of small and large fiber function in combination with paradoxical heat sensations. Cluster 2 (thermal hyperalgesia, 33%) was characterized by preserved sensory functions in combination with heat and cold hyperalgesia and mild dynamic mechanical allodynia. Cluster 3 (mechanical hyperalgesia, 24%) was characterized by a loss of small fiber function in combinationwith pinprick hyperalgesia and dynamic mechanical allodynia. All clusters occurred across etiologies but frequencies differed. We present a new approach of subgrouping patients with peripheral neuropathic pain of different etiologies according to intrinsic sensory profiles. These 3 profiles may be related to pathophysiological mechanisms and may be useful in clinical trial design to enrich the study population for treatment responders.
  • Raudasoja, Aleksi J.; Falkenbach, Petra; Vernooij, Robin W. M.; Mustonen, Jussi M. J.; Agarwal, Arnav; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Blanker, Marco H.; Cartwright, Rufus; Garcia-Perdomo, Herney A.; Kilpelainen, Tuomas P.; Lainiala, Olli; Lamberg, Tiina; Nevalainen, Olli P. O.; Raittio, Eero; Richard, Patrick O.; Violette, Philippe D.; Komulainen, Jorma; Sipila, Raija; Tikkinen, Kari A. O. (2022)
    Background: Healthcare costs are rising, and a substantial proportion of medical care is of little value. De-implementation of low-value practices is important for improving overall health outcomes and reducing costs. We aimed to identify and synthesize randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on de-implementation interventions and to provide guidance to improve future research. Methods: MEDLINE and Scopus up to May 24, 2021, for individual and cluster RCTs comparing de-implementation interventions to usual care, another intervention, or placebo. We applied independent duplicate assessment of eligibility, study characteristics, outcomes, intervention categories, implementation theories, and risk of bias. Results: Of the 227 eligible trials, 145 (64%) were cluster randomized trials (median 24 clusters; median follow-up time 305 days), and 82 (36%) were individually randomized trials (median follow-up time 274 days). Of the trials, 118 (52%) were published after 2010, 149 (66%) were conducted in a primary care setting, 163 (72%) aimed to reduce the use of drug treatment, 194 (85%) measured the total volume of care, and 64 (28%) low-value care use as outcomes. Of the trials, 48 (21%) described a theoretical basis for the intervention, and 40 (18%) had the study tailored by context-specific factors. Of the de-implementation interventions, 193 (85%) were targeted at physicians, 115 (51%) tested educational sessions, and 152 (67%) multicomponent interventions. Missing data led to high risk of bias in 137 (60%) trials, followed by baseline imbalances in 99 (44%), and deficiencies in allocation concealment in 56 (25%). Conclusions: De-implementation trials were mainly conducted in primary care and typically aimed to reduce low-value drug treatments. Limitations of current de-implementation research may have led to unreliable effect estimates and decreased clinical applicability of studied de-implementation strategies. We identified potential research gaps, including de-implementation in secondary and tertiary care settings, and interventions targeted at other than physicians. Future trials could be improved by favoring simpler intervention designs, better control of potential confounders, larger number of clusters in cluster trials, considering context-specific factors when planning the intervention (tailoring), and using a theoretical basis in intervention design. Registration: OSF Open Science Framework hk4b2.
  • Heikinheimo, Oskari; Bitzer, Johannes; Garcia Rodriguez, Luis (2017)
    Objectives: In the context of women's health, we examine (1) the role that observational (real-world') studies have in overcoming limitations of randomised clinical trials, (2) the relative advantages and disadvantages of different study designs, (3) the importance of outcome data from observational studies when making health-economic or clinical decisions, and (4) provide insights into changing perceptions of observational clinical data. Methods: PubMed and internet searches were used to identify (i) guidance and expert commentary on designing, conducting, analysing, and reporting clinical trials or observational studies, (ii) supporting evidence of the rapid growth of observational (real world') studies and publications since the turn of millennium in the fields of contraception, reproductive health, obstetrics or gynaecology. Results: The rapidly growing use and validation of large, computerised medical records and related databases (e.g., health insurance or national registries) have played a major part in changing perceptions of observational data among researchers and clinicians. In the past 10 years, a distinct increase in the number of observational studies published tends to confirm their growing acceptance, appreciation and use. Conclusions: Observational studies can provide information that is impossible or infeasible to obtain otherwise (e.g., impractical, very expensive, or ethically unacceptable). Greater understanding, dissemination, uptake and use of observational data might be expected to drive ongoing evolution of research, data collection, analysis, and validation, in turn improving quality and therefore credibility, utility, and further application by clinicians.
