Browsing by Subject "Covid-19"

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  • Kovács, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tutkielman tiedonintressissä on tarkastella Covid-19 -pandemian sopimusoikeudellisia ulottuvuuksia erityisesti liikehuoneiston vuokrasopimusten kannalta. Aihe valikoitui sen ajankohtaisuuden ja tutkimattomuuden ja yhteiskunnallisen merkittävyyden vuoksi. Sen sisältää tärkeitä kysymyksiä, jotka liittyvät laa-jemmin sopimuksen sitovuuteen sekä muihin sopimusoikeuden peruskysymyksiin. Vaikka tarkastelu on rajattu yhteen sopimustyyppiin, soveltuvat tietyt tutkielman ydinajatukset myös muihin kestosopimuksiin. Toimialana liikehuoneistojen vuokraus on ollut eturintamassa ottamassa vastaan pandemian vaikutukset. Pitkien sopimuskausien vuoksi liikevuokrasuhteet ovat jo lähtökohtaisesti alttiita olosuhteiden muuttumiselle. Pandemian suorat ja välilliset vai-kutukset ovat päivittäistavarakauppaa lukuun ottamatta iskeneet ankarasti vuokralaisten liiketoimintaan ja sitä kautta myös vuokranantajiin, jotka ovat laa-jasti myöntäneet helpotuksia esimerkiksi vuokranmaksuvelvollisuuteen. Ankarimmin vaikutukset ovat näkyneet ravintola-alalla, jossa valtiovallan kiellot ja rajoitukset sekä yleinen kysynnän väheneminen ovat heikentäneet merkittävästi liiketoiminnan edellytyksiä. Vuokranantajien näkökulmasta tilanne on niin ikään ollut haastava, sillä vuokratulojen menetyksistä huolimatta vuokranantajan omat vastuut suhteessa rahoittajiin ja muihin sidosryhmiin säilyvät. Julkisessa keskustelussa on ollut esillä, onko vuokralainen velvollinen maksamaan vuokraa siltä ajalta, kun liiketilan normaali liiketoimintakäyttö on valtio-vallan toimien vuoksi estynyt tai merkittävästi rajoittunut. Sama problematiikka pätee muihinkin sopimusvelvoitteisiin ja sopimuksen ajalliseen sitovuuteen. Toisin kuin esimerkiksi irtaimen kaupassa tai rakennusurakoissa liikehuoneiston vuokrasopimuksissa ei ole tyypillisesti varauduttu olosuhteiden muuttumi-seen esimerkiksi vis majeure -ehdolla. Myöskään liikehuoneiston vuokraamista koskevaa lainsäädäntöä ei ole laadittu pandemiaa silmällä pitäen, joten painopiste siirtyy vääjäämättä oikeusperiaatteille sekä sopimuksen jälkiperäisen kohtuullistamiselle, kun arvioidaan pandemian vaikutuksia osapuolten sopimusvelvoitteisiin sekä sopimuksen ajalliseen sitovuuteen. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan lainsäädännön, sopimusehtojen, yleisten oppien sekä jälkiperäi-sen kohtuullistamisen näkökulmasta sopimuksen sitovuutta. Esimerkiksi vuokranmaksuvelvollisuuden osalta pohditaan, voiko L liikehuoneiston vuokrauk-sesta 21 § soveltua tilanteessa, jossa liiketilan liiketoimintakäyttö on valtiovallan kieltojen vuoksi estynyt ja mikä on suoritusesteoppien käyttöala tässä kontekstissa. Selostamatta tässä yhteydessä yksityiskohtaisesti päättelyketjuja, voidaan yleisesti todeta, että pacta sunt servanda -periaate on vahvassa asemassa muutosvaatimuksia vastaan. Sopimuksen muodostuminen tappiolliseksi olosuhteiden muuttumisen vaikutuksesta ei lähtökohtaisesti ole peruste poiketa sopimussitovuudesta. Korkeimman oikeuden ratkaisussa 1994:96 todetulla tavalla osapuolten tulee sopimuksentekohetkellä osata varautua siihen, että sopimus voi myöhemmin muodostua kannattamattomaksi suhdannevaihteluiden vaikutuksesta. Vaikka sopimussitovuus on vahva lähtökohta, voidaan siitä tapauskohtaisesti poiketa myös elinkeinonharjoittajien välisessä suhteessa. Koronakriisi ennakoimattomuutensa osalta poikkeaa tavallisesta