Browsing by Subject "Cohort studies"

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  • Heikkala, Eveliina; Remes, Jouko; Paananen, Markus; Taimela, Simo; Auvinen, Juha; Karppinen, Jaro (2014)
  • Schiavone, Nella; Virta, Maarit; Leppämäki, Sami; Launes, Jyrki; Vanninen, Ritva; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Immonen, Satu; Järvinen, Ilkka; Lehto, Eliisa; Michelsson, Katarina; Hokkanen, Laura (2019)
    We investigated ADHD symptoms and life outcomes in adulthood and their association with childhood ADHD and subthreshold symptoms in a prospectively followed cohort with perinatal risks. We identified participants with childhood ADHD (cADHD, n = 37), subthreshold symptoms defined as attention problems (cAP, n = 64), and no ADHD or cAP (Non-cAP, n = 217). We compared the groups and a control group with no perinatal risks (n = 64) on self-reported ADHD symptoms, executive dysfunction, and life outcomes in adulthood. At age 40, 21.6% of the cADHD, 6.3% of the cAP, 6.0% of the Non-cAP group, and 1.6% of the controls reached a screener cutoff for possible ADHD. The cADHD group had lower educational level, more ADHD symptoms and executive dysfunction, and higher rates of drug use than the other groups. Childhood ADHD associated with perinatal risks persists into midlife whereas childhood subthreshold ADHD symptoms in this cohort were not associated with negative outcomes in adulthood.
  • Eriksson, Mia D.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Salonen, Minna K.; Mikkola, Tuija M.; Kajantie, Eero; Wasenius, Niko; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Laine, Merja K. (2021)
    Background: Millions of people live with depression and its burden of disease. Depression has an increased comorbidity and mortality that has remained unexplained. Studies have reported connections between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and various disease processes, including mental health. The present study evaluated associations between AGEs, depressive symptoms, and types of depressive symptoms. Methods: From the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, 815 participants with a mean age of 76 years were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Characteristics regarding self-reported lifestyle and medical history, as well as blood tests were obtained along with responses regarding depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Mental Health Inventory-5. Each participant had their AGE level measured non-invasively with skin autofluorescence (SAF). Statistical analyses looked at relationships between types of depressive symptoms and AGE levels by sex. Results: Of women, 27% scored >= 10 on the BDI and 18% of men, respectively. Men had higher crude AGE levels (mean [standard deviation], arbitrary units) (2.49 [0.51]) compared to women (2.33 [0.46]) (p < 0.001). The highest crude AGE levels were found in those with melancholic depressive symptoms (2.61 [0.57]), followed by those with non-melancholic depressive symptoms (2.45 [0.45]) and those with no depressive symptoms (2.38 [0.49]) (p = 0.013). These findings remained significant in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions: The current study shows an association between depressive symptoms and higher AGE levels. The association is likely part of a multi-factorial effect, and hence no directionality, causality, or effect can be inferred solely based on the results of this study.
  • Rantalainen, Ville; Lahti, Jari; Kajantie, Eero; Tienari, Pentti; Eriksson, Johan G.; Raikkonen, Katri (2019)
    We tested if the epsilon 4 major isoform of the APOE gene and rs405509 and rs440446 promoter and intron-1 polymorphisms predicted risk of any dementia or Alzheimer's disease with diagnoses derived from the Hospital Discharge and Causes of Death Registers in 1453 participants of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. We used Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for sex, year of birth, maximum lifetime occupational status and education, and diagnoses of stroke, coronary heart disease, mood disorders, and depressive symptoms. APOE epsilon 4 predicted higher risk of any dementia (hazard ratios >3.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.76, 7.70) across all statistical models, and when adjusted for rs405509 and rs440446. The number of minor alleles in rs405509 or rs440446 was not associated with dementia risk (hazard ratios
  • Jang, Jieun; Cho, Eun-Jung; Hwang, Yunji; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ahn, Choonghyun; Choi, Jeoungbin; Chang, Soung-Hoon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Lim, Min Kyung; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K. (2019)
    Purpose Few studies investigated roles of body mass index (BMI) on gastric cancer (GC) risk according to Helicobacter pylori infection status. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between BMI and GC risk with consideration of H. pylori infection information. Materials and Methods We performed a case-cohort study (n=2,458) that consists of a subcohort (n=2,193 including 67 GC incident cases) randomly selected from the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort (KMCC) and 265 incident GC cases outside of the subcohort. H. pylori infection was assessed using an immunoblot assay. GC risk according to BMI was evaluated by calculating hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using weighted Cox hazard regression model. Results Increased GC risk in lower BMI group (= 25 kg/m(2)) showed non-significantly increased GC risk (HR, 10.82; 95% CI, 1.25 to 93.60 and HR, 11.33; 95% CI, 1.13 to 113.66, respectively). However, these U-shaped associations between BMI and GC risk were not observed in the group who had ever been infected by H. pylori. Conclusion This study suggests the U-shaped associations between BMI and GC risk, especially in subjects who had never been infected by H. pylori.
