Browsing by Subject "Cost"

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  • Vasara, Henri; Toppari, Linda; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Virtanen, Kaisa; Castren, Maaret; Kobylin, Arja (2022)
    Background and purpose The incidence of electric scooter (e-scooter) injuries has increased drastically in numerous countries after widespread availability of shared e-scooters. The economic impact on society from a broader perspective has not been studied. We aimed to estimate the incidence of e-scooter injuries, describe the injury patterns, and estimate the costs of e-scooter injuries. Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study including all e-scooter-related injuries presented in the three adult emergency departments in Helsinki in 2021. We collected the patient data from the university hospital information system. Injury severity was evaluated based on the Abbreviated Injury Score. The cost of the hospital treatment was analyzed based on our hospital district's service price listing. In addition, we recorded the total amount of sick leave days and estimated their economic impact. Results In total, 446 e-scooter injuries were identified and taken into the analysis (434 affecting riders and 12 non-riders). The median age of the patients was 26 (IQR 22-33), and 59% were male. 257 (58%) of the of the injuries were minor, whereas 155 (35%) were moderate, 30 (7%) serious, 3 (0.7%) severe, and one (0.2%) critical. Furthermore, 220 (49%) of the patients sustained head injuries. A major spike in accident incidence was seen during the weekend (Friday to Sunday) nights, accompanied by a proportional increase in patients with alcohol intoxication. Including both the costs of the hospital care and absence from work, the approximated total cost of e-scooter injuries was 1.7 million euros, with a median cost of a single accident being 1148 euros (IQR 399-4263 euro). Interpretation: Considerable number of the injuries are moderate, severe, or worse. Comprehensive preventive measures must be conducted to decrease the incidence of e-scooter injuries. The use of helmets should be strongly encouraged to prevent severe head injuries. The nighttime bans during weekends and speed limits on e-scooters appear to be justifiable.
  • Tapiovaara, Laura K.; Aro, Katri L. S.; Bäck, Leif J. J.; Koskinen, Anni I. M. (2019)
    Purpose In acute epiglottitis (AE) or acute supraglottitis (AS), the management of the airway is crucial. We hypothesized that tracheotomized patients recover faster than intubated patients do. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all adult AE and AS patients, who underwent intubation or tracheotomy between 2007 and 2018 in a tertiary care center. Patient demographics, treatment, and complications were analyzed. Results The cohort comprised 42 patients. The airway was secured with intubation in 50% and with tracheotomy in 50%. All intubated patients (n = 21) and three tracheotomized patients were treated in the intensive care unit (p <0.0001). Procedure-related complications were encountered in three intubated and eight tracheotomized patients (p = 0.892). Median overall treatment cost was 11.547 euro and 5.856 euro in the intubated and tracheotomized patient groups, respectively (p <0.001). The median duration of sick leave after discharge from hospital was 13 days in the tracheotomy group and 7 days in the intubation group (p = 0.097). Conclusion Tracheotomy resulted in a less expensive management in securing the airway in AE or AS, but tracheotomized patients had a trend towards more complications and longer sick leaves compared to intubated patients.
  • Mankinen, Petri; Lundström, Tuomas; Soini, Erkki; Sumelahti, Marja-Liisa; Ruutiainen, Juhani; Niskala, Ulla; Järvinen, Elina (2020)
    Introduction Cost assessment modelling (CAM) of treatments in highly active relapsing multiple sclerosis was conducted. Methods The CAM was developed using the R programming language. The PICOSTEPS health technology assessment framework was applied in the CAM. Modelled patients were 280 adults with highly active relapsing multiple sclerosis eligible for disease-modifying treatment. Intervention was cladribine tablets, a new and reimbursed oral treatment for highly active relapsing multiple sclerosis in Finland. Comparators included fingolimod, the most used oral reimbursed treatment for the highly active disease, and natalizumab, the most used intravenous treatment, and a treatment mix (80% use fingolimod, 20% use natalizumab) in Finland. Outcomes presented expected annual and cumulative drug-associated costs in the overall population and per patient. Setting was modelled public specialist care in Finland. Time was set to 4 years, without discounting. Effects covered expected drug-associated costs (screening, acquisition, administration, monitoring, adverse events, travelling, productivity). Perspective was a limited societal perspective. Sensitivity analyses regarding all PICOSTEPS components were conducted. Results Cladribine tablets were projected to be cost saving in comparison to fingolimod, natalizumab and treatment mix. The respective modelled savings were euro4,598,742, euro16,249,701 and euro6,928,934 in the overall population, and euro16,424, euro58,035 and euro24,746 per patient, respectively, during the 4 years. The most important cost driver was drug costs, representing 96.3%, 96.0% and 83.4% of modelled costs associated with cladribine tablets, fingolimod and natalizumab, respectively. Cladribine tablets sustained their affordability in the sensitivity analyses. From the perspective of health care payer, cladribine tablets' savings were projected to be euro4,514,509, euro15,145,366 and euro6,640,680 in the overall population, and euro16,123, euro54,091 and euro23,717 per patient in comparison to fingolimod, natalizumab and treatment mix, respectively. Conclusion Based on the CAM, cladribine tablets were projected to robustly save modelled drug-associated costs in comparison to fingolimod, natalizumab and their mix in Finland.
  • Laine, M. K.; Kujala, R.; Eriksson, J. G.; Kautiainen, H.; Sarna, S.; Kujala, U. M. (2017)
    Aims Regular physical activity plays a major role, in both prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Less is known whether vigorous physical activity during young adulthood is associated with costs of diabetes medication in later life. The aim of this study is to evaluate this question. Methods The study population consisted of 1314 former elite-class athletes and 860 matched controls. The former athletes were divided into three groups based on their active career sport: endurance, mixed and power sports. Information on purchases of diabetes medication between 1995 and 2009 was obtained from the drug purchase register of the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Results The total cost of diabetes medication per person year was significantly lower among the former endurance (mean 81 theta [95% CI 33-151 theta ]) and mixed group athletes (mean 272 theta [95% CI 181- 388 theta]) compared with the controls (mean 376 theta [95% CI 284- 485 theta]), (p <0.001 and p = 0.045, respectively). Of the former endurance athletes, 0.4% used insulin, while 5.2% of the controls used insulin (p = 0.018). Conclusions A career as former endurance, sprint, jumper or team game athlete seems to reduce the costs of diabetes medication in later life.
  • Airaksinen, Noora K.; Nurmi-Lüthje, Ilona S.; Kataja, J. Matti; Kröger, Heikki P. J.; Lüthje, Peter M. J. (2018)
    Background: Most of the cycling accidents that occur in Finland do not end up in the official traffic accident statistics. Thus, there is minimal information on these accidents and their consequences, particularly in cases in which alcohol was involved. The focus of the present study is on cycling accidents and injuries involving alcohol in particular. Methods: Data on patients visiting the emergency department at North Kymi Hospital because of a cycling accident was prospectively collected for two years, from June 1, 2004 to May 31, 2006. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured on admission with a breath analyser. The severity of the cycling injuries was classified according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Results: A total of 217 cycling accidents occurred. One third of the injured cyclists were involved with alcohol at the time of visiting the hospital. Of these, 85% were males. A blood alcohol concentration of Conclusions: Cyclists involved with alcohol were, in most cases, heavily intoxicated and were not wearing a bicycle helmet. Head injuries were more common among these cyclists than among sober cyclists. As cycling continues to increase, it is important to monitor cycling accidents, improve the accident statistics and heighten awareness of the risks of head injuries when cycling under the influence of alcohol. (c) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.