negatii-visesta suhdannekehityksestä. On myös huomioitava, ettei viitatussa tapauksessa liiketoiminnan harjoittamista ollut valtiovallan toimesta rajoitettu. Reaalisten liiketalouteen perustuvien argumenttien merkitystä ei voida tässä yhteydessä korostaa liikaa. Päätökset tehdään sen mukaan, mikä arvioidaan liiketa-loudellisesti järkeväksi. Tästä esimerkkinä mainittakoon laajat myönnytykset vuokrien maksamisessa. Vaikka vuokrasta vapautumiselle ei löydy yksiselit-teistä juridista oikeutusta, on vuokrasuhteen jatkuvuuden, liikepaikan arvon sekä liiketilojen korkean käyttöasteen turvaaminen nähty ratkaisevina seikkoi-na. Juridisten argumenttien merkitys korostuu, jos yhteisymmärrystä ei saavuteta. Pandemian vaikutukset osapuolten velvoitteisiin on ratkaistava viimekädessä tuomioistuimessa tapauskohtaisesti. Jos tavoitellaan yhdenmukaisia ratkai-suja, tulee tämä toteuttaa lainsäädännön keinoin. Joka tapauksessa prosessaamisen tulisi olla ultima ratio -sillä oikeustilan ollessa näinkin epäselvä on oikeudenkäynnin lopputulosta vaikea ennustaa. Osapuolten välinen neuvottelu on lähtökohtaisesti paras tapa ratkaista sopimukseen liittyvät erimielisyydet.
  • Mustajoki, Arto; Nilsson, Nadezjda Zorikhina; Guzman Tirado, Rafael; Tous-Rovirosa, Anna; Dergacheva, Daria; Vepreva, Irina; Itskovich, Tatiana (2020)
  • Karhu, Pilvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of Covid-19 epidemic to the everyday life and the work-life balance among young adults. Work is a significant part of a person’s every-day life. Individualisation of working hours stands out in the current work life. Therefore, the need for finding the work-life balance increases. Work-life balance is seen to be a main factor, whereby the employee is able to stabilize the demands becoming from work and leisure. The exceptional global circumstances with Covid-19 epidemic have suddenly affected people’s everyday life and ways of working during the year 2020. Majority of Finnish employees were forced to move to remote work due to the Covid-19 epidemic. The remote work makes it even more challenging to maintain the border between work and leisure time. In addition, people were required to adapt their everyday life due to the health threatening virus. This research applies qualitative methodology. The data were collected by using the theme interview method. Six young adults took part in the interview. All interviews were carried out during September and October in 2020. In addition to the interview the interviewees were asked to describe their normal day during Covid-19 epidemic with a timeline. The timeline was used to support the interviews according to the stimulated recall Interview method. The interview recordings were transcribed word for word and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Hermeneutic-phenomenological approach was also applied in this research. The significance of routines stood out in the everyday life during Covid-19 epidemic. Certain everyday routines were shattered due to the epidemic, while people were forced to adapt their ways of working and free time activities. Despite this, other daily routines were considered as a resource to manage in the crisis. Especially the continuing of work was seen as an important factor in the Covid-19 crisis. Work and leisure time activities were overlapping more flexibly during the Covid-19 epidemic. On the other hand, it was considered important to make a clear boundary between work and leisure time in the end of the day.