  • Mustelin, Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2018)
    Objective: Binge eating disorder (BED) is a clinical eating disorder that is strongly and bidirectionally related to overweight and obesity. Little is known about how subclinical features of BED relate to weight development in adolescence and young adulthood. Method: Women (n=2825) and men (n=2423) from the community-based longitudinal FinnTwin16 cohort participated. Seven eating-related cognitions and behaviors similar to the defining features of BED were extracted from the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and were assessed at a mean age of 24. We used linear mixed models to assess the association of features of BED with BMI trajectories across four waves of data collection (mean ages 16, 17, 18, and 24). Results: The number of features of BED at wave 4 (age 24) was significantly associated with BMI from age 16 years onwards. Those reporting more features of BED had gained more weight throughout adolescence and into their twenties. Conclusions: Features of BED in young adulthood were preceded by steeper BMI trajectories in adolescence. A higher number of features were consistently associated with higher BMI and more weight gain.
  • Kaivola, Karri; Kiviharju, Anna; Jansson, Lilja; Rantalainen, Ville; Eriksson, Johan G.; Strandberg, Timo E.; Laaksovirta, Hannu; Renton, Alan E; Traynor, Bryan J.; Myllykangas, Liisa; Tienari, Pentti (2019)
    The hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 is a common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia and also rarely found in other psychiatric and neurodegenerative conditions. Alleles with >30 repeats are often considered an expansion, but the pathogenic repeat length threshold is still unclear. It is also unclear whether intermediate repeat length alleles (often defined either as 7-30 or 20-30 repeats) have clinically significant effects. We determined the C9orf72 repeat length distribution in 3142 older Finns (aged 60-104 years). The longest nonexpanded allele was 45 repeats. We found 7-45 repeats in 1036/3142 (33%) individuals, 20-45 repeats in 56/3142 (1.8%), 30-45 repeats in 12/3142 (0.38%), and expansion (>45 repeats) in 6/3142 (0.19%). There was no apparent clustering of neurodegenerative or psychiatric diseases in individuals with 30-45 repeats indicating that 30-45 repeats are not pathogenic. None of the 6 expansion carriers had a diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia but 4 had a diagnosis of a neurodegenerative or psychiatric disease. Intermediate length alleles (categorized as 7-45 and 20-45 repeats) did not associate with Alzheimer's disease or cognitive impairment. (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Iso-Markku, Paula; Waller, Katja; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Heikkila, Kauko; Rinne, Juha; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M. (2016)
    Background: Physical activity has been associated with a reduced risk of cognitive decline but the nature of this association remains obscure. Objective: To study associations between midlife physical activity and cognition in old age for a prospective cohort of Finnish twins. Methods: Physical activity in the Finnish Twin Cohort was assessed using questionnaire responses collected in 1975 and 1981. After a mean follow-up of 25.1 years, the subjects' (n = 3050; mean age 74.2; range 66-97) cognition was evaluated with a validated telephone interview. Both participation in vigorous physical activity, and the volume of physical activity, divided into quintiles, were used as predictors of cognitive impairment. Metrics collected by TELE were used to categorize participants as: cognitively impaired, suffering mild cognitive impairment, or cognitively healthy. Results: Participation in vigorous physical activity compared to non-participation for both 1975 and 1981 was associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment in individual-based analyses (fully adjusted OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.35-0.73). Pairwise analyses yielded similar but statistically non-significant associations. In terms of the volume of physical activity, the most active quintile of individuals (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.46-1.04) had a reduced risk of cognitive decline compared with the most sedentary quintile in the fully adjusted model although no clear dose-response was found. Conclusion: Vigorous midlife physical activity was associated with less cognitive impairment but without a clear dose-response association between the volume of physical activity and cognition.
