Browsing by Subject "Cultural heritage"

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  • Kletter, Raz (Routledge, 2019)
    This volume is a critical study of recent archaeology in the Western Wall Plaza area, Jerusalem. Considered one of the holiest places on Earth for Jews and Muslims, it is also a place of controversy, where the State marks ‘our’ remains for preservation and adoration and ‘theirs’ for silencing. Based on thousands of documents from the Israel Antiquities Authority and other sources, such as protocols of planning committees, readers can explore for the first time this archaeological ‘heart of darkness’ in East Jerusalem. The book follows a series of unique discoveries, reviewing the approval and execution of development plans and excavations, and the use of the sites once excavation has finished. Who decides what and how to excavate, what to preserve – or ‘remove’? Who pays for the archaeology, for what aims? The professional, scientific archaeology of the past happens now: it modifies the present and is modified by it. This book ‘excavates’ the archaeology of East Jerusalem to reveal its social and political contexts, power structures and ethics. Readers interested in the history, archaeology and politics of the Israeli– Palestinian conflict will find this book useful, as well as scholars and students of the history and ethics of archaeology, Jerusalem, conservation, nationalism and heritage.
  • Koho, Mikko; Ikkala, Esko; Hyvönen, Eero (2018)
  • Halla, Tuulikki; Karhunkorva, Reetta; Laine, Jaana Maarit; Leena, Paaskoski (Institute of Ethnology CAS, Praha, 2021)
    Our relationship with the forest can be defined as human-forest relationship (HFR). It is the result of our individual history, family history, cultural background, the society in which we live, and the forest surrounding us. This relationship, which combines both historical and modern values and practices, reflects the constantly evolving global, national, communal and individual attitudes towards forests. The aim of this article is to first, define the concept of HFR and second, to demonstrate how HFR has been, and continues to be integrated into Finnish society and culture. Finally, we will gather some ongoing societal discussion on changes in HFR. The Finnish National Inventory of Living Heritage, established in 2017 included HFR as one of its elements. In March 2018, according to a published survey, 83 per cent of Finns appraised forests either quite or very important for themselves. These results beckoned the question of what is their HFR. Do ageing private forest owners share similar HFR with city dwellers of generation Y? Despite the admitted importance of forests, it seems that the essence of the HFR is evolving and Finns are adapting various HFRs in accordance with the fading traditional economic importance of forests as new values are arising.
  • Soirila, Pauno (2022)
    The debate over the restitution of cultural property is usually framed as the dispute between what John Henry Merryman defined as 'cultural nationalism' and 'cultural internationalism': the opposite viewpoints that argue whether cultural heritage objects should be returned to their countries of origin or spread around the world as determined by other principles. I argue, however, that the concepts are problematic both in their definition and their perception as two dialectically opposed sides of a dispute. This article analyses the restitution debate by examining some of the most important arguments and counterarguments used in the debate and by comparing them to the international law 'New Stream' theory. It is revealed that a similar indeterminacy which defines international law in the theory also defines the restitution debate, and that cultural nationalism and internationalism do not in fact provide answers to the debate but only function as two entry points that echo each other without a way to end the debate. Therefore, it is necessary to see beyond the two concepts in order to find solutions to the disputes.
  • Kuuluvainen, Timo; Hofgaard, Annika; Aakala, Tuomas; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar (2017)
    North Fennoscandian mountain forests are distributed along the Scandes Mountains between Sweden and Norway, and the low-mountain regions of northern Norway, Sweden and Finland, and the adjacent northwestern Russia. Regionally, these forests are differentiated into spruce, pine or birch dominance due to climatic differences. Variation in tree species dominance within these regions is generally caused by a combination of historical and prevailing disturbance regimes, including both chronic and episodic disturbances, their magnitude and frequency, as well as differences in edaphic conditions and topography. Because of their remoteness, slow growth and restrictions of use, these mountain forests are generally less affected by human utilization than more productive and easily utilizable forests at lower elevations and/or latitudes. As a consequence, these northern forests of Europe are often referred to as "Europe's last wilderness", even if human influence of varying intensity has been ubiquitous through historical time. Because of their naturalness, the North Fennoscandian mountain forests are of paramount importance for biodiversity conservation, monitoring of ecosystem change and for their sociocultural values. As such, they also provide unique reference areas for basic and applied research, and for developing methods of forest conservation, restoration and ecosystem-based management for the entire Fennoscandia. However, the current rapid change in climate is predicted to profoundly affect the ecology and dynamics of these forests in the future. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Maguregui, Maite; Manuel Madariaga, Juan; Laakso, Raili (2016)
    The paint stratigraphy of the two clock faces from the tower clock of the Government Palace in Helsinki (Finland) was analysed in order to determine their original colour before restoration works. Paint cross-section samples from both clock faces were analysed by confocal Raman microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled to an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The results revealed the complex superimposition of paint layers applied over the original black colour. FTIR/ATR analyses proved that the original paint was prepared with linseed oil-resin media. Most likely not all of the different layer colours were visible. Some of the layers were likely to have been a primer or for rust protection.
  • Kokko, Sirpa (T & T Clark, 2018)
    Estonia got its second independence from under the Soviet rule in 1991. For a rather young nation, Estonia has progressed enormously being today a very modern country, for example in terms of technological development. Despite the pressures of the globalising processes, the Estonians have not wanted to lose their own cultural roots; various forms of crafts, and especially textiles, form an important aspect of the Estonian cultural heritage and identity. This is sustained both informally by hobby craft making and formally through educational efforts. The Department of Estonian Native Crafts of Viljandi Culture Academy (University of Tartu) is devoted to the mission of researching and making visible the Estonian craft traditions and to developing them further. This study focuses on the role of this special kind of higher education in sustaining the culturally significant designs, products and practices. The data was produced along participatory research which took place during several short periods between 2012 and 2015. To get an in-depth picture of the experiences of this form of education, the teachers and former students representing different spheres of the study programme were interviewed. The findings reveal the professional paths of these craft persons and their perspectives of the future of culturally significant crafts in Estonia.