Browsing by Subject "Crohn's disease"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 25
  • Rautava, Jaana; Gürsoy, Ulvi K.; Kullström, Adrian; Kononen, Eija; Sorsa, Timo; Tervahartiala, Taina; Gürsoy, Mervi (2020)
    The diagnostic accuracy of point-of-care (PoC) applications may be compromised in individuals with additional inflammatory conditions. This cross-sectional study examined the performance of a commercial oral rinse active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) PoC immunotest in individuals with (n = 47) and without Crohn's disease (CD) (n = 41). Oral rinse collected from the participants was analyzed by the PoC immunotest. Molecular forms and fragments of salivary MMP-8 were detected by western immunoblotting. The sensitivity of the immunotest for periodontitis was 60.0% in the CD group and 90.0% in the control group. The respective specificity was 75.0% and 80.0%. In both groups, clinical diagnosis of periodontitis exhibited a significant association with the immunotest results, however, the odds ratio (OR) was more than ten-fold in controls (OR 54.3, 95% CI: 3.1-953, p = 0.006) in comparison to CD patients (OR 5.2, 95% CI: 1.3-21.6, p = 0.022). According to Western immunoblot results, the immunotest MMP-8 positivity was not related to elevated levels of molecular forms and fragments of MMP-8 in the CD group, as in the control group. The diagnostic accuracy of the aMMP-8 PoC oral rinse immunotest is reduced in CD patients, which may be related to lower levels or undetectable complexes.
  • Kolehmainen, Sara; Ylisaukko-Oja, Tero; Jokelainen, Jari; Koivusalo, Mirkka; Jokiranta, T. Sakari; Sipponen, Taina (2021)
    Objectives We set out to determine the reasons for serum vedolizumab (VDZ) trough concentration (TC) measurements in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and to evaluate treatment modifications after therapeutic drug measurement (TDM). We also evaluated the effect of increased dosing on patients' response to VDZ therapy. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of IBD patients who received VDZ therapy at Helsinki University Hospital and whose VDZ levels were measured between June 2014 and December 2018. Results Altogether, 90 patients (32 Crohn's disease and 58 ulcerative colitis) and 141 VDZ TC measurements were included. 24.1% of measurements took place during induction and 75.9% during the maintenance phase. During induction, 64.7% reached the target TC >20 mu g/ml. During maintenance therapy, 82.2% of VDZ TCs were within or exceeded the suggested target range of 5-15 mu g/ml. Reasons for TDM were: secondary nonresponse (44.0%), assessment of adequate VDZ TC (25.5%), primary nonresponse (12.8%), adverse events (6.4%), and other (11.3%). No treatment changes occurred after 60.3% of VDZ measurements. Increased dose frequency was used after 25.5% of VDZ measurements and 33.3% of these patients experienced improvement. Altogether, 31 (34.4%) patients discontinued the therapy due to inadequate treatment response. No anti-vedolizumab antibodies were detected. Conclusions During the maintenance of VDZ therapy, the majority of VDZ TCs were within the suggested range. Measurement of VDZ TC did not lead to any treatment changes in two-thirds of patients. Dose optimization occurred in a quarter of patients and a third of them benefited from it.
  • Vitikainen, Krista; Haapamaki, Johanna; Farkkila, Martti; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Arkkila, Perttu (2018)
    Objective: Characterization of predisposing factors for Clostridium difficile infection recurrence (rCDI) and outcome in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients.Methods: Clinical characteristics of 167 inflammatory bowel disease patients with Clostridium difficile infection (IBD-CDI cohort) treated in Helsinki University Central Hospital were gathered. Medical history of the last three months preceding a toxin positive CDI test was recorded. Parameters, including ribotype of C. difficile, mortality and recurrence were compared with age and gender-matched C. difficile patients (CDI cohort).Results: No difference was found in rCDI between IBD-CDI and CDI cohorts. As compared with IBD subtypes, rCDI was least common among patients with Crohn's disease. The use of immunosuppressant therapy was higher in IBD patients with two or more CDI episodes. C. difficile ribotype 027 increased the rates for rCDI in IBD patients but not in non-IBD-CDI patients. The prevalence of 027 ribotype and mortality rates did not differ significantly among the cohorts. None of the IBD patients underwent colectomy upon CDI.Conclusion: IBD patients are not more susceptible for rCDI than non-IBD patients. Predisposing factors for rCDI among IBD patients are associated with immunosuppressant treatments, colon affecting IBD and CDI caused by ribotype 027. CDI does not worsen the prognosis of IBD patients.