  • Beenackers, Marielle A.; Doiron, Dany; Fortier, Isabel; Noordzij, J. Mark; Reinhard, Erica; Courtin, Emilie; Bobak, Martin; Chaix, Basile; Costa, Giuseppe; Dapp, Ulrike; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Huisman, Martijn; Grundy, Emily M.; Krokstad, Steinar; Martikainen, Pekka; Raina, Parminder; Avendano, Mauricio; van Lenthe, Frank J. (2018)
    Background: Urbanization and ageing have important implications for public mental health and well-being. Cities pose major challenges for older citizens, but also offer opportunities to develop, test, and implement policies, services, infrastructure, and interventions that promote mental well-being. The MINDMAP project aims to identify the opportunities and challenges posed by urban environmental characteristics for the promotion and management of mental well-being and cognitive function of older individuals. Methods: MINDMAP aims to achieve its research objectives by bringing together longitudinal studies from 11 countries covering over 35 cities linked to databases of area-level environmental exposures and social and urban policy indicators. The infrastructure supporting integration of this data will allow multiple MINDMAP investigators to safely and remotely co-analyse individual-level and area-level data. Individual-level data is derived from baseline and follow-up measurements of ten participating cohort studies and provides information on mental well-being outcomes, sociodemographic variables, health behaviour characteristics, social factors, measures of frailty, physical function indicators, and chronic conditions, as well as blood derived clinical biochemistry-based biomarkers and genetic biomarkers. Area-level information on physical environment characteristics (e.g. green spaces, transportation), socioeconomic and sociodemographic characteristics (e.g. neighbourhood income, residential segregation, residential density), and social environment characteristics (e.g. social cohesion, criminality) and national and urban social policies is derived from publically available sources such as geoportals and administrative databases. The linkage, harmonization, and analysis of data from different sources are being carried out using piloted tools to optimize the validity of the research results and transparency of the methodology. Discussion: MINDMAP is a novel research collaboration that is combining population-based cohort data with publicly available datasets not typically used for ageing and mental well-being research. Integration of various data sources and observational units into a single platform will help to explain the differences in ageing-related mental and cognitive disorders both within as well as between cities in Europe, the US, Canada, and Russia and to assess the causal pathways and interactions between the urban environment and the individual determinants of mental well-being and cognitive ageing in older adults.
