Browsing by Subject "DARK ENERGY"

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  • Montanari, Francesco; Räsänen, Syksy (2017)
    If the FRW metric is a good approximation on large scales, then the distance and the expansion rate, as well different notions of distance, satisfy certain consistency conditions. We fit the JLA SNIa distance data to determine the expected amplitude of the violation of these conditions if accelerated expansion is due to backreaction. Adding cosmic clock and BAO expansion rate data, we also model-independently determine the current observational limits on such violation. We find that the predicted maximum backreaction amplitude vertical bar k(H)vertical bar less than or similar to 1 (95% C.I.) is of the same order as the current observational constraints vertical bar k(H)vertical bar less than or similar to 1, the precise numbers depending on the adopted fitting method (polynomials or splines) and stellar population evolution model. We also find that constraints on the value of Ho determined from expansion rate data are sensitive to the stellar evolution model. We forecast constraints from projected LSST+Euclid-like SNIa plus Euclid galaxy differential age data. We find improvement by factor of 6 for the backreaction case and 3 for the model-independent case, probing an interesting region of possible signatures.
  • Annila, A. (2015)
    Spectrum of cosmic rays follows a broken power law over twelve orders of magnitude. Since ubiquitous power laws are manifestations of the principle of least action, we interpret the spectrum accordingly. Our analysis complies with understanding that low-energy particles originate mostly from rapidly receding sources throughout the cosmos. The flux peaks about proton rest energy whereafter it decreases because fewer and fewer receding sources are energetic enough to provide particles with high enough velocities to compensate for the recessional velocities. Above 10(15.6) eV the flux from the expanding Universe diminishes below the flux from the nearby nonexpanding part of the Universe. In this spectral feature, known as the "knee," we relate to a distance of about 1.3 Mpc where the gravitational potential tallies the energy density of free space. At higher energies particles decelerate in a dissipative manner to attain thermodynamic balance with the vacuum. At about 10(17.2) eV a distinct dissipative mechanism opens up for protons to slow down by electron-positron pair production. At about 10(19.6) eV a more effective mechanism opens up via pion production. All in all, the universal principle discloses that the broad spectrum of cosmic rays probes the structure of space from cosmic distances down to microscopic details.
  • Chitham, J. Ider; Comparat, J.; Finoguenov, A.; Clerc, N.; Kirkpatrick, C. C.; Damsted, S.; Kukkola, A.; Capasso, R.; Nandra, K.; Merloni, A.; Bulbul, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Schneider, D. P.; Brownstein, J. R. (2020)
    This paper presents a cosmological analysis based on the properties of X-ray selected clusters of galaxies from the CODEX survey which have been spectroscopically followed up within the SPIDERS programme as part of the sixteenth data release (DR16) of SDSS-IV. The cosmological sub-sample contains a total of 691 clusters over an area of 5350 deg(2) with newly measured optical properties provided by a reanalysis of the CODEX source catalogue using redMaPPer and the DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys (DR8). Optical richness is used as a proxy for the cluster mass, and the combination of X-ray, optical, and spectroscopic information ensures that only confirmed virialized systems are considered. Clusters are binned in observed redshift, (z) over tilde is an element of [0.1, 0.6) and optical richness, (lambda) over tilde is an element of[25, 148) and the number of clusters in each bin is modelled as a function of cosmological and richness-mass scaling relation parameters. A high-purity sub-sample of 691 clusters is used in the analysis and best-fitting cosmological parameters are found to be Omega m(0) = 0.34(-0.05)(+0.09) and sigma(8) = 0.73(-0.03)(+0.03). The redshift evolution of the self-calibrated richness-mass relation is poorly constrained due to the systematic uncertainties associated with the X-ray component of the selection function (which assumes a fixed X-ray luminosity-mass relation with h = 0.7 and Omega m(0) = 0.30). Repeating the analysis with the assumption of no redshift evolution is found to improve the consistency between both cosmological and scaling relation parameters with respect to recent galaxy cluster analyses in the literature.
  • Euclid Collaboration; Paykari, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Kirkpatrick, C. C. (2020)
    Aims. Our aim is to quantify the impact of systematic effects on the inference of cosmological parameters from cosmic shear.Methods. We present an "end-to-end" approach that introduces sources of bias in a modelled weak lensing survey on a galaxy-by-galaxy level. We propagated residual biases through a pipeline from galaxy properties at one end to cosmic shear power spectra and cosmological parameter estimates at the other end. We did this to quantify how imperfect knowledge of the pipeline changes the maximum likelihood values of dark energy parameters.Results. We quantify the impact of an imperfect correction for charge transfer inefficiency and modelling uncertainties of the point spread function for Euclid, and find that the biases introduced can be corrected to acceptable levels.