  • Castaneda, Anu E.; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Aronen, Eeva T.; Marttunen, Mauri; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2013)
  • Nousiainen, Pauliina; Merras-Salmio, Laura; Aalto, Kristiina; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2014)
  • Sidoroff, Marianne; Karikoski, Riitta; Raivio, Taneli; Savilahti, Erkki; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2010)
  • Koskela, Mikael; Nihtilä, Julia; Ylinen, Elisa; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Nuutinen, Matti; Ritari, Jarmo; Jahnukainen, Timo (2021)
    Background The pathophysiology of Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is still unclear, but several findings suggest that genetic factors may influence disease susceptibility. We aimed to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in pediatric HSP patients with an emphasis on severe HSP nephritis. Methods The study included 46 HSP patients, 42 of whom had undergone kidney biopsy. Forty-nine pediatric patients with an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) served as an autoimmune disease control group while Finnish bone marrow and blood donors represented the general reference population (n = 18,757). GWAS was performed for HSP and IBD samples in a case-control manner against the reference population. The analysis also included imputation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. Results GWAS analysis in HSP revealed several polymorphisms from the HLA region that surpassed the genome-wide significance level. Three HLA class II alleles were also significantly more frequent in HSP than in the reference population: DQA1*01:01, DQB1*05:01, and DRB1*01:01. Haplotype DQA1*01:01/DQB1*05:01/DRB1*01:01 occurred in 43.5% of HSP patients, whereas its frequency was 8.2% in IBD patients and 15.0% in the reference population. HSP patients with this haplotype showed similar baseline clinical findings and outcome as HSP patients negative for the haplotype. In IBD patients, no polymorphism or HLA allele appeared significant at the genome-wide level. Conclusions Our results suggest that haplotype DQA1*01:01/DQB1*05:01/DRB1*01:01 is associated with susceptibility to HSP, but not with the severity of the kidney involvement. These HLA associations did not occur in IBD patients, suggesting that they are specific to HSP and not related to susceptibility to autoimmune diseases in general.
  • Norsa, Lorenzo; Berni Canani, Roberto; Duclaux-Loras, Remi; Bequet, Emeline; Köglmeier, Jutta; Russell, Richard K.; Uhlig, Holm H.; Travis, Simon; Hollis, Jennifer; Koletzko, Sibylle; Grimaldi, Giusi; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Rodrigues, Astor; Deflandre, Jaques; Dembinski, Lukasz; Shah, Neil; Heinz-Erian, Peter; Janecke, Andreas; Leskinen, Saara; Wedenoja, Satu; Koskela, Ritva; Lachaux, Alain; Kolho, Kaija Leena; Ruemmele, Frank M. (2021)
    Background: Congenital chloride diarrhoea [CLD] is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the solute family carrier 26 member 3 [SLC26A3] gene. Patients suffer from life-long watery diarrhoea and chloride loss. Inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] has been reported in individual patients with CLD and in scl26a3-deficient mice. Methods: We performed an international multicentre analysis to build a CLD cohort and to identify cases with IBD. We assessed clinical and genetic characteristics of subjects and studied the cumulative incidence of CLD-associated IBD. Results: In a cohort of 72 patients with CLD caused by 17 different SLC26A3 mutations, we identified 12 patients [17%] diagnosed with IBD. Nine patients had Crohn's disease, two ulcerative colitis and one IBD-unclassified [IBD-U]. The prevalence of IBD in our cohort of CLD was higher than the highest prevalence of IBD in Europe [p < 0.0001]. The age of onset was variable [13.5 years, interquartile range: 8.5-23.5 years]. Patients with CLD and IBD had lower z-score for height than those without IBD. Four of 12 patients had required surgery [ileostomy formation n = 2, ileocaecal resection due to ileocaecal valve stenosis n = 1 and colectomy due to stage II transverse colon cancer n = 1]. At last follow-up, 5/12 were on biologics [adalimumab, infliximab or vedolizumab], 5/12 on immunosuppressants [azathioprine or mercaptopurine], one on 5-ASA and one off-treatment. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients with CLD develop IBD. This suggests the potential involvement of SL26A3-mediated anion transport in IBD pathogenesis. Patients with CLD-associated IBD may require surgery for treatment failure or colon cancer.
