Browsing by Subject "Construct validity"

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  • Kervinen, Silja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The internal structure of the NEPSY-II, a developmental cognitive test, was examined by explorative factor analyses (EFAs). The EFAs were conducted employing the NEPSY-II Finnish standardization sample. The structure of the NEPSY-II, as presented in the manual, is divided into six cognitive domains: Attention and Executive Functioning, Language, Memory and Learning, Sensorimotor Functions, Social Perception and Visuospatial Processing. The objectives of the current study were: 1) To explore what are the best fitting factor structures for 3- to 4-year-old, 5- to 6-year-old, and 7- to 15-year-old children; and 2) To compare the resulting factor structures to the NEPSY-II six cognitive domains. Four-factor structures were found best fitting for all the age groups. These structures shared three roughly similar factors: Language, Visuospatial/Motor Functions, and Processing Speed, although the exact set of subtests loading on each factor differed from one group to another. The four-factor structures considerably differed from the NEPSY-II six cognitive domains. Further, although there were similarities between the factor structures, there were also notable differences in how the subtests related together. The thesis produces scientific knowledge on the relations between the subtests that may also be employed in clinical assessment. The presented psychometrical knowledge might clarify how the problems that present themselves in distinct subtest in an assessment setting are related. Thus, it provides an additional perspective to clinical assessment alongside the prevailing neuropsychological knowledge.
  • European Neurosurg Simulation Stud; Perin, Alessandro; Galbiati, Tommaso Francesco; Gambatesa, Enrico; Ayadi, Roberta; Orena, Eleonora Francesca; Cuomo, Valentina; Riker, Nicole Irene; Falsitta, Lydia Viviana; Schembari, Silvia; Rizzo, Stefano; Luciano, Cristian; Cappabianca, Paolo; Meling, Torstein Ragnar; Schaller, Karl; DiMeco, Francesco; Laakso, Aki (2018)
    Currently available simulators are supposed to allow young neurosurgeons to hone their technical skills in a safe environment, without causing any unnecessary harm to their patients caused by their inexperience. For this training method to be largely accepted in neurosurgery, it is necessary to prove simulation efficacy by means of large-scale clinical validation studies. We correlated and analysed the performance at a simulator and the actual operative skills of different neurosurgeons (construct validity). We conducted a study involving 92 residents and attending neurosurgeons from different European Centres; each participant had to perform a virtual task, namely the placement of an external ventricular drain (EVD) at a neurosurgical simulator (ImmersiveTouch). The number of attempts needed to reach the ventricles and the accuracy in positioning the catheter were assessed. Data suggests a positive correlation between subjects who placed more EVDs in the previous year and those who get better scores at the simulator (p = .008) (fewer attempts and better surgical accuracy). The number of attempts to reach the ventricle was also analysed; senior residents needed fewer attempts (mean = 2.26; SD = 1.11) than junior residents (mean = 3.12; SD = 1.05) (p = .007) and staff neurosurgeons (mean = 2.89, SD = 1.23). Scoring results were compared by using the Fisher's test, for the analysis of the variances, and the Student's T test. Surprisingly, having a wider surgical experience overall does not correlate with the best performance at the simulator. The performance of an EVD placement on a simulator correlates with the density of the neurosurgical experience for that specific task performed in the OR, suggesting that simulators are able to differentiate neurosurgeons according to their surgical ability. Namely this suggests that the simulation performance reflects the surgeons' consistency in placing EVDs in the last year.
  • Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Soini, Tiina; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2013)
  • Mikkelä, Eero (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objective. In today’s workplaces an increasing number of tasks is completed in teams. Hence, to understand the psychological processes affecting interaction within and success of teams in different environments is of great importance. To study these processes, a new TT10 questionnaire (84 questions, 10 separate subscales) was created. The aim of this thesis was to study the validity and reliability of the TT10 by studying multiple literature-based hypotheses about connections between the subscales of the TT10 in two separate studies. Methods. In study 1 (n=49) 10 teams from two Finnish technology companies filled the TT10 and basic demographic information online. In study 2 (n=124) there were 62 pairs consisting of an employee of a Finnish insurance company and a customer. The counterparts in each pair were anonymously in contact with each other in an online chat for 20 minutes during which their task was to solve puzzles together. After the experiment they were asked to review the interaction of their pair with a shortened version (27 questions) of the TT10. Results. Almost all of the hypotheses gained support. Different subscales were in connection with each other mostly in the hypothesized ways. Conclusions. The most promising subscales of the TT10 were psychological safety, social cohesion, collaboration, and co-flow. However, limitations such as a very limited number of participants in study 1 made some of the results a bit unclear. However, according to these preliminary results, the TT10 seems to be a promising questionnaire that still needs fine-graining.