Browsing by Subject "Crohn disease"

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  • Pediat GETAID Grp; ESPGHAN IBD Porto Grp; Madre, Chrystele; Masic, Mario; Prlenda-Touilleux, Daniela; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Hugot, Jean-Pierre (2021)
    Objectives: Digestive perianastomotic ulcerations (DPAU) resembling Crohn disease lesions are long-term complications of intestinal resections, occurring in children and young adults. They are known to be uncommon, severe and difficult to treat. Methods: In the absence of recommendations, we performed a large European survey among the members of the ESPGHAN working group on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in order to collect the experience of expert pediatric gastroenterologists on DPAU. Results: Fifty-one patients (29 boys and 22 girls) were identified from 19 centers in 8 countries. Most patients were followed after necrotizing enterocolitis (n = 20) or Hirschsprung disease (n = 11). The anastomosis was performed at a median age (interquartile range) of 6 [1-23] months, and first symptoms occurred 39 [22-106] months after surgery. Anemia was the most prevalent symptom followed by diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, and failure to thrive. Hypoalbuminemia, elevated CRP, and fecal calprotectin were common. Deep ulcerations were found in 59% of patients usually proximally to the anastomosis (68%). During a median follow-up of 40 [19-67] months, treatments reported to be the most effective included exclusive enteral nutrition (31/35, 88%), redo anastomosis (18/22, 82%), and alternate antibiotic treatment (37/64, 58%). Conclusions: Unfortunately, persistence of symptoms, failure to thrive, and abnormal laboratory tests at last follow-up in most of patients show the burden of DPAU lacking optimal therapy and incomplete understanding of the pathophysiology.
  • Paediat IBD Porto Grp ESPGHAN; Berger, Tal David; Lee, Huey Miin; Padmanaban, Lavenya Ramasamy; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Shamir, Raanan; Shouval, Dror S. (2022)
    Objectives: Adult studies suggest that patients with isolated colonic Crohn disease (L2 CD) exhibit unique characteristics differentiating them from patients with ileo-caecal (L1) CD and ulcerative colitis (UC). We aimed to characterize clinical features and outcomes of paediatric patients with L2. Methods: Retrospective data was collected through the Porto Inflammatory Bowel Disease group of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) on Paediatric patients with L2, L1 or UC at different time-points. Outcome measures included time to first flare, hospital admissions, initiation of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) drug, stricture and surgery. Results: Three hundred patients were included: 102 L1, 94 L2 and 104 UC. Rates of hematochezia at presentation were 14.7%, 44.7% and 95.2%, while rates of fever were 12.7%, 26.6% and 2.9%, for patients with L1, L2 and UC, respectively (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Skip lesions were identified in 65% of patients with L2, and granulomas in 36%, similar to L1 patients. Rates of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic (pANCA) positivity significantly differed between the three groups: 25.4% and 16.7% for patients with L2, compared with 55.2% and 2.3%, and 1.8% and 52.9% for patients with L1 and UC, respectively. Response rates to exclusive enteral nutrition were comparable between L1 and L2 (78.3-82.4%), as was the response to oral steroids (70.4-76.5%) in the three groups. While times to first flare and admission were similar between groups, patients with L1 were commenced on anti-TNF alpha earlier. Moreover, stricturing phenotype and need for colectomy were very rare in patients with L2. Conclusions: Significant differences are observed in the clinical presentation and outcomes of Paediatric patients with L2, compared to patients with L1 and UC.