  • Hamalainen, Anssi; Sipponen, Taina; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2011)
  • ESPGHAN; Jongsma, Maria M. E.; Winter, Dwight A.; Huynh, Hien Q.; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; de Ridder, Lissy (2020)
    Infliximab (IFX) is administered intravenously using weight-based dosing (5 mg/kg) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Our hypothesis is that especially young children need a more intensive treatment regimen than the current weight-based dose administration. We aimed to assess IFX pharmacokinetics (PK), based on existing therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data in IBD patients <10 years. TDM data were collected retrospectively in 14 centres. Children treated with IFX were included if IFX was started as IBD treatment at age <10 years (young patients, YP) and PK data were available. Older IBD patients aged 10-18 years were used as controls (older patients, OP). Two hundred and fifteen paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD) patients were eligible for the study (110 <10 year; 105 >= 10 years). Median age was 8.3 years (IQR 6.9-8.9) in YP compared with 14.3 years (IQR 12.8-15.6) in OP at the start of IFX. At the start of maintenance treatment, 72% of YP had trough levels below therapeutic range (<5.4 mu g/mL). After 1 year of scheduled IFX maintenance treatment, YP required a significantly higher dose per 8 weeks compared with OP (YP; 9.0 mg/kg (IQR 5.0-12.9) vs. OP; 5.5 mg/kg (IQR 5.0-9.3);p <0.001). The chance to develop antibodies to infliximab was relatively lower in OP than YP (0.329 (95% CI - 1.2 to - 1.01);p <0.001), while the overall duration of response to IFX was not significantly different (after 2 years 53% (n = 29) in YP vs. 58% (n = 45) in OP;p = 0.56). Conclusion: Intensification of the induction scheme is suggested for PIBD patients aged <10 years. What is Known?
  • Molander, Pauliina; Farkkila, Martti; Kemppainen, Helena; Blomster, Timo; Jussila, Airi; Mustonen, Harri; Sipponen, Taina (2017)
    Background: Little data exist on the long-term prognosis of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) after stopping TNF alpha-blocking therapy in deep remission. Existing data indicate that approximately 50% of patients on combination therapy who discontinued TNF alpha-blockers are still in remission 24 months later. The aims of this follow-up analysis were to evaluate the long-term remission rate after cessation of TNF alpha-blocking therapy, the predicting factors of a relapse and the response to restarting TNF alpha-blockers. Methods: The first follow-up data of 51 IBD patients (17 Crohn's disease [CD], 30 ulcerative colitis [UC] and four inflammatory bowel disease type unclassified [IBDU]) in deep remission at the time of cessation of TNF alpha-blocking therapy have been published earlier. The long-term data was collected retrospectively after the first follow-up year to evaluate the remission rate and risk factors for the relapse after a median of 36 months. Results: After the first relapse-free year, 14 out of the remaining 34 IBD patients relapsed (41%; 5/12 [42%] CD and 9/22 [41%] UC/IBDU). Univariate analysis indicated no associations with any predictive factors. Re-treatment was effective in 90% (26/29) of patients. Conclusion: Of IBD patients in deep remission at the time of cessation of TNF alpha-blocking therapy, up to 60% experience a clinical or endoscopic relapse after a median follow-up time of 36 months (95% CI 31-41 months). No individual risk factors predicting relapse could be identified. However, the initial response to a restart of TNF alpha-blockers seems to be effective and well tolerated.
