Browsing by Subject "Competition"

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  • Koponen, Ismo; Nousiainen, Maija (2018)
    Discourse patterns in a small group are assumed to form largely through the group's internal social dynamics when group members compete for floor in discourse. Here we approach such discourse pattern formation through the agent-based model (ABM). In the ABM introduced here the agents' interactions and participation in discussions are dependent on the agents' inherent potential activity to participate in discussion and on realised, externalised activity, discursivity. The discourse patterns are assumed to be outcomes of peerto- peer comparison events, where agents competitively compare their activities and discursivities, and where activities also affect agents' cooperation in increasing the discursivity, i.e. floor for discourse. These two effects and their influence on discourse pattern formation are parameterised as comptetivity alpha and cooperativity lambda. The discourse patterns are here based on the agents' discursivity. The patterns in groups of four agents up to seven agents are characterised through triadic census (i.e. though counting triadic sub-patterns). The cases of low competitivity alpha is shown to give rise to fully connected egalitarian, triadic patterns, which with increasing competitivity are transformed to strong dyadic patterns. An increase in cooperativity lambda enhances the emergence of egalitarian triads and helps to maintain the formation of fully and partially connected triadic pattern also in cases of high competitivity. In larger groups of six and seven agents, isolation becomes common, in contrast to groups of four agents where isolation is relatively rare. These results are in concordance with known empirical findings of discourse and participation patterns in small groups.
  • Halko, Marja-Liisa; Lappalainen, Olli; Sääksvuori, Lauri (2021)
    We investigate the feasibility of inferring economic choices from simple biometric non-choice data. We employ a machine learning approach to assess whether biometric data acquired during sleep, naturally occurring daily chores and participation in an experi-ment can reveal preferences for competitive and team-based compensation schemes. We find that biometric data acquired using wearable devices enable equally accurate out-of-sample prediction for compensation-scheme choice as gender and performance. Our re-sults demonstrate the feasibility of inferring economic choices from simple biometric data without observing past decisions. However, we find that biometric data recorded in nat-urally occurring environments during daily chores and sleep add little value to out-of-sample predictions. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( )
  • Yu, Lei; Song, Mengya; Lei, Yanbao; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ulo; Li, Chunyang (2019)
    Leaf and root systems are known to show a high degree of developmental plasticity in response to the local environment. However, few studies have investigated simultaneously the leaf and root traits as affected by competition and phosphorus (P) fertilization, especially in connection with the primary succession. We investigated morphological and physiological responses to different competition treatments (infra- vs. interspecific competition) and P regimes in seedlings of Abies fabri and Picea brachytyla, collected from the late succession stage Hailuogou glacier retreat area. A. fabri had a greater total chlorophyll content and specific leaf area (SLA), higher leaf nitrogen (N) and P concentrations, as well as a higher water use efficiency (assessed by the carbon isotope composition, delta C-13) and N absorption relative to P. brachytyla under P fertilization conditions, and its total biomass responded more strongly to P fertilization, especially under interspecific competition. P fertilization decreased the specific root length (SRL) and ectomycorrhizal infection in both species and specific root tip density in P. brachytyla but it had no effect on the average root diameter. We concluded that similar changes in root characteristics, but the superior performance of above-ground traits in A. fabri in response to P availability, especially under competition, explain the greater competitive capacity of A. fabri at final stages of succession. These findings highlight the influence of soil nutrition availability and competition on the functional traits of plants and contribute to the understanding of the role of relative modifications in leaf and root traits during succession.
  • Passy, Sophia I.; Bottin, Marius; Soininen, Janne; Hillebrand, Helmut (2017)
    We examined the relationship between species richness (S) and evenness (J) within a novel, community assembly framework. We hypothesized that environmental stress leads to filtering (increasing the proportional abundance of tolerant species) and taxonomic dispersion (decreasing the number of species within genera and families). Environmental filtering would cause a decline in S by eliminating some stress-sensitive species and a reduction of J by allowing only tolerant species to maintain large populations. Taxonomic relatedness may influence both S and J by controlling the nature of interspecific interactions-positive under taxonomic dispersion versus negative under taxonomic clustering. Therefore, the S-J relationship may be a product of environmental filtering and taxonomic relatedness. We tested this framework with redundancy analyses and structural equation models using continental stream diatom and fish data. We confirmed that (i) environmental stress, defined by watershed forest cover, slope, and temperature, caused filtering (lower sensitive: tolerant species abundance ratios) and taxonomic dispersion (elevated genus: species richness and family: species richness ratios); (ii) S and J, which declined with filtering and taxonomic dispersion, exhibited a positive relationship; and (iii) the role of filtering on J was pronounced only under stressful conditions, while taxonomic dispersion remained an important predictor of J across stressful and favorable environments.