  • Palmén, Fredrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Syftet med avhandlingen är att undersöka hur rederierna Viking Line och Tallink Siljas reaktioner på coronaviruspandemin tog sig i uttryck på Facebook på våren 2020. Forskningen tar både fasta på hur kommunikationen på Facebook har sett ut samt hur rederierna säger sig ha upplevt krisen. Avhandlingen svarar på frågan hur kommunikationen har sett ut och på vilket sätt den skiljer sig från tiden före pandemin. Dessutom ger analyserna svar på hur rederiernas kommunikation skiljer sig från varandra. Avhandlingen strävar efter att belysa de teman som rederierna har kommunicerat på Facebook under coronaviruspandemins första fas i Finland, samt vilka metoder som använts för att förstärka budskapen i inläggen. Detta analyseras ur mottagarens synvinkel, alltså på vilket sätt Facebookinläggen kan tolkas och vilka upplevelser de väcker. Studien grundar sig i teori om kriskommunikation och intryckshantering. Metoderna som används är kvalitativ forskningsintervju, tematisering och kvalitativ semiotisk innehållsanalys. Den sistnämnda är av störst relevans eftersom den möjliggör breda insikter i hur kommunikationen på Facebook har sett ut. Analyserna av inläggen fokuserar på inläggens bilder och texter, medan exempelvis kommentarer och reaktioner utesluts. Eftersom det inte är ändamålsenligt att analysera varje inlägg som publicerats, görs en innehållstematisering av inläggen. Tematiseringen bidrar med ett målstyrt urval bestående av totalt tio inlägg som analyseras noggrannare med hjälp av den semiotiska analysen. Forskningens resultat tyder på liknande upplevelser av pandemin hos både Tallink Silja och Viking Line. De teman som lyftes fram i kommunikationen var också i stort sett samma, men skillnader i kommunikationen noteras också. En signifikant skillnad är rederiernas förhållningssätt till social media som kriskommunikationskanal. Viking Line använder sig på ett bredare plan av social media i kriskommunikationen, medan Tallink Silja främst utnyttjar andra kanaler. Avhandlingen kan fungera som grund för vidare forskning i kriskommunikation på social media. Det som exempelvis inte tas upp i denna forskning är vilka reaktioner kommunikationen har väckt hos mottagarna. Avhandlingen riktar sig till kommunikatörer som med hjälp av social media vill utveckla sin kommunikation eller kriskommunikation, särskilt när krisen slår till mot organisationen utifrån.
  • Liuska, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This study reviews the everyday life of special needs families during the Covid-19-pandemic. In special needs families at least one child has an increased need for services for their health, growth and/or development. Previous studies show that these services are an important resource and help in everyday life, as it is often built around taking care of the child. In previous studies special needs families have mainly been reviewed during normal conditions and the more recent studies conducted during the pandemic emphasize the perspective of authorities. The purpose of this study is to highlight the everyday life of special needs families during the Covid-19-pandemic and how services have been organized. This study applies qualitative methodology. The data was collected by semi-structured interviews. Seven mothers of special needs families took part in the interviews. The families were from across Finland. The family structures, children’s diagnoses and available resources varied within these families. Tran scripted data was analyzed with content analysis. The study shows that the everyday life of the families focused at home during the Covid-19-pandemic, which led to everyday life routines, free time and use of money changing. During the pandemic the families had to quickly rebuild their everyday life and its routines. Everyday life became more restricted as the routines focused at home. Parents' free time decreased as the children did not attend school or free-time activities. The meaning of home and its surroundings were highlighted because families were not able to spend their time together in shopping centers or restaurants. It became apparent that the realization of services varied between the families during the Covid-19-pandemic. During the pandemic the services were no longer considered safe due to the increased risk of infection, which led to some of the services coming to a halt and the implementation of special arrangements to other services. The decision of realization of the services was partly held by the service providers, while in some cases the families made the decision themselves to pause the service. The need for help in the families did not decrease and especially mothers had to answer this with their own work input. The families found the service system to be rigid and hoped for more flexibility from their service providers. That would mean considering the wishes of the family and the focusing on the best interest of the child.
