Browsing by Subject "DEAFNESS"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-2 of 2
  • Herranen, Anni; Ikäheimo, Kuu; Lankinen, Tuuli; Pakarinen, Emmi; Fritzsch, Bernd; Saarma, Mart; Lindahl, Maria; Pirvola, Ulla (2020)
    The non-conventional neurotrophic factor mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein that promotes ER homeostasis. MANF has a cytoprotective function, shown in the central nervous system neurons and pancreatic beta cells. Here, we report that MANF is expressed in the hair cells and neurons and in selected non-sensory cells of the cochlea and that Manf inactivation triggers upregulation of the ER chaperones in these cells. However, Manf inactivation resulted in the death of only outer hair cells (OHCs), the cells responsible for sound amplification in the cochlea. All OHCs were formed in Manf-inactivated mice, but progressive OHC death started soon after the onset of hearing function. The robust OHC loss was accompanied by strongly elevated hearing thresholds. Conditional Manf inactivation demonstrated that MANF has a local function in the cochlea. Immunostainings revealed the upregulation of CHOP, the pro-apoptotic component of the unfolded protein response (UPR), in Manf-inactivated OHCs, linking the UPR to the loss of these cells. The phenotype of Manf-inactivated OHCs was distinctly dependent on the mouse strain, such that the strains characterized by early-onset age-related hearing loss (C57BL/6J and CD-1) were affected. These results suggest that Manf deficiency becomes detrimental when accompanied by gene mutations that predispose to hearing loss, by intensifying ER dyshomeostasis. Together, MANF is the first growth factor shown to antagonize ER stress-mediated OHC death. MANF might serve as a therapeutic candidate for protection against hearing loss induced by the ER-machinery-targeting stressors.
  • Fellman, Vineta; Banerjee, Rishi; Lin, Kai-Lan; Pulli, Ilari; Cooper, Helen; Tyynismaa, Henna; Kallijärvi, Jukka (2022)
    In the diagnostic work-up of a newborn infant with a metabolic crisis, lethal multiorgan failure on day six of life, and increased excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid, we found using whole genome sequencing a homozygous SERAC1 mutation indicating MEGDHEL syndrome (3-methylglutaconic aciduria with deafness-dystonia, hepatopathy, encephalopathy, and Leigh-like syndrome). The SERAC1 protein is located at the contact site between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is crucial for cholesterol trafficking. Our aim was to investigate the effect of the homozygous truncating mutation on mitochondrial structure and function. In the patient fibroblasts, no SERAC1 protein was detected, the mitochondrial network was severely fragmented, and the cristae morphology was altered. Filipin staining showed uneven localization of unesterified cholesterol. The calcium buffer function between cytoplasm and mitochondria was deficient. In liver mitochondria, complexes I, III, and IV were clearly decreased. In transfected COS-1 cells the mutant protein with the a 45-amino acid C-terminal truncation was distributed throughout the cell, whereas wild-type SERAC1 partially colocalized with the mitochondrial marker MT-001. The structural and functional mitochondrial abnormalities, caused by the loss of SERAC1, suggest that the crucial disease mechanism is disrupted interplay between the ER and mitochondria leading to decreased influx of calcium to mitochondria and secondary respiratory chain deficiency.