  • El Dib, Regina; Tikkinen, Kari A. O.; Akl, Elie A.; Gomaa, Huda A.; Mustafa, Reem A.; Agarwal, Arnav; Carpenter, Christopher R.; Zhang, Yuchen; Jorge, Eliane C.; Almeida, Ricardo A. M. B.; do Nascimento Junior, Paulo; Doles, Joao Vitor P.; Mustafa, Ahmad A.; Sadeghirad, Behnam; Lopes, Luciane C.; Bergamaschi, Cristiane C.; Suzumura, Erica A.; Cardoso, Marilia M. A.; Corrente, Jose Eduardo; Stone, Samuel B.; Schunemann, Holger J.; Guyatt, Gordon H. (2017)
    Objectives: To provide a perspective on the current practice of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of diagnostic strategies focusing on patient-important outcomes. Study Design and Setting: We conducted a comprehensive search of MEDLINE and included RCTs published in full-text reports that evaluated alternative diagnostic strategies. Results: Of 56,912 unique citations, we sampled 7,500 and included 103 eligible RCTs, therefore suggesting that MEDLINE includes approximately 781 diagnostic RCTs. The 103 eligible trials reported on: mortality (n = 41; 39.8%); morbidities (n = 63; 61.2%); symptoms/quality of life/functional status (n = 14; 13.6%); and on composite end points (n = 10; 9.7%). Of the studies that reported statistically significant results (n = 12; 11.6%), we judged 7 (58.3%) as at low risk of bias with respect to missing outcome data and 4 (33.3%) as at low risk of bias regarding blinding. Of the 41 RCTs that reported on mortality, only one (2.4%) reported statistically significant results. Of 63 RCTs addressing morbidity outcomes, 11 (17.5%) reported statistically significant results, all of which reported relative effects of greater than 20%. Conclusion: RCTs of diagnostic tests are not uncommon, and sometimes suggest benefits on patient-important outcomes but often suffer from limitations in sample size and conduct. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Saarela, Anna-Leena; Walzer, Anja; Juppo, Anne Mari (2019)
    Background Interactive response technologies are used in clinical trials to provide services such as automated randomization and medication logistics management. The objective of this article is to investigate the usage of telephone (Interactive Voice Response) and web (Interactive Web Response) interfaces of interactive response technologies at clinical investigator sites in clinical trials, to obtain information about the preferences of interactive response technology end users between the telephone and web interfaces, and to explore the relevance of the telephone interface in this setting. Methods The data consist of an online survey conducted in spring 2016 with clinical investigators, study nurses, and pharmacists in 13 countries. Results Ninety-eight percent of survey respondents preferred the web interface over the telephone interface, the most important reason being superior usability. However, the respondents indicated the usability of interactive response technology interfaces is not optimal, and lack of integration and consistency across systems is common. A vast majority of interactive response technology end users at clinical sites prefer to use the web interface over the telephone interface, but most also feel there would need to be a back-up system. Conclusions Based on the results, it would be beneficial to improve the usability of the interactive response technology interfaces, and to increase consistency across systems from the current level. Support to and training of the users, as well as clarifying the responsibilities between sites and the sponsor should also be a focal point. Study sponsors should explore with interactive response technology service providers how removing the telephone interface would impact future studies, and whether there could be a more efficient means to achieve a reliable back-up to the web interface instead of a dedicated telephone interface.