  • Euclid Collaboration; Adam, R.; Kurki-Suonio, H. (2019)
    Galaxy cluster counts in bins of mass and redshift have been shown to be a competitive probe to test cosmological models. This method requires an efficient blind detection of clusters from surveys with a well-known selection function and robust mass estimates, which is particularly challenging at high redshift. The Euclid wide survey will cover 15 000 deg(2) of the sky, avoiding contamination by light from our Galaxy and our solar system in the optical and near-infrared bands, down to magnitude 24 in the H-band. The resulting data will make it possible to detect a large number of galaxy clusters spanning a wide-range of masses up to redshift similar to 2 and possibly higher. This paper presents the final results of the Euclid Cluster Finder Challenge (CFC), fourth in a series of similar challenges. The objective of these challenges was to select the cluster detection algorithms that best meet the requirements of the Euclid mission. The final CFC included six independent detection algorithms, based on different techniques, such as photometric redshift tomography, optimal filtering, hierarchical approach, wavelet and friend-of-friends algorithms. These algorithms were blindly applied to a mock galaxy catalog with representative Euclid-like properties. The relative performance of the algorithms was assessed by matching the resulting detections to known clusters in the simulations down to masses of M-200 similar to 10(13.25) M-circle dot. Several matching procedures were tested, thus making it possible to estimate the associated systematic effects on completeness to 80% completeness for a mean purity of 80% down to masses of 10(14) M-circle dot and up to redshift z = 2. Based on these results, two algorithms were selected to be implemented in the Euclid pipeline, the Adaptive Matched Identifier of Clustered Objects (AMICO) code, based on matched filtering, and the PZWav code, based on an adaptive wavelet approach.
  • Buchert, T.; Carfora, M.; Ellis, G. F. R.; Kolb, E. W.; MacCallum, M. A. H.; Ostrowski, J. J.; Räsänen, S.; Roukema, B. F.; Andersson, L.; Coley, A. A.; Wiltshire, D. L. (2015)
    No. In a number of papers, Green and Wald argue that the standard FLRW model approximates our Universe extremely well on all scales, except close to strong-field astrophysical objects. In particular, they argue that the effect of inhomogeneities on average properties of the Universe (backreaction) is irrelevant. We show that this latter claim is not valid. Specifically, we demonstrate, referring to their recent review paper, that (i) their two-dimensional example used to illustrate the fitting problem differs from the actual problem in important respects, and it assumes what is to be proven; (ii) the proof of the trace-free property of backreaction is unphysical and the theorem about it fails to be a mathematically general statement; (iii) the scheme that underlies the trace-free theorem does not involve averaging and therefore does not capture crucial non-local effects; (iv) their arguments are to a large extent coordinate-dependent, and (v) many of their criticisms of backreaction frameworks do not apply to the published definitions of these frameworks. It is therefore incorrect to infer that Green and Wald have proven a general result that addresses the essential physical questions of backreaction in cosmology.
  • Cardona, Wilmar; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin; Montanari, Francesco (2016)
    We demonstrate the importance of including the lensing contribution in galaxy clustering analyses with large galaxy redshift surveys. It is well known that radial cross-correlations between different redshift bins of galaxy surveys are dominated by lensing. But we show here that also neglecting lensing in the autocorrelations within one bin severely biases cosmological parameter estimation with redshift surveys. It leads to significant shifts for several cosmological parameters, most notably the scalar spectral index and the neutrino mass scale. Especially the latter parameter is one of the main targets of future galaxy surveys.
  • Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Keihanen, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, V.; Savelainen, M.; Suur-Uski, A. -S. (2020)
    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, which was dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched on 14 May 2009. It scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12 August 2009 and 23 October 2013, producing deep, high-resolution, all-sky maps in nine frequency bands from 30 to 857 GHz. This paper presents the cosmological legacy of Planck, which currently provides our strongest constraints on the parameters of the standard cosmological model and some of the tightest limits available on deviations from that model. The 6-parameter Lambda CDM model continues to provide an excellent fit to the cosmic microwave background data at high and low redshift, describing the cosmological information in over a billion map pixels with just six parameters. With 18 peaks in the temperature and polarization angular power spectra constrained well, Planck measures five of the six parameters to better than 1% (simultaneously), with the best-determined parameter (theta (*)) now known to 0.03%. We describe the multi-component sky as seen by Planck, the success of the Lambda CDM model, and the connection to lower-redshift probes of structure formation. We also give a comprehensive summary of the major changes introduced in this 2018 release. The Planck data, alone and in combination with other probes, provide stringent constraints on our models of the early Universe and the large-scale structure within which all astrophysical objects form and evolve. We discuss some lessons learned from the Planck mission, and highlight areas ripe for further experimental advances.
  • Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Keihanen, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, V.; Savelainen, M.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Valiviita, J. (2020)
    We present cosmological parameter results from the final full-mission Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies, combining information from the temperature and polarization maps and the lensing reconstruction. Compared to the 2015 results, improved measurements of large-scale polarization allow the reionization optical depth to be measured with higher precision, leading to significant gains in the precision of other correlated parameters. Improved modelling of the small-scale polarization leads to more robust constraints on many parameters, with residual modelling uncertainties estimated to affect them only at the 0.5 sigma level. We find good consistency with the standard spatially-flat 6-parameter Lambda CDM cosmology having a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted "base Lambda CDM" in this paper), from polarization, temperature, and lensing, separately and in combination. A combined analysis gives dark matter density Omega (c)h(2)=0.120 +/- 0.001, baryon density Omega (b)h(2)=0.0224 +/- 0.0001, scalar spectral index n(s)=0.965 +/- 0.004, and optical depth tau =0.054 +/- 0.007 (in this abstract we quote 68% confidence regions on measured parameters and 95% on upper limits). The angular acoustic scale is measured to 0.03% precision, with 100 theta (*)=1.0411 +/- 0.0003. These results are only weakly dependent on the cosmological model and remain stable, with somewhat increased errors, in many commonly considered extensions. Assuming the base-Lambda CDM cosmology, the inferred (model-dependent) late-Universe parameters are: Hubble constant H-0=(67.4 +/- 0.5) km s(-1) Mpc(-1); matter density parameter Omega (m)=0.315 +/- 0.007; and matter fluctuation amplitude sigma (8)=0.811 +/- 0.006. We find no compelling evidence for extensions to the base-Lambda CDM model. Combining with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements (and considering single-parameter extensions) we constrain the effective extra relativistic degrees of freedom to be N-eff=2.99 +/- 0.17, in agreement with the Standard Model prediction N-eff=3.046, and find that the neutrino mass is tightly constrained to Sigma m(nu)<0.12 eV. The CMB spectra continue to prefer higher lensing amplitudes than predicted in base CDM at over 2 sigma, which pulls some parameters that affect the lensing amplitude away from the Lambda CDM model; however, this is not supported by the lensing reconstruction or (in models that also change the background geometry) BAO data. The joint constraint with BAO measurements on spatial curvature is consistent with a flat universe, Omega (K)=0.001 +/- 0.002. Also combining with Type Ia supernovae (SNe), the dark-energy equation of state parameter is measured to be w(0)=-1.03 +/- 0.03, consistent with a cosmological constant. We find no evidence for deviations from a purely power-law primordial spectrum, and combining with data from BAO, BICEP2, and Keck Array data, we place a limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r(0.002)<0.06. Standard big-bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the base-CDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. The Planck base-Lambda CDM results are in good agreement with BAO, SNe, and some galaxy lensing observations, but in slight tension with the Dark Energy Survey's combined-probe results including galaxy clustering (which prefers lower fluctuation amplitudes or matter density parameters), and in significant, 3.6 sigma, tension with local measurements of the Hubble constant (which prefer a higher value). Simple model extensions that can partially resolve these tensions are not favoured by the Planck data.
  • Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Keihanen, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, V.; Savelainen, M.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Valiviita, J. (2020)
    We present measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential using the final Planck 2018 temperature and polarization data. Using polarization maps filtered to account for the noise anisotropy, we increase the significance of the detection of lensing in the polarization maps from 5 sigma to 9 sigma. Combined with temperature, lensing is detected at 40 sigma. We present an extensive set of tests of the robustness of the lensing-potential power spectrum, and construct a minimum-variance estimator likelihood over lensing multipoles 8 (8)Omega (0.25)(m) = 0.589 +/- 0.020 sigma 8 Omega m 0.25 = 0.589 +/- 0.020 (1 sigma errors). Also combining with baryon acoustic oscillation data, we find tight individual parameter constraints, sigma (8)=0.811 +/- 0.019, H-0 = 67.9(-1.3)(+1.2) km s(-1) Mpc(-1) H 0 = 67 . 9 - 1.3 + 1.2 .> km s - 1 . Mpc - 1 , and Omega (m) = 0.303(-0.018)(+0.016) Omega m = 0 . 303 - 0.018 + 0.016 . Combining with Planck CMB power spectrum data, we measure sigma (8) to better than 1% precision, finding sigma (8)=0.811 +/- 0.006. CMB lensing reconstruction data are complementary to galaxy lensing data at lower redshift, having a different degeneracy direction in sigma (8)-Omega (m) space; we find consistency with the lensing results from the Dark Energy Survey, and give combined lensing-only parameter constraints that are tighter than joint results using galaxy clustering. Using the Planck cosmic infrared background (CIB) maps as an additional tracer of high-redshift matter, we make a combined Planck-only estimate of the lensing potential over 60% of the sky with considerably more small-scale signal. We additionally demonstrate delensing of the Planck power spectra using the joint and individual lensing potential estimates, detecting a maximum removal of 40% of the lensing-induced power in all spectra. The improvement in the sharpening of the acoustic peaks by including both CIB and the quadratic lensing reconstruction is detected at high significance.
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Poutanen, T.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Planck Collaboration (2014)
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lähteenmäki, Anne; Savelainen, M.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Valiviita, J.; Planck Collaboration (2014)