  • Nyholm, Iiris; Hukkinen, Maria; Koivusalo, Antti; Merras-Salmio, Laura; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Rintala, Risto J.; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2019)
    Background and Aims Childhood-onset ulcerative colitis [UC] requires total colectomy in one-quarter of patients at some point of their disease. The study objective was to evaluate long-term outcomes after proctocolectomy with ileoanal anastomosis [IAA] for paediatric UC. Methods Medical records of all children undergoing proctocolectomy with IAA for UC during 1985-2016 in Helsinki University Hospital were retrospectively assessed. Data on disease history, diagnostic and operative details, occurrence of surgical complications, functional outcome, postoperative diagnosis of Crohn's disease [CD] and pouch failure were collected. Risk factors for IAA failure were analysed with Cox regression. Results Of 87 patients, 85 [98%] had UC and 2 [2%] inflammatory bowel disease unclassified [IBD-U] preoperatively. Altogether 66% underwent two-stage and 34% underwent three-stage procedures. During 7.8 [4.1-14.5] years' follow-up, nine [10%] patients were diagnosed with postoperative CD. Postoperative leakages [n = 8, 9%] and strictures [n = 10, 11%] were equally common, whereas fistulas [78% vs 9%, p Conclusions For paediatric UC, long-term surgical and functional outcomes after proctocolectomy with IAA are reassuring. Need for three-stage surgery and occurrence of postoperative fistulas and abscesses, but not leakages or strictures, associate with postoperative CD diagnosis and the risk for ileostomy.
  • Voutilainen, Markku; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Tossavainen, Päivi; Sipponen, Taina; Pitkänen, Niina; Laitinen, Tomi; Jokinen, Eero; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Juonala, Markus (2018)
    Background and aims: Several genetic and environmental risk factors have been linked to chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The incidence of IBD has significantly increased in developed countries during last decades. The aim of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for subsequent IBD diagnosis in a longitudinal cohort study of children and adolescents. Methods: A Finnish study population consisting of 3551 children and adolescents originally evaluated as part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study in 1980. At baseline, participant BMI, insulin, lipid, C-reactive protein and blood pressure levels, socioeconomic position, dietary habits, and physical activity, were evaluated. In addition, information was gathered on rural residency, severe infections, breast feeding, parental smoking and birth weight. Subsequent IBD diagnosis status was evaluated based on nationwide registries on hospitalisations and drug imbursement decisions. Results: Altogether, 49 participants (1.4%) had IBD diagnosed during the 34 years of register follow-up, of which 31 had ulcerative colitis, 12 Crohn's disease and 6 undetermined colitis. In univariate analyses, significant correlations were observed between childhood HDL-cholesterol (risk ratio (95% CI) for 1-SD change (0.58 (0.42-0.79)) and CRP concentrations (1.20 (1.01-1.43)) with IBD. The inverse association between HDL-cholesterol and IBD remained significant (0.57 (0.39-0.82)) in a multivariable model including data on age, sex and CRP. In addition, a weighted genetic z-score of 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with elevated HDL-cholesterol levels was significantly lower in IBD patients, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Low childhood HDL-cholesterol levels are associated with subsequent IBD diagnosis. In addition, a genetic risk score associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels predict later IBD suggesting that HDL-cholesterol metabolism might have a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. (C) 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kunnari, Mikko (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease. There are no treatment procedures that can cure Crohn's disease, but it is usually controllable with medicinal options. However 70 - 80 % of patients will require surgery and most undergo several during their life, due to weak local potency of drugs and disrupted recovery from surgical treatment. A better method of combined treatment, such as a drug releasing surgical suture, could improve the disease recovery process. One approach would be to coat a surgical suture with nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) hydrogel containing the active drug ingredient within. NFC is biocompatible, biostable and it can be easily chemically modified. It displays pseudoplastic and thixotropic gel-like behavior in aqueous suspension in addition to high shear thinning properties under low and high shear rates. The shear-thinning behavior is particularly useful in a range of different coating applications. Furthermore, recent studies have shown the potential of NFC in controlled drug release. The aim of this Master's thesis was to investigate the suitability of anionic NFC hydrogel for surgical suture coatings and controlled release applications. The structure of NFC hydrogel was modified with crosslinking cations (Fe3+, Al3+, Ca2+) and alginate. The diffusion studies were performed with two antibiotics, metronidazole and rifaximin together with FITC-dextrans (10 and 250 kDa). The surgical suture was coated with each type of hydrogels (n = 16). Furthermore, the suitability of suture drug formulation for controlled drug release was simulated with STELLA® modeling software. It was shown that the NFC hydrogel structure was stiffened with the use of crosslinking cations; however similar results were not observed with the addition of alginate. Release profiles of model compounds were similar before and after NFC hydrogel crosslinking. At 6 days, 50 - 60 % of 10 kDa dextran (6 µg) was released. For 250 kDa dextran (6 µg) the released amount was 25 - 35 %. During the first 3 days of the diffusion study, all of metronidazole (20 µg) was released. Rifaximin samples were not obtained due to high adsorption to the container surfaces. The release profiles of metronidazole and 10 kDa dextran had linear correlation with square-root diffusion process. 250 kDa dextran followed a near zero-order kinetics after a few hours from the start. The coating was performed successfully with NFC hydrogels except for hydrogels with dextrans or without crosslinking. Metronidazole was predicted to release from the surgical suture almost instantly with STELLA® modeling software. NFC hydrogel shows potential as a matrix for controlled drug release and the coating of surgical sutures. However, the manufacturing method of the NFC hydrogel could be improved with surface modifications of nanofibrils or with the choice of a drug or of its derivatives. With pharmacokinetic simulation models it is possible to predict and estimate different factors which affect drug release from the surgical suture. Furthermore, the simulation models can be used to estimate an effect in the treatment of Crohn's disease.