  • Beenackers, Mariëlle A; Doiron, Dany; Fortier, Isabel; Noordzij, J. Mark; Reinhard, Erica; Courtin, Emilie; Bobak, Martin; Chaix, Basile; Costa, Giuseppe; Dapp, Ulrike; Diez Roux, Ana V; Huisman, Martijn; Grundy, Emily M; Krokstad, Steinar; Martikainen, Pekka; Raina, Parminder; Avendano, Mauricio; van Lenthe, Frank J (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Urbanization and ageing have important implications for public mental health and well-being. Cities pose major challenges for older citizens, but also offer opportunities to develop, test, and implement policies, services, infrastructure, and interventions that promote mental well-being. The MINDMAP project aims to identify the opportunities and challenges posed by urban environmental characteristics for the promotion and management of mental well-being and cognitive function of older individuals. Methods MINDMAP aims to achieve its research objectives by bringing together longitudinal studies from 11 countries covering over 35 cities linked to databases of area-level environmental exposures and social and urban policy indicators. The infrastructure supporting integration of this data will allow multiple MINDMAP investigators to safely and remotely co-analyse individual-level and area-level data. Individual-level data is derived from baseline and follow-up measurements of ten participating cohort studies and provides information on mental well-being outcomes, sociodemographic variables, health behaviour characteristics, social factors, measures of frailty, physical function indicators, and chronic conditions, as well as blood derived clinical biochemistry-based biomarkers and genetic biomarkers. Area-level information on physical environment characteristics (e.g. green spaces, transportation), socioeconomic and sociodemographic characteristics (e.g. neighbourhood income, residential segregation, residential density), and social environment characteristics (e.g. social cohesion, criminality) and national and urban social policies is derived from publically available sources such as geoportals and administrative databases. The linkage, harmonization, and analysis of data from different sources are being carried out using piloted tools to optimize the validity of the research results and transparency of the methodology. Discussion MINDMAP is a novel research collaboration that is combining population-based cohort data with publicly available datasets not typically used for ageing and mental well-being research. Integration of various data sources and observational units into a single platform will help to explain the differences in ageing-related mental and cognitive disorders both within as well as between cities in Europe, the US, Canada, and Russia and to assess the causal pathways and interactions between the urban environment and the individual determinants of mental well-being and cognitive ageing in older adults.
  • Maurel, Marine; Castagne, Raphaele; Berger, Eloise; Bochud, Murielle; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Fraga, Silvia; Gandini, Martina; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Kivimäki, Mika; Marmot, Michael; McCrory, Cathal; Preisig, Martin; Raitakari, Olli; Ricceri, Fulvio; Salmi, Marko; Steptoe, Andrew; Vineis, Paolo; Delpierre, Cyrille; Kelly-Irving, Michelle (2020)
    Background: Evidence suggests that the inflammatory reaction, an adaptive response triggered by a variety of harmful stimuli and conditions involved in the risk and development of many chronic diseases, is a potential pathway through which the socioeconomic environment is biologically embedded. Difficulty in interpreting the role of the inflammatory system in the embodiment dynamic arises because of heterogeneity across studies that use a limited but varied number of inflammatory markers. There is no consensus in the literature as to which inflammatory markers beyond the C-reactive protein and to a lesser extent interleukin 6 are related to the social environment. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate the association between educational attainment, and several markers of inflammation - C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin 6, interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha- in 6 European cohort studies. Methods: Up to 17,470 participants from six European cohort studies with data on educational attainment, health behaviors and lifestyle factors, and at least two different inflammatory markers. Four sub-datasets were drawn with varying numbers of participants to allow pairwise comparison of the social patterning of C-reactive protein and any other inflammatory markers. To evaluate within each sub-dataset the importance of the context and cohort specificities, linear regression-based analyses were performed separately for each cohort and combined in a random effect meta-analysis to determine the relationship between educational attainment and inflammation. Results: We found that the magnitude of the relationship between educational attainment and five inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin 6 and 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha) was variable. By far the most socially patterned biomarker was C-reactive protein, followed by fibrinogen and to lesser extent interleukin 6, where a low educational attainment was associated with higher inflammation even after adjusting for health behaviours and body mass index. No association was found with interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Conclusions: Our study suggests different educational patterning of inflammatory biomarkers. Further large-scale research is needed to explore social differences in the inflammatory cascade in greater detail and the extent to which these differences contribute to social inequalities in health.
