Browsing by Subject "Cognition"

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  • Annanmaki, Tua; Palmu, Kirsi; Murros, Kari; Partanen, Juhani (2017)
    The diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia often occurring with Parkinson's disease (PD) is still based on the clinical picture and neuropsychological examination. Ancillary methods to detect cognitive decline in these patients are, therefore, needed. Alterations in the latencies and amplitudes of evoked response potential (ERP) components N100 and P200 have been described in PD. Due to limited number of studies their relation to cognitive deficits in PD remains obscure. The present study was designed to examine if alterations in the N100- and P200-potentials associate with neuropsychological impairment in PD. EEG-ERP was conducted to 18 PD patients and 24 healthy controls. The patients underwent a thorough neuropsychological evaluation. The controls were screened for cognitive impairment with Consortium to Establish Alzheimer's disease (CERAD)-testing and a normal result were required to be included in the study. The N100-latency was prolonged in the patients compared to the controls (p = 0.05). In the patients, the N100 latency correlated significantly with a visual working memory task (p = 0.01). Also N100 latency was prolonged and N100 amplitude habituation diminished in the patients achieving poorly in this task. We conclude that prolonged N100-latency and diminished amplitude habituation associate with visual working memory impairment in PD.
  • Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lindgren, Maija; Härkänen, Tommi; Dickerson, Faith; Yolken, Robert H. (2018)
    Background: Earlier studies have documented an association between cytomegalovirus and cognitive impairment, but results have been inconsistent. Few studies have investigated the association of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus with cognitive decline longitudinally. Our aim was to examine whether cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus are associated with cognitive decline, in adults. Method: The study sample is from the Finnish Health 2000 Survey (BRIF8901, n = 7112), which is representative of the Finnish adult population. The sample was followed up after 11 years in the Health 2011 Survey. In addition, persons with dementia were identified from healthcare registers. Results: In the Finnish population aged 30 and over, the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus was estimated to be 84% and the seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus 98%. Seropositivity of the viruses and antibody levels were mostly not associated with cognitive performance. In the middle-aged adult group, cytomegalovirus serointensity was associated with impaired performance in verbal learning. However, the association disappeared when corrected for multiple testing. No interactions between infection and time or between the two infections were significant when corrected for multiple testing. Seropositivity did not predict dementia diagnosis. Conclusions: The results suggest that adult levels of antibodies to cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus may not be associated with a significant decline in cognitive function or with dementia at population level. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Lehtisalo, J.; Lindstrom, J.; Ngandu, T.; Kivipelto, M.; Ahtiluoto, S.; Ilanne-Parikka, P.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S.; Eriksson, J. G.; Uusitupa, M.; Tuomilehto, J.; Luchsinger, J.; Finnish Diabet Prevention Study DP (2016)
    Objectives: To investigate associations of long-term nutrient intake, physical activity and obesity with later cognitive function among the participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, in which a lifestyle intervention was successful in diabetes prevention. Design: An active lifestyle intervention phase during middle age (mean duration 4 years) and extended follow-up (additional 9 years) with annual lifestyle measurements, followed by an ancillary cognition assessment. Setting: 5 research centers in Finland. Participants: Of the 522 middle-aged, overweight participants with impaired glucose tolerance recruited to the study, 364 (70%) participated in the cognition assessment (mean age 68 years). Measurements: A cognitive assessment was executed with the CERAD test battery and the Trail Making Test A on average 13 years after baseline. Lifestyle measurements included annual clinical measurements, food records, and exercise questionnaires during both the intervention and follow-up phase. Results: Lower intake of total fat (p=0.021) and saturated fatty acids (p=0.010), and frequent physical activity (p=0.040) during the whole study period were associated with better cognitive performance. Higher BMI (p= 0.012) and waist circumference (p= 0.012) were also associated with worse performance, but weight reduction prior to the cognition assessment predicted worse performance as well (decrease vs. increase, p= 0.008 for BMI and p= 0.002 for waist). Conclusions: Long-term dietary fat intake, BMI, and waist circumference have an inverse association with cognitive function in later life among people with IGT. However, decreases in BMI and waist prior to cognitive assessment are associated with worse cognitive performance, which could be explained by reverse causality.
