Browsing by Subject "Cryptophytes"

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  • Taipale, Sami J.; Vuorio, Kristiina; Aalto, Sanni L.; Peltomaa, Elina; Tiirola, Marja (2019)
    Eutrophication (as an increase in total phosphorus [TP]) increases harmful algal blooms and reduces the proportion of high-quality phytoplankton in seston and the content of ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) in fish. However, it is not well-known how eutrophication affects the overall nutritional value of phytoplankton. Therefore, we studied the impact of eutrophication on the production (as concentration; μg L−1) and content (μg mg C−1) of amino acids, EPA, DHA, and sterols, i.e., the nutritional value of phytoplankton in 107 boreal lakes. The lakes were categorized in seven TP concentration categories ranging from ultra-oligotrophic (50 μg L−1). Phytoplankton total biomass increased with TP as expected, but in contrast to previous studies, the contribution of high-quality phytoplankton did not decrease with TP. However, the high variation reflected instability in the phytoplankton community structure in eutrophic lakes. We found that the concentration of amino acids increased in the epilimnion whereas the concentration of sterols decreased with increasing TP. In terms of phytoplankton nutritional value, amino acids, EPA, DHA, and sterols showed a significant quadratic relationship with the lake trophic status. More specifically, the amino acid contents were the same in the oligo- and mesotrophic lakes, but substantially lower in the eutrophic lakes (TP > 35 μg L−1/1.13 μmol L−1). The highest EPA and DHA content in phytoplankton was found in the mesotrophic lakes, whereas the sterol content was highest in the oligotrophic lakes. Based on these results, the nutritional value of phytoplankton reduces with eutrophication, although the contribution of high-quality algae does not decrease. Therefore, the results emphasize that eutrophication, as excess TP, reduces the nutritional value of phytoplankton, which may have a significant impact on the nutritional value of zooplankton, fish, and other aquatic animals at higher food web levels.
  • Taipale, S. J.; Kuoppamaki, K.; Strandberg, U.; Peltomaa, E.; Vuorio, K. (2020)
    Food quality is one of the key factors influencing zooplankton population dynamics. Eutrophication drives phytoplankton communities toward the dominance of cyanobacteria, which means a decrease in the availability of sterols and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPA and DHA). The effects of different restoration measures on the nutritional quality of the phytoplankton community and subsequent impacts on zooplankton biomass have rarely been considered. We analyzed the nutritional quality of phytoplankton in the eutrophic Lake Vesijarvi in southern Finland over a 37-year period, and studied the impacts of two restoration measures, biomanipulation and hypolimnetic aeration, on the abundance of high-quality phytoplankton. We found that biomanipulation had a positive impact on the abundance of taxa synthesizing sterols, EPA, and DHA and, concurrently, on the biomass of the keystone speciesDaphnia. In contrast, hypolimnetic aeration did not result in such a beneficial outcome, manifested as a decrease in the abundance ofDaphniaand frequent phytoplankton blooms dominated by cyanobacteria suggesting reduction in the nutritional quality of food forDaphnia. Our analysis shows that the determination of the nutritional value of algae and the contribution of essential fatty acids and sterols is an effective method to evaluate the success of various restoration measures.
  • Peltomaa, Elina T.; Taipale, Sami (2020)
    The uptake of dissolved organic compounds, that is, osmotrophy, has been shown to be an efficient nutritional strategy for algae. However, this mode of nutrition may affect the biochemical composition, for example, the fatty acid (FA) contents, of algal cells. This study focused on the osmotrophic assimilation of glucose and leucine by selected seven algal strains belonging to chlorophytes, chrysophytes, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates and euglenoids. Our laboratory experiments with stable isotope labeling showed that osmotrophy occurred in four of the selected seven strains. However, only three of these produced long chain omega-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 omega 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 omega 3). High glucose content (5 mg L-1) affected negatively on the total FAs of Mallomonas kalinae and the total omega-3 FAs of Cryptomonas sp. Further, glucose assimilation explained 35% (negative effect) and leucine assimilation 48% (positive effect) of the variation of EPA, DHA and the FAs related to their synthesis in Cryptomonas sp. Moderate glucose concentration (2 mg L-1) was found to enhance the growth of Cryptomonas ozolinii, whereas low leucine (20 mu g L-1) enhanced the growth of M. kalinae. However, no systematic effect of osmotrophy on growth rates was detected. Our study shows that osmotrophic assimilation of algae is species and compound specific, and that the effects of the assimilated compounds on algal metabolism also varies depending on the species.