Browsing by Subject "DANISH REGISTERS"

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  • Framke, Elisabeth; Sørensen, Jeppe Karl; Alexanderson, Kristina; Farrants, Kristin; Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T.; Pedersen, Jacob; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Rugulies, Reiner (2021)
    Background: High emotional demands at work can affect employees’ health and there is a need to understand whether such an association might be modified by other working conditions. We aimed to examine emotional demands at work as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence and analyse whether influence, possibilities for development, role conflicts, and physical demands at work might modify this risk. Methods: We did a nationwide, population-based, prospective cohort study in Denmark and included employed individuals who were residing in Denmark in 2000, aged 30–59 years, who had complete data on age, sex, and migration background, with information on emotional demands and possible effect modifiers from job exposure matrices, and covariates and outcome (sickness absence) from population registers. Individuals with long-term sickness absence (≥6 weeks of consecutive sickness absence) between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2000, and self-employed individuals were excluded. We assessed long-term sickness absence during a 10-year period from Jan 1, 2001, to Dec 31, 2010. Using Cox regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs and tested interaction as departure from additivity, estimating relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). Multivariable adjusted models included sex, age, cohabitation, migration background, and income. Findings: 1 521 352 employed individuals were included and contributed data between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2010. During 11 919 021 person-years (mean follow-up 7·8 years), we identified 480 685 new cases of long-term sickness absence. High emotional demands were associated with increased risk of long-term sickness absence compared with low emotional demands, after adjusting for age, sex, cohabitation, migration background, income, and the four possible effect modifiers (adjusted HR 1·55 [95% CI 1·53–1·56]). The association between high emotional demands and risk of long-term sickness absence was stronger in a synergistic way when individuals were also exposed to low possibilities for development (RERI 0·35 [95% CI 0·22–0·47]; 28·9 additional cases per 1000 person-years) and high role conflicts (0·13 [0·11–0·15]; 22·0 additional cases per 1000 person-years). No synergy was observed for influence and physical demands at work. Interpretation: People in occupations with high emotional demands were at increased risk of long-term sickness absence. Our findings on synergistic interactions suggest that, in emotionally demanding occupations, increasing possibilities for development and reducing work-related role conflicts might reduce long-term sickness absence. Further interventional studies are needed to confirm or refute this hypothesis. Funding: Danish Work Environment Research Fund, NordForsk.
  • Rugulies, Reiner; Framke, Elisabeth; Sorensen, Jeppe Karl; Svane-Petersen, Annemette Coop; Alexanderson, Kristina; Bonde, Jens Peter; Farrants, Kristin; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Nyberg, Solja T.; Kivimäki, Mika; Madsen, Ida E. H. (2020)
    Objectives This study aimed to examine the association between job strain and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in Denmark, while accounting for changes of job strain. Methods We included all employees residing in Denmark in 2000, aged 30-59 years with no prevalent CHD (N=1660 150). We determined exposure to job strain from 1996-2009 using a job exposure matrix (JEM) with annual updates. Follow-up for incident CHD was from 2001-2010 via linkage to health records. We used Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between job strain and incident CHD. Results During 16.1 million person-years, we identified 24 159 incident CHD cases (15.0 per 10 000 person-years). After adjustment for covariates, job strain in 2000 predicted onset of CHD during a mean follow-up of 9.71 years (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.07-1.13). When analyzing changes in job strain from one year to the next and CHD in the subsequent year, persistent job strain (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.10), onset of job strain (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12-1.29) and removal of strain (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12-1.28) were associated with higher CHD incidence compared to persistent no job strain. Associations were similar among men and women. Conclusions Job strain is associated with a higher risk of incident CHD in Denmark. As we used a JEM, we can rule out reporting bias. However, under- or overestimation of associations is possible due to non-differential misclassification of job strain and residual confounding by socioeconomic position.
  • Sorensen, Jeppe K.; Framke, Elisabeth; Pedersen, Jacob; Alexanderson, Kristina; Bonde, Jens P.; Farrants, Kristin; Flachs, Esben M.; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Nyberg, Solja T.; Kivimaki, Mika; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Rugulies, Reiner (2022)
    We aimed to examine the association between exposure to work stress and chronic disease incidence and loss of chronic disease-free life years in the Danish workforce. The study population included 1,592,491 employees, aged 30-59 in 2000 and without prevalent chronic diseases. We assessed work stress as the combination of job strain and effort-reward imbalance using job exposure matrices. We used Cox regressions to estimate risk of incident hospital-diagnoses or death of chronic diseases (i.e., type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, and dementia) during 18 years of follow-up and calculated corresponding chronic disease-free life expectancy from age 30 to age 75. Individuals working in occupations with high prevalence of work stress had a higher risk of incident chronic disease compared to those in occupations with low prevalence of work stress (women: HR 1.04 (95% CI 1.02-1.05), men: HR 1.12 (95% CI 1.11-1.14)). The corresponding loss in chronic disease-free life expectancy was 0.25 (95% CI - 0.10 to 0.60) and 0.84 (95% CI 0.56-1.11) years in women and men, respectively. Additional adjustment for health behaviours attenuated these associations among men. We conclude that men working in high-stress occupations have a small loss of years lived without chronic disease compared to men working in low-stress occupations. This finding appeared to be partially attributable to harmful health behaviours. In women, high work stress indicated a very small and statistically non-significant loss of years lived without chronic disease.