  • Sarkamo, Teppo (2018)
    Music has the capacity to engage auditory, cognitive, motor, and emotional functions across cortical and subcortical brain regions and is relatively preserved in aging and dementia. Thus, music is a promising tool in the rehabilitation of aging-related neurological illnesses, such as stroke and Alzheimer disease. As the population ages and the incidence and prevalence of these illnesses rapidly increases, music-based interventions that are enjoyable and effective in the everyday care of the patients are needed. In addition to formal music therapy, musical leisure activities, such as music listening and singing, which patients can do on their own or with a caregiver, are a promising way to support psychological well-being during aging and in neurological rehabilitation. This review article provides an overview of current evidence on the cognitive, emotional, and neural effects of musical leisure activities both during normal aging and in the rehabilitation and care of stroke patients and people with dementia. (C) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Lempinen, Emilia (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The population is getting older worldwide and the global cost of cognitive impairment is rising. There is an urgent need to find ways to prevent and delay the onset of dementia and cognitive decline. According to previous studies food intake seems to be associated with cognition. However, while cognitive impairment usually develops during a long period of time, most of the studies conducted so far have focused on studying nutrition and cognition only at old age. The aim of the study is to examine, if there is association between food intake in youth and middle-age and cognition later in life. In addition it will be examined, whether changes in food intake are associated with cognition. The data is from the study The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (abbr. FINGER). FINGER is a multicenter randomized controlled trial conducted in six Finnish cities. Altogether 1260 individuals aged 60–77 years and at risk of cognitive decline participated in the study. The data used in this study is collected in the beginning of FINGER. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning present food intake and food intake, when they were 20 years old (youth) and 50 years old (middle age) retrospectively. This study covers the use of milk/sour milk, spread and fish. Food intakes from different age stages were used to form a diet index that roughly described the wholesomeness of participants’ diets. Cognitive status was examined by a trained psychologist. Participants performed a test battery of 14 different tests. On the grounds of these tests a total score was calculated that described participants’ cognition as a whole. Statistical analysis involved Student’s t-test, univariate and multivariate analysis and Tukey’s test. Both the food intake in youth and middle-age seemed to be associated with cognition later in life. The group of participants, who had drunken whole milk daily in youth had poorer cognitive performance than the group, who had drunk milk with less fat (p=0,014). The association between milk consumption in middle-age and cognition was similar (p<0,000). Also, the group that had spread butter on bread daily in middle-age, had poorer scores than the group that had used vegetable fat-based spreads (p<0,000). The diet index was also associated with cognition (p<0,000) It also seemed to matter, what kind of food intake changes had been made between different age stages. For example, the group, that had started using low-fat milk or stopped drinking milk daily between youth and middle-age had better scores than the group that had drunk whole milk both in youth and in middle-age (p<0,000). The food intakes in youth and in middle-age are import factors in trying to prevent and delay cognitive impairment. There is a need for more studies, especially to investigate the mechanism between early food intake and cognition later in life.