  • Hätinen, Annika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Syftet för denna avhandling är att undersöka hur socialarbetare upplever och kritiskt reflekterar kring att etiska principer och etiska överväganden tillämpas i omhändertagandeprocessen i barnskyddet. Syftet är vidare att undersöka etiska konflikter i omhändertagandeprocessen samt om Covid-19 pandemin har haft en påverkan på den etiska tillämpningen i omhändertagandeprocessen. Forskningsmaterialet insamlades genom kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer. Intervjuerna genomfördes på distans via programmet Microsoft Teams på grund av den rådande Covid-19 pandemisituationen. Sammanlagt fem socialarbetare, som jobbade i barnskyddets öppenvård, deltog i studien. Materialet är analyserat med en teoristyrd innehållsanalys. Som teoretisk referensram har jag använt mig av Paynes (2015) kritiska teori och av Banks (2001) teori om etiska principer. Resultaten fördelades enligt analysen i tre huvudrubriker: etiska principer i omhändertagandeprocessen, etiska konflikter i omhändertagandeprocessen samt Covid-19 pandemins påverkan på omhändertagandeprocessen. Resultaten i studien visar att socialarbetarna tillämpar etiska principer och etiskt tänkande under omhändertagandeprocessen på ett professionellt sätt. Socialarbetarna beskriver att etiskt tänkande ofta är undermedvetet i yrkesrollen. Barnets delaktighet, personlighet och självbestämmanderätt beaktas genom öppen och ärlig kommunikation, genom att lyssna på barnet, tala på barnets nivå, svara på frågor, ta känslor i beaktande och vara närvarande. Att upprätthålla sekretessen under omhändertagandeprocessen ansågs inte problematiskt. Ibland måste etiska principerna ses över och begränsningar måste göras, till exempel då klientens självbestämmanderätt måste begränsas. Socialarbetarna berättar att det förekommer olika etiska konflikter under omhändertagandeprocessen. Placering av spädbarn och ungdomar var en etisk fråga som orsakade konflikter. Även resursbrister i olika stödåtgärder för klienterna ansågs orsaka konflikter. Resultaten gällande Covid-19 pandemins påverkan på omhändertagandeprocessen visar att socialarbetarna upplever att pandemin har påverkat barnskyddsklienternas psykiska välmående och på socialarbetarnas arbetsförhållanden negativt. Bland annat distansmöten och trögare arbetsprocesser togs upp som svårigheter i arbetet under pandemin. Avhandlingen pekar på att det finns behov av att fortsätta studera pandemins påverkan på socialt arbete och kritisk reflektera över socialarbetarnas maktperspektiv och tillämpning av etiska principer i arbetet
  • Stenbäck, Reija-Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The Covid-19 pandemic forced the Ministry of Education and Culture to make a historical decision, based on which all schools and educational institutions in Finland switched to dis-tance education on March 18, 2020. If necessary, contact teaching was offered only to pupils in grades 1 – 3 or with special support. The purpose of this dissertation is to record the experience of pupils aged 7 to 12 years and their parents of the distance school routine overshadowed by exclusionary activities of soci-ety. It was mentally a very difficult period. The aim of the dissertation is to find out how dis-tance education was perceived, especially in terms of the mental well-being of pupils and what opportunities the teacher has to support in the community of pupils and other mental well-being in the situation of distance education. This qualitative research has a narrative approach. The material consists of diary-based WhatsApp messages from three students and loosely structured thematic interviews with stu-dents and their parents. The material has been compiled during exceptional circumstances, and it was possible to find out changes in school practices and pupils’ moods as the distance learning period progressed. The results show the importance of different teaching practices on mental well-being of the pupil the differences in the level of teaching practices. The data shows the spring 2020 was challenging. As expected, it highlighted loneliness caused by social isolation but also the po-tential of the school to support community. At it’s best, distance education was challenging but diverse learning environment that devel-oped future skills and self-esteem of the pupil. At worst, it turned out to be a grueling and lonely drill for the pupil when even the provision of basic learning goals was uncertain.