  • Salonen, Satu Meri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Objectives and theory. Competition means of competition and competitive advantage – when delivering in the EU internal market – create the map of research and its red thread. The purpose of the study is to determine the components of a genuine competitive advantage and to identify opportunities for further development. Background theories are EU Competition Law (especially Articles 101 and 102 TFEU), Law and Economics (the effectiveness of the law and the means of competition), Consumer Law (the status of consumers and the safeguarding of their rights) and Philosophy of Law (background values and ethics of activity). Research questions are: How to find and determine the factors of a genuine and developable competitive advantage? How can a genuine competitive advantage that can be further developed be achieved through permitted and profitable means of competition? Methodology. The research approach was mainly qualitative, quantitative played a supporting role, in connection with examples and material. It was a hermeneutic study, and the methods were interpretation, argumentation, specification, and reasoning; in addition, forensic science played a part in efficiency assessment. The study progressed from more general to more private, from competition to competitive advantage; from a potential competitive advantage to a further competitive advantage – a permitted, profitable, genuine, and further competitive advantage were reviewed. The study was conducted in theory (written law, regulations, guidelines, rules, scientific research, and other relevant literature) and in practice (business examples and case law). Results. A genuine competitive advantage arises from a combination of the admissibility and profitability of a means of competition. Genuine and further competitive advantage complement each other. Genuine competitive advantage is enshrined in law and has an economic impact on the business, the consumer and society. The existence of a genuine competitive advantage in the context of the 8P competitive means of marketing can be determined in theory and in practice. The competitive means of 8P marketing can be ranked based on their overall goodness based on theory and practice. According to this study, the order is product (t), physical environment (p), process (t), place (t), price (p), promotion (t), personalization (p) and people (t) (stronger perspective of the means of competition, t = theory and p = practice). Furthermore, the simultaneous use of several means of competition leads to better results than the use of a single means of competition. Conclusions. All 8P competition tools for marketing are both genuine and evolving. When examining the overall goodness of the means of competition, most of the means of competition prove to be better in theory than in practice – there is an order for the development of activities in the market. In all reviews, there is room for improvement in the means of competition, both in theory and in practice. The interpretation is based on the four theoretical perspectives of this study, the empirical partition, and the examination of the competitive means of 8P marketing in the light of their historical development.
  • Chen, Juan; Han, Qingquan; Duan, Baoli; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang (2017)
    Lead (Pb) contamination seriously threatens agroforestry production and safety. We aim to determine the interactive influence of Pb and sexual competition on the growth performance, photosynthetic and biochemical traits, ultrastructure and phytoremediation-related parameters of males and females. In the present study, eco-physiological responses and phytoremediation traits of Populus cathayana females and males were evaluated under interactive treatments of Pb and competition. There were significant sex-specific competition effects on biomass partition, photosynthetic activities, carbohydrate contents, nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiencies, ultrastructure and phytoremediation under Pb stress. When competition within the same sex was compared, females were more sensitive to Pb stress, while males possessed greater Pb contents, and a higher bioconcentration factor and tolerance index. Under inter-sexual competition, males alleviated competition effects through greater Pb absorption, and lower photosynthetic rates, nutrient use efficiencies and biomass accumulation. Moreover, Pb stress altered competition intensities of both sexes. Sex-specific competition and neighbor effects may regulate responses and phytoremediation under heavy metal stress in dioecious plants. In the future, more attention should be paid on the effects of inter- and intra-sexual competition on dioecious species in the process of forestation and restoration of contaminated soil.