  • Videman, Mari; Stjerna, Susanna; Roivainen, Reina; Nybo, Taina; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Gaily, Eija; Leppanen, Jukka M. (2016)
    Introduction: Prenatal antiepileptic drug (AED) exposure is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment and autism spectrum disorders detected mainly at the age of two to six years. We examined whether the developitiental aberrations associated with prenatal AED exposure-could be-detected already in infancy and whether effects on visual attention can be observed at this early age. Material and methods: We compared a prospective cohort of infants with in utero exposure to AED (n = 56) with infants without drug exposures (n = 62). The assessments performed at the age of seven months included standardized neurodevelopmental scores (Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale and Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination) as well as a novel eye-tracking-based test for visual attention and orienting to faces. Background information included prospective collection of AED exposure data, pregnancy outcome, neuropsychological evaluation of the mothers, and information on maternal epilepsy type. Results: Carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and valproate, but not lamotrigine or levetiracetam, were associated with impaired early language abilities at the age of seven months. The general speed of visuospatial orienting or attentional bias for faces measured by eye-tracker-based tests did not differ between AED-exposed and control infants. Discussion: Our findings support the idea that prenatal AED exposure may impair verbal abilities, and this effect may be detected already in infancy. In contrast, the early development of attention to faces was spared after in utero AED exposure. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Smits, Dins; Brigis, Girts; Pavare, Jana; Urtane, Inga; Kovalovs, Sandis; Barengo, Noel Christopher (2020)
    Background The problem of nonadherence to therapy is a key reason of insufficient asthma control. Evaluating the beliefs about asthma medication, cognitive and emotional perceptions may help to identify patients with poor adherence to treatment in clinical practice which need additional attention in order to increase the likelihood of them taking their asthma medication according to the prescribed treatment protocol. The purpose of this study is to assess whether beliefs about asthma medication, cognitive and emotional factors are related to poor treatment adherence of asthma medication in a sample of asthma patients in Latvia. Methods Study subjects were asthma patients attending outpatient pulmonologist consultations in Latvia during September 2013 to December 2015. Beliefs about asthma medicine, cognitive and emotional factors related to asthma were determined in a cross-sectional, self-administered survey. The validated Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (brief IPQ) were used. Treatment adherence was assessed using 5-item version of the Medication Adherence Reporting Scale (MARS). The total sample size was 352 patients. Logistic regression models were used to predict poor adherence to asthma treatment. The validity of each logistic regression model was assessed by the Hosmer/Lemeshow test. The main outcome measure was self-reported adherence to treatment. Results The more the patients agreed with the statement "My future health depends on my asthma medication" the lower the possibility of poor adherence to asthma treatment (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.24-0.74). The more concerned the patients were in regard to long-term effects of their medication (OR 2; 95% CI 1.22-3.27), the higher the probability of poor treatment adherence. Conclusions Screening asthma patients using the BMQ may help to identify those to benefit from interventions targeting their concerns and medication beliefs in order to improve adherence to asthma medication.
  • Smits, Dins; Brigis, Girts; Pavare, Jana; Urtane, Inga; Kovalovs, Sandis; Barengo, Noël C (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background The problem of nonadherence to therapy is a key reason of insufficient asthma control. Evaluating the beliefs about asthma medication, cognitive and emotional perceptions may help to identify patients with poor adherence to treatment in clinical practice which need additional attention in order to increase the likelihood of them taking their asthma medication according to the prescribed treatment protocol. The purpose of this study is to assess whether beliefs about asthma medication, cognitive and emotional factors are related to poor treatment adherence of asthma medication in a sample of asthma patients in Latvia. Methods Study subjects were asthma patients attending outpatient pulmonologist consultations in Latvia during September 2013 to December 2015. Beliefs about asthma medicine, cognitive and emotional factors related to asthma were determined in a cross-sectional, self-administered survey. The validated Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (brief IPQ) were used. Treatment adherence was assessed using 5-item version of the Medication Adherence Reporting Scale (MARS). The total sample size was 352 patients. Logistic regression models were used to predict poor adherence to asthma treatment. The validity of each logistic regression model was assessed by the Hosmer/Lemeshow test. The main outcome measure was self-reported adherence to treatment. Results The more the patients agreed with the statement “My future health depends on my asthma medication” the lower the possibility of poor adherence to asthma treatment (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.24–0.74). The more concerned the patients were in regard to long-term effects of their medication (OR 2; 95% CI 1.22–3.27), the higher the probability of poor treatment adherence. Conclusions Screening asthma patients using the BMQ may help to identify those to benefit from interventions targeting their concerns and medication beliefs in order to improve adherence to asthma medication.
