Browsing by Subject "Concrete"

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  • Leskinen, Anumaija; Gautier, Celine; Räty, Antti; Kekki, Tommi; Laporte, Elodie; Giuliani, Margaux; Bubendorff, Jacques; Laurila, Julia Pauliina; Kurhela, Kristian Otto Aleksi; Fichet, Pascal; Salminen-Paatero, Susanna (2021)
    This paper reports the results obtained in a Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project during the second intercomparison exercise for the determination of difficult to measure radionuclides in decommissioning waste. Eight laboratories participated by carrying out radiochemical analysis of H-3, C-14, Cl-36, Ca-41, Fe-55 and Ni-63 in an activated concrete. In addition, gamma emitters, namely Eu-152 and Co-60, were analysed. The assigned values were derived from the submitted results according to ISO 13,528 standard and the performance assessments were determined using z scores. The measured results were compared with activation calculation result showing varying degree of comparability.
  • Chapinal, Nuria; de Passille, Anne Marie; Pastell, Matti; Hänninen, Laura; Munksgaard, Lene; Rushen, Jeff (2011)
    The aims were to determine whether measures of acceleration of the legs and back of dairy cows while they walk could help detect changes in gait or locomotion associated with lameness and differences in the walking surface. In 2 experiments, 12 or 24 multiparous dairy cows were fitted with five 3-dimensional accelerometers, 1 attached to each leg and 1 to the back, and acceleration data were collected while cows walked in a straight line on concrete (experiment 1) or on both concrete and rubber (experiment 2). Cows were video-recorded while walking to assess overall gait, asymmetry of the steps, and walking speed. In experiment 1, cows were selected to maximize the range of gait scores, whereas no clinically lame cows were enrolled in experiment 2. For each accelerometer location, overall acceleration was calculated as the magnitude of the 3-dimensional acceleration vector and the variance of overall acceleration, as well as the asymmetry of variance of acceleration within the front and rear pair of legs. In experiment 1, the asymmetry of variance of acceleration in the front and rear legs was positively correlated with overall gait and the visually assessed asymmetry of the steps (r ≥0.6). Walking speed was negatively correlated with the asymmetry of variance of the rear legs (r=−0.8) and positively correlated with the acceleration and the variance of acceleration of each leg and back (r ≥0.7). In experiment 2, cows had lower gait scores [2.3 vs. 2.6; standard error of the difference (SED)=0.1, measured on a 5-point scale] and lower scores for asymmetry of the steps (18.0 vs. 23.1; SED=2.2, measured on a continuous 100-unit scale) when they walked on rubber compared with concrete, and their walking speed increased (1.28 vs. 1.22m/s; SED=0.02). The acceleration of the front (1.67 vs. 1.72g; SED=0.02) and rear (1.62 vs. 1.67g; SED=0.02) legs and the variance of acceleration of the rear legs (0.88 vs. 0.94g; SED=0.03) were lower when cows walked on rubber compared with concrete. Despite the improvements in gait score that occurred when cows walked on rubber, the asymmetry of variance of acceleration of the front leg was higher (15.2 vs. 10.4%; SED=2.0). The difference in walking speed between concrete and rubber correlated with the difference in the mean acceleration and the difference in the variance of acceleration of the legs and back (r ≥0.6). Three-dimensional accelerometers seem to be a promising tool for lameness detection on farm and to study walking surfaces, especially when attached to a leg.