  • Ervasti, Jenni; Joensuu, Matti; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Ahola, Kirsi; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna (2017)
    Knowledge about factors influencing return to work (RTW) after depression-related absence is highly relevant, but the evidence is scattered. We performed a systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases up to February 1, 2016 to retrieve cohort studies on the association between various predictive factors and return to work among employees with depression for review and meta-analysis. We also analyzed unpublished data from the Finnish Public Sector study. Most-adjusted estimates were pooled using fixed effects meta-analysis. Eleven published studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria, representing 22 358 person-observations from five different countries. With the additional unpublished data from the 14 101 person-observations from the Finnish Public Sector study, the total number of person observations was 36 459. The pooled estimates were derived from 2 to 5 studies, with the number of observations ranging from 260 to 26 348. Older age (pooled relative risk [RR] 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-0.87), somatic comorbidity (RR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.77-0.83), psychiatric comorbidity (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.83-0.88) and more severe depression (RR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98) were associated with a lower rate of return to work, and personality trait conscientiousness with higher (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10) return to work. While older age and clinical factors predicted slower return, significant heterogeneity was observed between the studies. There is a dearth of observational studies on the predictors of RTW after depression. Future research should pay attention to quality aspects and particularly focus on the role of workplace and labor market factors as well as individual and clinical characteristics on RTW. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kauppi, Maarit; Elovainio, Marko; Stenholm, Sari; Virtanen, Marianna; Aalto, Ville; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2017)
    Objective: To determine the associations between social network size and subsequent long-term health behaviour patterns, as indicated by alcohol use, smoking, and physical activity. Methods: Repeat data from up to six surveys over a 15- or 20-year follow-up were drawn from the Finnish Public Sector study (Raisio-Turku cohort, n = 986; Hospital cohort, n = 7307), and the Health and Social Support study (n = 20,115). Social network size was determined at baseline, and health risk behaviours were assessed using repeated data from baseline and follow-up. We pooled cohort-specific results from repeated-measures log binomial regression with the generalized estimating equations (GEE) method using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Results: Participants with up to 10 members in their social network at baseline had an unhealthy risk factor profile throughout the follow-up. The pooled relative risks adjusted for age, gender, survey year, chronic conditions and education were 1.15 for heavy alcohol use (95% CI: 1.06-1.24), 1.19 for smoking (95% CI: 1.12-1.27), and 1.25 for low physical activity (95% CI: 1.21-1.29), as compared with those with > 20 members in their social network. These associations appeared to be similar in subgroups stratified according to gender, age and education. Conclusions: Social network size predicted persistent behaviour-related health risk patterns up to at least two decades.
  • Komulainen, Kaisla; Mittleman, Murray A.; Jokela, Markus; Laitinen, Tomi T.; Pahkala, Katja; Elovainio, Marko; Juonala, Markus; Tammelin, Tuija; Kähönen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Keltikangas-Jarvinent, Liisa; Pulkid-Raback, Laura (2019)
    Background Promoting ideal cardiovascular health behaviors is an objective of the American Heart Association 2020 goals. We hypothesized that ideal health behaviors of parents are associated with health behaviors of their adult offspring, and that higher socioeconomic position in either generation enhances intergenerational associations of ideal health behaviors. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods We included 1856 Young Finns Study participants who had repeated measurements of socioeconomic position (education, income, occupation), smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and diet from 2001, 2007 and 2011, and data on parental socioeconomic position and health behaviors from 1980. We calculated the total number of ideal behaviors in both generations using American Heart Association definitions. Intergenerational associations were examined using ordinal and linear multilevel regression with random intercepts, in which each participant contributed one, two or three measurements of adult health behaviors (2001, 2007, 2011). All analyses were adjusted for offspring sex, birth year, age, parental education and single parenthood. Results Overall, parental ideal health behaviors were associated with ideal behaviors among offspring (odds ratio (OR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.17, 1.39). Furthermore, ORs for these intergenerational associations were greater among offspring whose parents or who themselves had higher educational attainment (OR 1.56 for high vs. OR 1.19 for low parental education; P = 0.01 for interaction, OR 1.32 for high vs. OR 1.04 for low offspring education; P = 0.02 for interaction). Similar trends were seen with parental income and offspring occupation. Results from linear regression analyses were similar. Conclusions These prospective data suggest higher socioeconomic position in parents or in their adult offspring strengthens the intergenerational continuum of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors.