  • Kallio, Eeva-Liisa; Ohman, H.; Carlson, S.; Kautiainen, H.; Hietanen, M.; Pitkala, K. H. (2017)
    Introduction: Evidence is unclear whether cognitive training (CT) has efficacy in patients with dementia. We present the recruitment and baseline findings of a carefully designed Finnish cognitive training (FINCOG) trial exploring the effectiveness of CT among community-dwelling older persons with mild-to-moderate dementia. Methods: Participants were recruited from adult day care centres in Helsinki, Finland, and randomised into two groups: (1) day care with systematic CT twice a week for 12 weeks (n = 76) and (2) day care as usual (n = 71). Demographics, diagnoses and drug use were retrieved from medical records, and baseline cognition, functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological well-being were assessed. A subgroup of participants was planned to undergo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure changes in brain activity. Feedback from those attending CT was collected. Primary trial outcomes will be participants' cognition and HRQoL. Results: The mean (SD) age of the randomised participants was 83.1 (5.4) years, 72% were female and 37% at a moderate stage of dementia. The intervention and control groups were comparable at baseline. Compliance with CT was good, with a mean attendance of 22/24 sessions. General subjective gain was achieved by three-fourths of the feedback respondents. However, the fMRI was not feasible in this patient group. Conclusions: We successfully randomised 147 persons with mild-to-moderate dementia in the FINCOG trial. The feedback from participants in cognitive intervention was favourable. The trial will provide important information on the effects of CT in patients with dementia. (C) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS and European Union Geriatric Medicine Society. All rights reserved.
  • Tiainen, Marjaana; Poutiainen, Erja; Oksanen, Tuomas; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Pettila, Ville; Skrifvars, Markus; Varpula, Tero; Castren, Maaret (2015)
  • Ukkola-Vuoti, L.; Torniainen-Holm, M.; Ortega-Alonso, A.; Sinha, V.; Tuulio-Henriksson, A.; Paunio, T.; Lönnqvist, J.; Suvisaari, J.; Hennah, W. (2019)
    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by a spectrum of symptoms and many different underlying causes. Thus, instead of using the broad diagnosis, intermediate phenotypes can be used to possibly decrease the underlying complexity of the disorder. Alongside the classical symptoms of delusions and hallucinations, cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. To increase our understanding of the biological processes related to these cognitive deficits, we performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis. A battery of 14 neuropsychological tests was administered to 844 individuals from a Finnish familial schizophrenia cohort. We grouped the applied neuropsychological tests into five factors for further analysis. Cognitive endophenotypes, whole blood mRNA, genotype, and medication use data were studied from 47 individuals. Expression level of several RNA probes were significantly associated with cognitive performance. The factor representing Verbal Working Memory was associated with altered expression levels of 11 probes, of which one probe was also associated with a specific sub-measure of this factor (WMS-R Digit span backward). While, the factor Processing speed was related to one probe, which additionally associated among 55 probes with a specific sub-measure of this factor (WAIS-R Digit symbol). Two probes were associated with the measure recognition memory performance. Enrichment analysis of these differentially expressed probes highlighted immunological processes. Our findings are in line with genome-wide genetic discoveries made in schizophrenia, suggesting that immunological processes may be of biological interest for future drug design towards schizophrenia and the cognitive dysfunctions that underlie it.
  • Strandberg, T.; Levalahti, E.; Ngandu, T.; Solomon, A.; Kivipelto, M.; Lehtisalo, J.; Laatikainen, T.; Soininen, H.; Antikainen, R.; Jula, A.; Tuomilehto, J.; Peltonen, M.; Lindstrom, J.; Rauramaa, R.; Pajala, S.; Hanninen, T.; Solomon, A.; Paajanen, T.; Mangialasche, F.; FINGER Study Grp (2017)
    Introduction: The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) successfully demonstrated that multidomain lifestyle intervention can improve or maintain cognitive functioning in at-risk individuals. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was a secondary endpoint. Methods: The intervention (n = 631) aimed at healthy diet, increased physical activity, cognitive training, and vascular risk management. The control group (n = 629) was given general health advice. HRQoL was assessed at baseline, 12, and 24 months using validated RAND-36 (SF-36) instrument with 8 scales. Results: During the 2-year intervention period, mean scores in all scales decreased in the control group, but increased in the intervention group for vitality (12 months), social function (12 months), and especially general health at both 12 and 24 months. There was a statistically significant beneficial effect of intervention on the change in general health and physical function at 12 and 24 months. Conclusion: Multidomain lifestyle intervention improved also important dimensions of HRQoL. (C) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS and European Union Geriatric Medicine Society. All rights reserved.