  • Niemi-Sampan, Priska (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Keväällä 2020 elettiin historiallista aikaa, kun Covid-19 pandemian aiheuttamat poikkeusolot eristivät suomalaiset koteihinsa ensimmäisen kerran. Tämän tutkielman tavoitteena oli tarkastella, millaisia kokemuksia ja tunteita korona-aika ja sen vaatimat rajoitustoimet herättivät suomalaisissa nuorissa sekä millainen rooli sosiaalisella medialla oli poikkeusoloista selviytymisessä. Lisäksi tutkielmassa haluttiin selvittää, näyttäytyykö sosiaalisen median rooli nuorten elämässä erilaisena eri ajankohtina poikkeusolojen pitkittyessä. Aineisto koostui kolmen eri aikana kerätyn kyselylomakkeen avoimista vastauksista, jotka on kerätty 05.04.2020 - 05.05.2020 välisenä aikana. Tutkimukseen osallistui 37 19–29-vuotiasta suomalaista nuorta ja nuorta aikuista. Tutkielman analyysimenetelmänä toimi Tuomen ja Sarajärven (2018) esittelemä laadullinen teoriaohjaava sisällönanalyysi ja analysoinnissa huomioitiin konstruktionistinen ote aineistoa tulkittaessa. Analyysissä teoreettisina käsitteinä toimivat resilienssin ja copingin käsitteet, joita on sovellettu erityisesti kriiseihin ja sosiaalisen median kontekstissa tutkimuskirjallisuuden pohjalta. Tulosten perusteella sosiaalisen median rooli rakentui hyvin tärkeäksi ja kokonaisvaltaiseksi nuorten arjessa koronakeväänä. Sosiaalisen median rooli näyttäytyi selviytymisen kannalta tärkeänä. Se kasvatti poikkeusolojen aikana resilienssiä tarjoamalla mahdollisuuden käyttää erilaisia coping-keinoja. Poikkeusolojen alussa some näyttäytyi alustana, jonne nuoret kokoontuivat. Somea tulkittiin poikkeusolojen alussa hätäkokoontumispaikkana, jonne nuoret suuntasivat etsimään ja jakamaan tietoa sekä purkamaan omia tunteitaan kriisin alussa, mikä kuvastaa somea resilienssin lähteenä. Aineistosta rakentui kuusi erilaista coping-keinoa. Poikkeusolojen aikana nuoret alkoivat hyödyntää somea eri tavoin uudelleenorganisoitumiseen ja arjesta selviytymiseen. Tässä vaiheessa some näyttäytyi ikään kuin työkalupakkina, josta nuoren on ollut mahdollista poimia itselle tarpeellisia coping-keinoja. Aineistosta rakentui coping-keinoja, jotka ovat muun muassa uudelleenorganisoituminen, sosiaalisen vuorovaikutuksen ylläpitäminen, optimismi ja huumori somessa, uuden oppiminen ja itsereflektointi, passiivinen selaaminen todellisuuden pakokeinona ja kontrollin tunteen hakeminen. Poikkeusolojen jatkuessa näyttäytyi somen roolin muuttumista. Analyysissä syntyneistä luokista muodostettiin lopuksi poikkeusolojen aikaisen somen käytön malli, joka kuvaa aineistosta rakentuneita somen rooleja, käytön kolmea vaihetta ja kolmea käyttäjäprofiilia. Tulokset onnistuivat valottamaan nuorten kokemuksia ja syventämään ymmärrystä siitä, millainen rooli sosiaalisella medialla oli poikkeusolojen aikana. Tutkielman tulokset onnistuivat avaamaan näitä ilmiöitä laadullisesti, sillä aikaisemmat selvitykset olivat pääosin tilastollisia, eikä niistä välittynyt nuorten ääni tarpeeksi syvällisesti. Nuorten kokemusten ja sosiaalisen median roolin ymmärtäminen on erityisen tärkeää varsinkin nyt, kun koronakriisi on jatkunut jo yli vuoden.