  • Huoponen, Saara; Eberl, Anja; Räsänen, Pirjo; Roine, Risto P.; Sipponen, Taina; Arkkila, Perttu; Blom, Marja (2020)
    Effectiveness, efficacy and safety of biosimilar infliximab (CT-P13) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients has been shown in previous studies. Limited data exist on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of switching originator to biosimilar infliximab (IFX) in IBD patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate impact of switching originator to biosimilar IFX on HRQoL, disease activity, and health care costs in IBD maintenance treatment. In this single-center prospective observational study, all IBD patients receiving maintenance IFX therapy were switched to biosimilar IFX. HRQoL was measured using the generic 15D health-related quality of life instrument (15D) utility measurement and the disease-specific Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ). Crohn Disease Activity Index (CDAI) or Partial Mayo Score (pMayo), and fecal calprotectin (FC) served for evaluation of disease activity. Data were collected at time of switching and 3 and 12 months after switching. Patients' characteristics, clinical background information and costs were collected from patient records and the hospital's electronic database. Fifty-four patients were included in the analysis. No statistically significant changes were observed in 15D, CDAI, pMayo, and FC during 1-year follow-up. IBDQ scores were higher (P = .018) in Crohn disease 3 months after switching than at time of switching. Costs of biosimilar IFX were one-third of costs of originator one. Total costs related to secondary health care (excluding costs of IFX), were similar before and after the onset of biosimilar IFX. HRQoL and disease activity were after switching from originator to biosimilar IFX comparable, but the costs of biosimilar IFX were only one-third of those of the originator one.
  • Laakso, Saila; Valta, Helena; Verkasalo, Matti; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna-Maria; Viljakainen, Heli; Mäkitie, Outi (2012)
  • Nyholm, Iiris; Hukkinen, Maria; Koivusalo, Antti; Merras-Salmio, Laura; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Rintala, Risto; Pakarinen, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoitus. Lapsuudesta asti haavaista koliittia (UC) sairastaneista lapsista neljännes tarvitsee proktokolektomian elinaikanaan. Tutkimuksen tarkoitus oli selvittää proktokolektomian ja ileoanaalianastomoosin (IAA) pitkäaikaistuloksia lapsena leikatuilla UC-potilailla. Aineisto ja menetelmät. Tutkimukseen otettiin mukaan haavaista tai määrittämätöntä koliittia sairastavat potilaat, joille oltiin tehty proktokolektomia ja IAA HUS:n Lastenklinikalla vuosina 1985-2016. Tiedot sairaushistoriasta, diagnostiikasta, leikkauksista, kirurgisista komplikaatioista, postoperatiivisesta Crohnin taudista ja leikkauksen epäonnistumisesta eli pysyvästä ileostoomasta kerättiin retrospektiivisesti. Leikkauksen epäonnistumisen riskitekijät analysoitiin Coxin regressiomallilla. Tulokset. 87 potilaasta 85:llä (98%) preoperatiivinen diagnoosi oli UC ja kahdella (2%) määrittämätön koliitti. 57 (66%) leikattiin kaksivaiheisesti ja 30 (34%) kolmivaiheisesti. Keskimääräisen 7,8 (kvartiiliväli 4,1-14,5) vuoden seuranta-aikana yhdeksällä (10%) potilaalla diagnoosi tarkentui Crohnin taudiksi. Postoperatiivisista komplikaatioista saumalekaasit (n=8, 9%) ja striktuurat (n=10, 11%) olivat yhtä yleisiä Crohn- ja UC-potilailla, kun taas fisteleitä (78% vs. 9%, p<0,001) ja abskesseja (56% vs 14%, p=0,009) oli enemmän Crohnin tautia sairastavilla lapsilla. Kahdeksalla (9%) oli pysyvä ileostooma viimeisellä seurantakäynnillä. Muiden potilaiden keskimääräinen ulostamisfrekvessi oli 5 (4-7) päivisin ja 0,5 (0-1) öisin. Crohnin tauti (hasardisuhde, HR=23,3, p=0,005), postoperatiiviset fistelit (HR=20,9, p=0,007) ja abskessit (HR=16,3, p=0,013) sekä kolmivaiheinen leikkaus (p=0,018) lisäsivät pysyvän ileostooman riskiä. Johtopäätökset. Proktokolektomian jälkeisen IAA-leikkauksen funktionaaliset ja kirurgiset pitkäaikaistulokset ovat hyviä lapsuuden haavaisessa koliitissa. Postoperatiiviset fistelit ja abskessit sekä tarve kolmivaiheiselle leikkaukselle ovat yhteydessä Crohnin tautiin ja kohottavat riskiä päätyä pysyvälle ileostoomalle. Alkuperäinen artikkeli julkaistiin Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis -lehdessä 3.10.2018. (220 sanaa)
  • BLING Res Grp; Lamberg, Tea; Sipponen, Taina; Valtanen, Sanna; Eklund, Kari K.; Mälkönen, Tarja; Aalto, Kristiina; Mikola, Katriina; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Leinonen, Sanna; Isomäki, Pia; Mäkinen, Heidi; Vidqvist, Krista-Liisa; Kokko, Arto; Huilaja, Laura; Kyllönen, Minna; Keskitalo, Paula; Sard, Sirja; Vähäsalo, Paula; Koskela, Ritva; Kröger, Liisa; Lahtinen, Perttu; Haapala, Anna-Maija; Korkatti, Katja; Sokka-Isler, Tuulikki; Jokiranta, T. Sakari (2022)