  • Jayanti, Anuradha; Neuvonen, Markus; Wearden, Alison; Morris, Julie; Foden, Philip; Brenchley, Paul; Mitra, Sandip; BASIC-HHD Study Grp (2015)
    Background: Medical decision-making is critical to patient survival and well-being. Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) are faced with incrementally complex decision-making throughout their treatment journey. The extent to which patients seek involvement in the decision-making process and factors which influence these in ESRD need to be understood. Methods: 535 ESRD patients were enrolled into the cross-sectional study arm and 30 patients who started dialysis were prospectively evaluated. Patients were enrolled into 3 groups-'predialysis' (group A), 'in-centre' haemodialysis (HD) (group B) and self-care HD (93 % at home-group C) from across five tertiary UK renal centres. The Autonomy Preference Index (API) has been employed to study patient preferences for information-seeking (IS) and decision-making (DM). Demographic, psychosocial and neuropsychometric assessments are considered for analyses. Results: 458 complete responses were available. API items have high internal consistency in the study population (Cronbach's alpha > 0.70). Overall and across individual study groups, the scores for information-seeking and decision-making are significantly different indicating that although patients had a strong preference to be well informed, they were more neutral in their preference to participate in DM (p <0.05). In the age, education and study group adjusted multiple linear regression analysis, lower age, female gender, marital status; higher API IS scores and white ethnicity background were significant predictors of preference for decision-making. DM scores were subdivided into tertiles to identify variables associated with high (DM > 70: and low DM ( Conclusion: ESRD patients prefer to receive information, but this does not always imply active involvement in decision-making. By understanding modifiable and non-modifiable factors which affect patient preferences for involvement in healthcare decision-making, health professionals may acknowledge the need to accommodate individual patient preferences to the extent determined by the individual patient factors.
  • Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna; Mikkola, Tomi (2019)
  • Tiira, Katriina; Tikkanen, Antti; Vainio, Outi (2020)
    Working dogs are used for a range of important operational tasks. Identifying potentially successful working dogs as early as possible is important as rejection rates are high and training is costly. Earlier research has mainly concentrated on personality traits such as boldness, and there is only little knowledge on the possible association between cognitive traits and the actual working dog performance. This study investigated whether motor inhibition, persistence, problem-solving strategies, and spatial problem-solving are associated with explosive detection success in specially trained police dogs. Dogs (N = 24) were tested with a cognitive test battery, and subsequently they participated in an explosive detection test. The explosive searching situation and the location of the test was such that it would reflect as much as possible a real-life situation. Canine handlers also filled in a questionnaire regarding their dog's working behaviour. We found that those dogs that were more successful in explosive detection task had better motor inhibition in a cylinder task compared to dogs with lower success in an explosive search task. Furthermore, we found that dogs that made more errors in the cylinder task were generally more likely to give up searching sooner, as reported by their handlers, and also abandon sooner the problem-solving task in behavioural test. This study suggests that inhibitory control, specifically motor inhibition, may be an important aspect to consider when selecting suitable dogs for explosive detection tasks. Cylinder task is an easy and quick way to assess inhibitory control, although a larger dataset is needed to verify its association with working performance.