  • Ivaska, Juho (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Abstract Faculty: Social Sciences Program: Economics Line of study: General line Author: Juho Ivaska Name of work: Mitigating the Covid-19 shock – A simulation study on the cost compensation schemes of Finland, Norway and the United States Type of work: Master’s thesis Month and year: 11/2021 Number of pages: 43 Keywords: Corporate subsidies, Covid-19, Simulation Storage location: University of Helsinki library Abstract: During the Covid-19 pandemic, many countries implemented sizeable support programs for companies suffering from the pandemic. This thesis compares the effectiveness of the Business Cost Support of Finland, the Norwegian Business Compensation Scheme and the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) of the USA in terms of mitigating pandemic effects on firm profitability, liquidity and solvency. All three programs are cost support schemes but they differ in what costs are covered and in their eligibility criteria. The comparison is executed by simulating the pandemic-induced turnover shock on Finnish enterprises under each support scheme. Statistics Finland’s detailed Financial statement data from 2019 provides the starting position for the simulation. The turnover shock is one year of length and assigned to firms based on their industry code. Effectiveness of the support schemes is measured by mitigation rate which describes the share of the effects of the pandemic that the scheme can mitigate. Additionally, the costs of the schemes are considered. This thesis finds that the Norwegian scheme was the most effective in decreasing the number of unprofitable firms as well as the number of firms with liquidity troubles. It ranks the highest in all but one measure even when adjusted by its second highest price. The Finnish scheme yielded the highest price-adjusted mitigation rate in average quick ratio but trailed the Norwegian scheme slightly in all other categories. The PPP was the most expensive of the support schemes and thus the least effective in all the profit and liquidity related measures. This thesis concludes that compensating fixed costs and targeting the support carefully were crucial in supporting the worst hit businesses for a reasonable price. The Finnish Business Cost Support fared well compared to its counterparts but allowing for higher and lower single support payments would have most likely increased its effectiveness. If the target of the scheme is maintaining employees on firm payrolls, a pure wage compensation scheme as the PPP yields better results.
  • Welker, Bianca (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Amid the Covid-19 pandemic, alternative online news media were predominately thought to spread false information on the coronavirus and heavily engage in conspiracy theories. The populist and far-right news outlets especially were said to strategically exploit people’s fears to further their own hate campaigns against migrants, political elites and the established media. This research aims to give a more detailed account of how five German populist far-right digital news outlets framed the ongoing crisis from January to May 2020 and managed to integrate the topic into their established narratives. For this qualitative content analysis, articles from the digital news sites of Compact, Junge Freiheit, Eigentümlich Frei, Deutsche Stimme and Zuerst were analysed regarding the topics, claims, actors and rhetoric devices that they used. The result of the study was that, rather than being swayed by strategic whims to exploit the crisis at all costs, the outlets relied on their established framing habits and were able to incorporate the crisis into all of their usual reporting. They were able to integrate the topic into overarching narratives, which not only confirmed worldviews held by their established reader base, but may also hold significant sway over new readers seeking reassurance in uncertain times. Finally, the thesis directed attention to the importance that language and presentation played in accomplishing this balancing act, establishing the need for further research on the language of the populist far right online.
  • Näre, Lena; Bendixsen, Synnøve (2021)
  • Kunelius, Risto (2020)
    Covid-19 represents a systemic event?a state of emergency?that disrupts the routines of societies from the level of individuals to institutions, nations, and global interaction. Revealing the vulnerability of the intensively interconnected world suggests a juxtaposition with another systemic crisis: the climate emergency. Drawing on some key literature on the different aspects of ?events??as heightened political semiosis (Wagner-Pacifi), as (possible) transformation of social and symbolic structures (Sewell), and as moments where new horizons are opened (Arendt)?this essay suggests three intersecting themes where reactions to Covid-19 help to sharpen the crucial questions of future journalism: the role of ?knowledge? and expertise, the power of national framing, and the challenge of covering the new imperatives and possibilities of everyday life.