  • Haaramo, Anu; Alapulli, Heikki; Aine, Liisa; Tuokkola, Jetta; Saarnisto, Ulla; Roine, Risto P.; Pitkäranta, Anne; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2019)
    Background: Up to 50% of pediatric patients with Crohn's disease (CD) report oral manifestations, but less is known about their oral health when they become adults. Goals: Our aim was to provide detailed descriptions of the presence of oral and otorhinolaryngological manifestations in patients with pediatric onset CD once they reached adulthood, to look for predisposing factors and to compare the findings to matched controls. Study: Adult patients diagnosed with CD in childhood at the Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki, Finland, after 2000 were invited for a follow-up appointment in 2016 and 24 were examined by a dentist and otorhinolaryngologist. They were compared with 22 matched controls from the Population Register Centre. The participants completed questionnaires about their general health, any special diets, and their health-related quality of life. Their nutrition was evaluated from food records. Results: Patients with CD had minor oral manifestations at a median of 9 years after their childhood diagnosis and the most common was angular cheilitis, which affected 6 patients and 1 control, but was not statistically significant (P=0.0984). CD with perianal abscessing disease correlated to orofacial findings (P=0.0312). Most of the patients had normal otorhinolaryngological findings. Subjects with oral lesions had lower mean health-related quality of life scores than subjects without oral findings and the differences were clinically but not statistically significant. Oral manifestations were not associated with differences in energy intake. Conclusions: Oral manifestations in adult patients with pediatric onset CD were mild and were not associated with otorhinolaryngological pathology.
  • 2015 European Soc Coloproctology; Kössi, Jyrki (2019)
    BACKGROUND Right hemicolectomy or ileocecal resection are used to treat benign conditions like Crohn's disease (CD) and malignant ones like colon cancer (CC). AIM To investigate differences in pre- and peri-operative factors and their impact on post-operative outcome in patients with CC and CD. METHODS This is a sub-group analysis of the European Society of Coloproctology's prospective, multi-centre snapshot audit. Adult patients with CC and CD undergoing right hemicolectomy or ileocecal resection were included. Primary outcome measure was 30-d post-operative complications. Secondary outcome measures were post-operative length of stay (LOS) at and readmission. RESULTS Three hundred and seventy-five patients with CD and 2,515 patients with CC were included. Patients with CD were younger (median = 37 years for CD and 71 years for CC (P <0.01), had lower American Society of Anesthesiology score (ASA) grade (P <0.01) and less comorbidity (P <0.01), but were more likely to be current smokers (P <0.01). Patients with CD were more frequently operated on by colorectal surgeons (P <0.01) and frequently underwent ileocecal resection (P <0.01) with higher rate of de-functioning/primary stoma construction (P <0.01). Thirty-day post-operative mortality occurred exclusively in the CC group (66/2515, 2.3%). In multivariate analyses, the risk of post-operative complications was similar in the two groups (OR 0.80, 95%CI: 0.54-1.17; P = 0.25). Patients with CD had a significantly longer LOS (Geometric mean 0.87, 95%CI: 0.79-0.95; P <0.01). There was no difference in re-admission rates. The audit did not collect data on post-operative enhanced recovery protocols that are implemented in the different participating centers. CONCLUSION Patients with CD were younger, with lower ASA grade, less comorbidity, operated on by experienced surgeons and underwent less radical resection but had a longer LOS than patients with CC although complication's rate was not different between the two groups.