  • Roinila, Markku (Edizioni ETS, 2016)
    In §18 of Principles of Nature and Grace, Based on Reason, Leibniz says: ”Thus our happiness will never consist, and must never consist, in complete joy, in which nothing is left to desire, and which would dull our mind, but must consist in a perpetual progress to new pleasures and new perfections.” This passage is typical in Leibniz’s Nachlass. Universal perfection creates in us joy or pleasure of the mind and its source is our creator, God. When this joy is constant, we reach happiness and wisdom which is a kind of standing state of virtue, readiness to practice charity in the best of all possible worlds. However, it also indicates that our knowledge is never perfect. Perfecting our knowledge is a never-ending process which gives us joy in itself and motivates us to act in imitation of God. In this way some passions advance our knowledge and we can create ourselves a passionate habit of knowing more about the world and its perfection. In this paper I try to see this process of self-perfection from a cognitive rather than ethical point of view. While it is clear that in the final stage of wisdom we act mostly on our volitions which are founded on clear and distinct perceptions, it is less clear what cognitive status is to be attributed to our initial perceptions of perfection, our emotions and finally, the intellectual emotions which lead us to perfection and God. I will also reflect the role of the minute perceptions in our struggle for happiness. My argument is that a central cognitive role in Leibniz’s views on self-perfection is held by clear, but confused perfections which are subjective, undemonstrable impressions, shades, feelings. Therefore our ethical action is largely founded on passing, minute feelings rather than on deliberated conscious volitions, although the goal in Leibniz’s moral theory is to change this fact. My discussion is founded on several texts from Leibniz’s later philosophy, such as the discussion following from New System of the Nature and the Communication of Substances of 1695, Leibniz’s letter to Queen Sophie Charlotte of 1702 (also known as On What is Independent in Sense and Matter), New Essays on Human Understanding (1704), Theodicy (1710) and naturally Leibniz’s most important epistemological text, Meditations of Truth, Knowledge and Ideas (1684).
  • Husa, Anja P.; Moilanen, Jani; Murray, Graham K.; Marttila, Riikka; Haapea, Marianne; Rannikko, Irina; Barnett, Jennifer H.; Jones, Peter B.; Isohanni, Matti; Remes, Anne M.; Koponen, Hannu; Miettunen, Jouko; Jaaskelainen, Erika (2017)
    This naturalistic study analysed the association between cumulative lifetime antipsychotic dose and cognition in schizophrenia after an average of 16.5 years of illness. Sixty participants with schizophrenia and 191 controls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were assessed at age 43 years with a neurocognitive test battery. Cumulative lifetime antipsychotic dose-years were collected from medical records and interviews. The association between antipsychotic dose-years and a cognitive composite score based on principal component analysis was analysed using linear regression. Higher lifetime antipsychotic dose-years were significantly associated with poorer cognitive composite score, when adjusted for gender, onset age and lifetime hospital treatment days. The effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics did not differ. This is the first report of an association between cumulative lifetime antipsychotic dose and global cognition in midlife schizophrenia. Based on these data, higher lifetime antipsychotic dose-years may be associated with poorer cognitive performance at age 43 years. Potential biases related to the naturalistic design may partly explain the results; nonetheless, it is possible that large antipsychotic doses harm cognition in schizophrenia in the long-term.
  • Hulkko, A. P.; Murray, G. K.; Moilanen, J.; Haapea, M.; Rannikko, I.; Jones, P. B.; Barnett, J. H.; Huhtaniska, S.; Isohanni, M. K.; Koponen, H.; Jaaskelainen, E.; Miettunen, J. (2017)
    Background: Higher lifetime antipsychotic exposure has been associated with poorer cognition in schizophrenia. The cognitive effects of adjunctive psychiatric medications and lifetime trends of antipsychotic use remain largely unclear. We aimed to study how lifetime and current benzodiazepine and antidepressant medications, lifetime trends of antipsychotic use and antipsychotic polypharmacy are associated with cognitive performance in midlife schizophrenia. Methods: Sixty participants with DSM-IV schizophrenia from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were examined at 43 years of age with an extensive cognitive test battery. Cumulative lifetime and current use of psychiatric medications were collected from medical records and interviews. The associations between medication and principal component analysis-based cognitive composite score were analysed using linear regression. Results: Lifetime cumulative DDD years of benzodiazepine and antidepressant medications were not significantly associated with global cognition. Being without antipsychotic medication (for minimum 11 months) before the cognitive examination was associated with better cognitive performance (P = 0.007) and higher lifetime cumulative DDD years of antipsychotics with poorer cognition (P = 0.020), when adjusted for gender, onset age and lifetime hospital treatment days. Other lifetime trends of antipsychotic use, such as a long antipsychotic-free period earlier in the treatment history, and antipsychotic polypharmacy, were not significantly associated with cognition. Conclusions: Based on these naturalistic data, low exposure to adjunctive benzodiazepine and antidepressant medications does not seem to affect cognition nor explain the possible negative effects of high dose long-term antipsychotic medication on cognition in schizophrenia. (C) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.