  • Hemilä, Harri (2020)
    A previous analysis of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Study on male smokers found that beta-carotene supplementation increased the risk of pneumonia 4-fold in those who started smoking at the age of >= 21 years and smoked >= 21 cigarettes/d (a subgroup of 7 % of the study population). The present study hypothesised that beta-carotene increases mortality in the same subgroup. The ATBC Study (1985-1993) recruited 29 133 Finnish male smokers (>= 5 cigarettes/d) aged 50-69 years. Cox regression models were constructed to estimate the effect of beta-carotene supplementation in subgroups. beta-Carotene increased mortality (risk ratio 1 center dot 56; 95 % CI 1 center dot 06, 2 center dot 3) in those who started to smoke at >= 21 years and smoked >= 21 cigarettes/d. Within this subgroup, there was strong evidence of further heterogeneity. The effect of beta-carotene supplementation was further modified by dietary vitamin C intake, fruit and vegetable intake (P = 0 center dot 0004), and by vitamin E supplementation (P = 0 center dot 011). Thus, harm from beta-carotene was not uniform within the study population. Interactions between beta-carotene and vitamins C and E were seen only within a subgroup of 7 % of the ATBC participants, and therefore should not be extrapolated to the general population. Heterogeneity of the beta-carotene effect on mortality challenges the validity of previous meta-analyses that have pooled many diverse antioxidants for one single estimate of effect using the assumption that a single estimate equally applies to all antioxidants and all people. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.
  • BBMRI-LPC Consortium FP7 GA no (2019)
    Biobank samples and data from studies of large prospective cohorts (LPC) represent an invaluable resource for health research. Efficient sharing and pooling of samples and data is a central pre-requisite for new advances in biomedical science. This requirement, however, is not compatible with the present scattered and traditional access governance structures, where legal and ethical frameworks often form an obstacle for effective sharing. Moreover, the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is demanding increasingly rigorous administration from all those organisations processing personal data. The BBMRI-LPC project (Biobanking and Biomolecular Research Infrastructure. Large Prospective Cohorts) assembled 21 LPCs from 10 countries and two EU-wide multinational cohort networks with a key objective to promote collaborative innovative transnational research proposed by external researchers on the broad field of common chronic diseases, and analyze the gaps and needs involved. BBMRI-LPC organized three scientific calls to offer European investigators an opportunity to gain free of charge transnational access to research material available in the participating cohorts. A total of 11 highquality research proposals involving multiple prospective cohorts were granted, and the access process in the individual projects carefully monitored. Divergent access governance structures, complex legal and ethical frameworks and heterogeneous procedures were identified as currently constituting substantial obstacles for sample and data transfer in Europe. To optimize the scientific value and use of these research resources, practical solutions for more streamlined access governance in collaborative projects are urgently needed. A number of infrastructure developments could be made to improve time-efficiency in access provision.
  • Junno, Juho-Antti; Pakanen, Lasse; Oura, Petteri (2021)
    The Finnish population has a long life expectancy but ranks high in unnatural deaths on the European scale. Mortality has historical regional discrepancy in Finland, as Northern Finns are overrepresented in both natural and unnatural deaths. This study aimed to characterize the age- and sex-related trends in unnatural mortality among Northern Finns. Altogether 12 143 individuals, constituting >95% of births in Northern Finland in 1966, were followed up for a median of 52 years. The mortality patterns of this population were studied using death record data. Crude annual mortality rates were calculated and graphed for 10-year age strata (all-cause, natural-cause, and unnatural-cause mortality, as well as accident, suicide, and homicide mortality). Cox regression was used to analyze the sex discrepancy in mortality. A total of 874 deaths (7.2%) occurred during the follow-up period. Women had 47% and 73% lower risks of any death and unnatural death than men, respectively. From the second decade of life onwards, the unnatural mortality of men was 3–5 times that of women. Accident and suicide mortality rates of men were 2–13 and 2–3 times those of women, respectively. Homicides were rare among either sex. We conclude that Northern Finnish women have a substantially lower risk of all-cause mortality and unnatural mortality than men. To aid the development of preventive strategies, future studies should aim to identify the underlying factors behind unnatural mortality. Primarily, emphasis should be placed on the increased mortality of men from the second decade of life onwards.