  • Af Björkesten, C. -G.; Jussila, A.; Kemppainen, H.; Hallinen, T.; Soini, E.; Mankinen, P.; Valgardsson, S.; Veckman, V.; Nissinen, R.; Naessens, D.; Molander, P. (2019)
    Background and Aims: A retrospective non-interventional, multi-centre patient chart review study was conducted to investigate the association of faecal calprotectin (FC) 1 year (+/- 2 months) after biological therapy initiation with composite event-free survival (CEFS) consisting of surgical procedures, corticosteroid initiation, treatment failure or dose increase in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). In addition, the correlations of FC and other tests of disease activity were assessed. Materials and methods: Data on Finnish CD patients initiating a biological therapy between 2010 and 2016, were collected. The association of FC and CEFS was analysed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard modelling. The correlations were tested with Pearson's test. Results: Biological therapy was initiated in 186 patients, of which 87 (46.8%) had FC results available at 1 year and 80 had follow-up exceeding 14 months. The characteristics of patients with and without FC results were similar. Patients with elevated FC (>250 mu g/g) had a significantly increased risk of experiencing composite event (HR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.3-8.9; p = .013) when compared to patients with normal FC (FC
  • Aaltonen, Gisele; Carpelan-Holmström, Monika; Keränen, Ilona; Lepistö, Anna (2019)
    Purpose Crohn's colitis carries a risk for permanent stoma with extirpation of the rectum. We aimed to estimate the proctectomy rate and identify risk factors for proctectomy in patients with Crohn's colitis. Methods For this study, we retrospectively reviewed data from consecutive patients with Crohn's disease (CD) affecting the colon or anorectal region undergoing bowel resection in a reference colorectal centre between 2006 and 2016. The cumulative risk for proctectomy was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier curve. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine independent risk factors for proctectomy. Outcomes after proctectomy concerning reoperation frequency and perineal wound healing are also described. ResultsIn total, this study included 125 patients. Proctectomy was performed in 36 patients (28.8%), of whom 14 patients (38.9%) experienced perineal wound healing problems. The rates of proctectomy were 5.6% and 32.0% 10 and 20 years after CD diagnosis, respectively. Female gender (odds ratio (OR) 3.375, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.304-8.733, P=0.012), disease duration (OR 1.067, 95% CI 1.011-1.126, P=0.018) and history of perianal disease (OR 3.160, 95% CI 1.215-8.219, P=0.018) were independent risk factors for a proctectomy procedure, whereas thiopurine medication (OR 0.170, 95% CI 0.060-0.486, P=0.001) was an independent protective factor for proctectomy. Conclusions The duration of Crohn's disease, female gender and a history of perianal disease were significant risk factors for a proctectomy procedure. Future research should examine whether immunosuppressive and biological medications reduce the risk for proctectomy.
  • Reichhardt, Martin Parnov; Meri, Seppo (2016)
    Complement is present mainly in blood. However, following mechanical damage or inflammation, serous exudates enter the mucosal surfaces. Here, the complement proteins interact with other endogenous molecules to keep microbes from entering the parenteral tissues. One of the mucosal proteins known to interact with the early complement components of both the classical and the lectin pathway is the salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA). SALSA is also known as deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 and gp340. It is found both attached to the epithelium and secreted into the surrounding fluids of most mucosal surfaces. SALSA has been shown to bind directly to C1q, mannose-binding lectin, and the ficolins. Through these interactions SALSA regulates activation of the complement system. In addition, SALSA interacts with surfactant proteins A and D, secretory IgA, and lactoferrin. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are examples of diseases, where complement activation in mucosal tissues may occur. This review describes the latest advances in our understanding of how the early complement components interact with the SALSA molecule. Furthermore, we discuss how these interactions may affect disease propagation on mucosal surfaces in immunological and inflammatory diseases.