  • Tiihonen, Seppo (2021)
    Artikeli kuvaa pääministerin roolia Covid-19-kriisin käsittelyssä.
  • Seppälä, Riina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The year 2020 changed our everyday life. The exceptional circumstances with Covid-19 have suddenly affected people’s everyday life. The purpose of this study is to observe how meal box service can help everyday cooking habits during the exceptional situation. Meal box service consists of food items, premeasured, and accompanied by a set of recipes. Meal box are mostly delivered home, or you can pick it up from special store. This study analyses what consumers appreciate when using meal box service and how it helps everyday life. People who took part in this study have used the meal box service during corona situation between autumn 2020 and spring 2021, when everyday life felt normal again after the crisis-like nature during spring 2020. This research applies qualitative methodology. The data were collected by using the theme interview method with both face to face and remote access. The interviews were made during February and March 2021. Nine adults took part in the interview, age range 26–56 years. All interviews were living in one- or two-people’s households without children. The interview records were analyzed using qualitive content analysis. The results of this analysis can be divided into three main categories as following, everyday life routines, services during the exceptional situation and change of everyday life. The results of this study show that meal box service helps everyday life by saving time from grocery shopping and meal planning and giving more time to do some other tasks. Covid-19 situation shows that people wanted to support companies by using meal box service. During the exceptional situation people have spent more time at home, which increased the need to prepare more food at home. This is one of the reasons people wanted to choose meal box service. Meal box service helps by diversifying eating habits and lowers the need to do grocery shopping. Other positive effects were discovering new recipes and ingredients. Difficulties using the service were that it didn’t remove the need for grocery shopping altogether. Special diets where also founded to be quite challenging when using meal box service because it didn’t take all diets inconsideration. Some people thought that weekly subscription was too captivating, because they didn’t want to use the service every week.
  • Khmelnitskaya, Marina; Burdyak, Aleksandra; Pushina, Olga (2020)
  • Kantele, Anu; Lääveri, Tinja; Kareinen, Lauri; Pakkanen, Sari H.; Blomgren, Karin; Mero, Sointu; Patjas, Anu; Virtanen, Jenni; Uusitalo, Ruut; Lappalainen, Maija; Järvinen, Asko; Kurkela, Satu; Jääskeläinen, Anne J.; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja (2021)
    Background: Exposure, risks and immunity of healthcare workers (HCWs), a vital resource during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, warrant special attention. Methods: HCWs at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, filled in questionnaires and provided serum samples for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody screening by Euroimmun IgG assay in March-April 2020. Positive/equivocal findings were confirmed by Abbott and microneutralization tests. Positivity by two of the three assays or RT-PCR indicated a Covid-19 case (CoV+). Results: The rate of CoV(+) was 3.3% (36/1095) and seropositivity 3.0% (33/1095). CoV(+) was associated with contact with a known Covid-19 case, and working on a Covid-19-dedicated ward or one with cases among staff. The rate in the Covid-19-dedicated ICU was negligible. Smoking and age Conclusion: Undiagnosed and asymptomatic cases among HCWs proved rare. An increased risk was associated with Covid-19-dedicated wards. Particularly high rates were seen for wards with liberal HCW-HCW contacts, highlighting the importance of social distancing also among HCWs.
