Browsing by Subject "Consistency"

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  • Kettunen, Karoliina; Pesonen, Susanna; Lunden, Janne; Nevas, Mari (2018)
    Consistency and risk-basis are core elements of effective enforcement of food safety legislation. In Finland, inspections of food retail premises have been conducted since 2013 based on new national guidelines for evaluation and grading. According to the guidelines, food control authorities should initiate an administrative enforcement process to ensure compliance if the food business operator (FBO) is given the poorest grade in the inspection. In this study, we examined the consistency within and between local food control units on the threshold of initiating an enforcement process. The study was conducted through an analysis of inspection reports of FBOs and by an electronic survey and interviews of local food control officials. The results reveal that most officials consider the national evaluation guidelines as helpful in improving the consistency of using enforcement measures. However, inconsistencies exist between and within the local food control units in the alignments of initiating an enforcement process. Enforcement measures are mainly used on a risk-basis and gradually, as in most enforcement cases the FBO had multiple non-compliances and the FBO had been given a prior request to correct the non-compliance before initiating an enforcement process. The results, however, revealed rather weak compliance and repeated violations among some FBOs. Based on the observed persistence of non -compliances and the efficacy of enforcement measures in inducing compliance, a lower threshold of initiating an enforcement process towards FBOs with repeated violations appears beneficial in enhancing the correction of violations. Increasing the consistency of the enforcement process begins with unifying the practices within the local food control units by establishing clear procedures for enforcement and ensuring adequate orientation of personnel. Further strengthening of cooperation, peer-review and discussion on interpretations of required control actions between the units is needed for nationally consistent implementation of the evaluation and disclosure system and use of enforcement measures. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Lunden, Janne; Kosola, Mikko; Kiuru, Juho; Kaskela, Jenni; Inkinen, Tommi (2021)
    The consistency of inspections is an important requirement of official food control. Inconsistency may endanger food safety and lead to mistrust in official food control. The reasons leading to inconsistency and the mitigation of inconsistency are therefore important. Here we investigated the distribution of restaurant (n = 4989) in-spection grades from 2014 in Finland to elucidate reasons for possible differences in grades. The analyses revealed both regional and local differences in the overall grades. In addition, the distribution of the own-check sections' grades between local food control units revealed a large variation, indicating inconsistent assessments of inspection findings. The inspector resources in the local food control units did not explain the discrepancies. However, we found that differences in grades are to a certain extent explained by factors related to the economic status and urbanization of the area. The effects of socioeconomic factors appear moderate, and the differences in the inspectors' evaluations of compliance remain an important issue that should be addressed on a national level through inspector training.
  • Voutilainen, Marko; Ilmonen, Pauliina; Torres, Soledad; Tudor, Ciprian; Viitasaari, Lauri (2021)
    The classical ARCH model together with its extensions have been widely applied in the modeling of financial time series. We study a variant of the ARCH model that takes account of liquidity given by a positive stationary process. We provide minimal assumptions that ensure the existence and uniqueness of the stationary solution for this model. Moreover, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the autocovariance function. After that, we derive an AR(1) characterization for the stationary solution yielding Yule-Walker type quadratic equations for the model parameters. In order to define a proper estimation method for the model, we first show that the autocovariance estimators of the stationary solution are consistent under relatively mild assumptions. Consequently, we prove that the natural estimators arising out of the quadratic equations inherit consistency from the autocovariance estimators. Finally, we illustrate our results with several examples and a simulation study.
  • Reittu, Hannu; Norros, Ilkka; Räty, Tomi; Bolla, Marianna; Bazsó, Fülöp (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2019)
    Abstract We analyze the performance of regular decomposition, a method for compression of large and dense graphs. This method is inspired by Szemerédi’s regularity lemma (SRL), a generic structural result of large and dense graphs. In our method, stochastic block model (SBM) is used as a model in maximum likelihood fitting to find a regular structure similar to the one predicted by SRL. Another ingredient of our method is Rissanen’s minimum description length principle (MDL). We consider scaling of algorithms to extremely large size of graphs by sampling a small subgraph. We continue our previous work on the subject by proving some experimentally found claims. Our theoretical setting does not assume that the graph is generated from a SBM. The task is to find a SBM that is optimal for modeling the given graph in the sense of MDL. This assumption matches with real-life situations when no random generative model is appropriate. Our aim is to show that regular decomposition is a viable and robust method for large graphs emerging, say, in Big Data area.