    Introduction The prevalence of immune-mediated diseases has increased in the past decades and despite the use of biological treatments all patients do not achieve remission. The aim of this study was to characterise the reasons for short interruptions during treatment with two commonly used TNF-inhibitors infliximab and adalimumab and to analyse the possible effects of the interruptions on immunisation and switching the treatment. Material and methods This case-control study was based on retrospective analyses of patient records and a questionnaire survey to clinicians. A total of 370 patients (194 immunised cases and 172 non-immunised controls, 4 excluded) were enrolled from eight hospitals around Finland. Eleven different diagnoses were represented, and the largest patient groups were those with inflammatory bowel or rheumatic diseases. Results Treatment interruptions were associated with immunisation in patients using infliximab (p < .001) or adalimumab (p < .000001). Patients with treatment interruptions were more likely to have been treated with more than one biological agent compared to those without treatment interruptions. This was particularly prominent among patients with a rheumatic disease (p < .00001). The most frequent reason for a treatment interruption among the cases was an infection, whereas among the control patients it was remission. The median length of one interruption was one month (interquartile range 1-3 months). Conclusion Our results suggest that the interruptions of the treatment with TNF-inhibitors expose patients to immunisation and increase the need for drug switching. These findings stress the importance of careful judgement of the need for a short interruption in the biological treatment in clinical work, especially during non-severe infections.
  • Koninckx, Carmen Ribes; Donat, Ester; Benninga, Marc A.; Broekaert, Ilse J.; Gottrand, Frederic; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Lionetti, Paolo; Miele, Erasmo; Orel, Rok; Papadopoulou, Alexandra; Pienar, Corina; Schappi, Michela G.; Wilschanski, Michael; Thapar, Nikhil (2021)
    Objectives: The aim of the study was to review the evidence regarding the clinical use and value of fecal calprotectin (FC) measurements in different gastrointestinal disorders in children. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases until October 31, 2019. Subtopics were identified and each assigned to individual authors. Results: A total of 28 recommendations were voted on using the nominal voting technique. Recommendations are given related to sampling, measurement methods, and results interpretation. The 14 authors anonymously voted on each recommendation using a 9-point scale (1 strongly disagree to 9 fully agree). Consensus was considered achieved if at least 75% of the authors voted 6, 7, 8, or 9. Conclusions: Consensus was reached for all recommendations. Limitations for the use of FC in clinical practice include variability in extraction methodology, performance of test kits as well as the need to establish local reference ranges because of the influence of individual factors, such as age, diet, microbiota, and drugs. The main utility of FC measurement at present is in the diagnosis and monitoring of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well as to differentiate it from functional gastrointestinal disorders (FAPDs). FC, however, has neither utility in the diagnosis of infantile colic nor to differentiate between functional and organic constipation. A rise in FC concentration, may alert to the risk of developing necrotizing enterocolitis and help identifying gastrointestinal involvement in children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura. FC measurement is of little value in Cow's Milk Protein Allergy, coeliac disease (CD), and cystic fibrosis. FC does neither help to distinguish bacterial from viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE), nor to diagnose Helicobacter Pylori infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), acute appendicitis (AA), or intestinal polyps.
  • Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2021)
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with pediatric onset has become more prevalent during past decades. Thus, the number of patients with moderate to severe disease subtype treated with antagonists to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) has concurrently risen. Most pediatric patients initially respond to these drugs but will need dose escalation during the first year of therapy. As pediatric data regarding therapeutic drug monitoring during therapy with TNF alpha-blocker adalimumab are sparse, this review focuses on the literature on therapeutic drug monitoring of infliximab and how it may guide management.