  • Fadista, Joao; Kraven, Luke M.; Karjalainen, Juha; Andrews, Shea J.; Geller, Frank; Baillie, J. Kenneth; Wain, Louise; Jenkins, R. Gisli; Feenstra, Bjarke (2021)
    Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex lung disease, characterized by progressive lung scarring. Severe COVID-19 is associated with substantial pneumonitis and has a number of shared major risk factors with IPF. This study aimed to determine the genetic correlation between IPF and severe COVID-19 and assess a potential causal role of genetically increased risk of IPF on COVID-19 severity. Methods: The genetic correlation between IPF and COVID-19 severity was estimated with linkage disequilib-rium (LD) score regression. We performed a Mendelian randomization (MR) study for IPF causality in COVID-19. Genetic variants associated with IPF susceptibility (P Findings: We detected a positive genetic correlation of IPF with COVID-19 severity (rg=0.31 [95% CI 0.04-0.57], P = 0.023). The MR estimates for severe COVID-19 did not reveal any genetic association (OR 1.05, [95% CI 0.92-1.20], P = 0.43). However, outlier analysis revealed that the IPF risk allele rs35705950 at MUC5B had a dif-ferent effect compared with the other variants. When rs35705950 was excluded, MR results provided evidence that genetically increased risk of IPF has a causal effect on COVID-19 severity (OR 1.21, [95% CI 1.06-1.38], P = 4.24 x 10(-3)). Furthermore, the IPF risk-allele at MUC5B showed an apparent protective effect against COVID-19 hospitalization only in older adults (OR 0.86, [95% CI 0.73-1.00], P = 2.99 x 10(-2)) . Interpretation: The strongest genetic determinant of IPF, rs35705950 at MUC5B, seems to confer protection against COVID-19, whereas the combined effect of all other IPF risk loci seem to confer risk of COVID-19 severity. The observed effect of rs35705950 could either be due to protective effects of mucin over-produc-tion on the airways or a consequence of selection bias due to (1) a patient group that is heavily enriched for the rs35705950 T undertaking strict self-isolation and/or (2) due to survival bias of the rs35705950 non-IPF risk allele carriers. Due to the diverse impact of IPF causal variants on SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a possible selection bias as an explanation, further investigation is needed to address this apparent paradox between variance at MUC5B and other IPF genetic risk factors. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
  • Wolff, Lili-Ann (2020)
    Humans have always lived in eras of more or less obvious crises and risks. When Ulrich Beck wrote about the risk society in 1986, he talked about risks as invisibility lacking spatial and temporal boundaries. The environmental risks of the modern society may often appear diffuse, even if, for example, the climate change dilemma has progressively become noticeable. However, this year, people on Earth have had to face a most obvious risk. The effects of Covid-19 have reached such proportions that the human world probably will never be the same again. However, the extent of jeopardies is not similar for all world inhabitants, neither are the tools to handle the risks. To face the threat and learn from it, humans need to change manners on many levels and in many social and physical areas. Some of the main questions to reflect on and discuss in this feature issue of Sustainability are: What will the most urgent role of sustainability education be now and in the future? What kind of teaching, learning and educational policies are most relevant? What issues are most crucial in sustainability education research?
  • Li, Tong; Zhang, Mingyang; Li, Yong; Lagerspetz, Eemil; Tarkoma, Sasu; Hui, Pan (2021)
    The outbreak of Covid-19 changed the world as well as human behavior. In this article, we study the impact of Covid-19 on smartphone usage. We gather smartphone usage records from a global data collection platform called Carat, including the usage of mobile users in North America from November 2019 to April 2020. We then conduct the first study on the differences in smartphone usage across the outbreak of Covid-19. We discover that Covid-19 leads to a decrease in users' smartphone engagement and network switches, but an increase in WiFi usage. Also, its outbreak causes new typical diurnal patterns of both memory usage and WiFi usage. Additionally, we investigate the correlations between smartphone usage and daily confirmed cases of Covid-19. The results reveal that memory usage, WiFi usage, and network switches of smartphones have significant correlations, whose absolute values of Pearson coefficients are greater than 0.8. Moreover, smartphone usage behavior has the strongest correlation with the Covid-19 cases occurring after it, which exhibits the potential of inferring outbreak status. By conducting extensive experiments, we demonstrate that for the inference of outbreak stages, both Macro-F1 and Micro-F1 can achieve over 0.8. Our findings explore the values of smartphone usage data for fighting against the epidemic.