Browsing by Subject "DECAY"

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  • Cattaneo, Marco; Giorgi, Gian Luca; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Paraoanu, Gheorghe Sorin; Zambrini, Roberta (2021)
    A common environment acting on a pair of qubits gives rise to a plethora of different phenomena, such as the generation of qubit-qubit entanglement, quantum synchronization, and subradiance. Here, time-independent figures of merit for entanglement generation, quantum synchronization, and subradiance are defined, and an extensive analytical and numerical study of their dependence on model parameters is performed. A recently proposed measure of the collectiveness of the dynamics driven by the bath is also addressed, and it is found that it almost perfectly witnesses the behavior of entanglement generation. The results show that synchronization and subradiance can be employed as reliable local signatures of an entangling common-bath in a general scenario. Finally, an experimental implementation of the model based on two transmon qubits capacitively coupled to a common resistor is proposed, which provides a versatile quantum simulation platform of the open system in any regime.
  • Jolma, Arttu; Zhang, Jilin; Mondragon, Estefania; Morgunova, Ekaterina; Kivioja, Teemu; Laverty, Kaitlin U.; Yin, Yimeng; Zhu, Fangjie; Bourenkov, Gleb; Morris, Quaid; Hughes, Timothy R.; Maher III, Louis James; Taipale, Jussi (2020)
    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate RNA metabolism at multiple levels by affecting splicing of nascent transcripts, RNA folding, base modification, transport, localization, translation, and stability. Despite their central role in RNA function, the RNA-binding specificities of most RBPs remain unknown or incompletely defined. To address this, we have assembled a genome-scale collection of RBPs and their RNA-binding domains (RBDs) and assessed their specificities using high-through-put RNA-SELEX (HTR-SELEX). Approximately 70% of RBPs for which we obtained a motif bound to short linear sequenc-es, whereas similar to 30% preferred structured motifs folding into stem-loops. We also found that many RBPs can bind to multiple distinctly different motifs. Analysis of the matches of the motifs in human genomic sequences suggested novel roles for many RBPs. We found that three cytoplasmic proteins-ZC3H12A, ZC3H12B, and ZC3H12C-bound to motifs resembling the splice donor sequence, suggesting that these proteins are involved in degradation of cytoplasmic viral and/or unspliced transcripts. Structural analysis revealed that the RNA motif was not bound by the conventional C3H1 RNA-binding domain of ZC3H12B. Instead, the RNA motif was bound by the ZC3H12B's PilT N terminus (PIN) RNase domain, revealing a po-tential mechanism by which unconventional RBDs containing active sites or molecule-binding pockets could interact with short, structured RNA molecules. Our collection containing 145 high-resolution binding specificity models for 86 RBPs is the largest systematic resource for the analysis of human RBPs and will greatly facilitate future analysis of the various bi-ological roles of this important class of proteins.
  • Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Rezynkina, K.; Bree, N.; Zielinska, M.; Gaffney, L. P.; Petts, A.; Andreyev, A.; Bastin, B.; Bender, M.; Blazhev, A.; Bruyneel, B.; Butler, P. A.; Carpenter, M. P.; Cederkall, J.; Clement, E.; Cocolios, T. E.; Deacon, A. N.; Diriken, J.; Ekstrom, A.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fraile, L. M.; Fransen, Ch.; Freeman, S. J.; Garcia-Ramos, J. E.; Geibel, K.; Gernhauser, R.; Grahn, T.; Guttormsen, M.; Hadinia, B.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Hass, M.; Heenen, P. -H.; Herzberg, R. -D.; Hess, H.; Heyde, K.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O.; Jenkins, D. G.; Julin, R.; Kesteloot, N.; Kroell, Th.; Kruecken, R.; Larsen, A. C.; Lutter, R.; Marley, P.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Orlandi, R.; Page, R. D.; Pakarinen, J.; Patronis, N.; Peura, P. J.; Piselli, E.; Prochniak, L.; Rahkila, P.; Rapisarda, E.; Reiter, P.; Robinson, A. P.; Scheck, M.; Siem, S.; Chakkal, K. Singh; Smith, J. F.; Srebrny, J.; Stefanescu, I.; Tveten, G. M.; Van Duppen, P.; Van de Walle, J.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wiens, A.; Wood, J. L. (2019)
    The neutron-deficient mercury isotopes serve as a classical example of shape coexistence, whereby at low energy near-degenerate nuclear states characterized by different shapes appear. The electromagnetic structure of even-mass 182-188 Hg isotopes was studied using safe-energy Coulomb excitation of neutron-deficient mercury beams delivered by the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. The population of 0 + 1,2, 2(1,2)(+) and 4(1)(+) states was observed in all nuclei under study. Reduced E2 matrix elements coupling populated yrast and non-yrast states were extracted, including their relative signs. These are a sensitive probe of shape coexistence and may be used to validate nuclear models. The experimental results are discussed in terms of mixing of two different configurations and are compared with three different model calculations: the Beyond Mean Field model, the Interacting Boson Model with configuration mixing and the General Bohr Hamiltonian. Partial agreement with experiment was observed, hinting to missing ingredients in the theoretical descriptions.
  • Caballero-Folch, R.; Dillmann, I.; Agramunt, J.; Tain, J. L.; Algora, A.; Äystö, J.; Calvino, F.; Canete, L.; Cortes, G.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Eronen, T.; Ganioglu, E.; Gelletly, W.; Gorelov, D.; Guadilla, V.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S; Koponen, J.; Marta, M.; Mendoza, E.; Montaner-Piza, A.; Moore, I.; Nobs, C. R.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Penttilä, H.; Pohjalainen, J.; Reinikainen, J.; Riego, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rubio, B.; Salvador-Castineira, P.; Simutkin, V.; Tarifeno-Saldivia, A.; Tolosa-Delgado, A.; Vos, A. (2018)
    Background: beta-delayed multiple neutron emission has been observed for some nuclei with A 100 to test the predictions of theoretical models and simulation tools for the decays of heavy nuclei in the region of very neutron-rich nuclei. In addition the decay properties of these nuclei are fundamental for the understanding of astrophysical nucleosynthesis processes such as the r-process and safety inputs for nuclear reactors. Purpose: To determine for the first time the two-neutron branching ratio the P-2n value for Sb-136 through a direct neutron measurement and to provide precise P-1n values for Sb-136 and Te-136. Method: A pure beam of each isotope of interest was provided by the JYFLTRAP Penning trap at the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) facility of the University of Jyvaskyla Finland. The purified ions were implanted into a moving tape at the end of the beam line. The detection setup consisted of a plastic scintillator placed right behind the implantation point after the tape to register the beta decays and the BELEN detector based on neutron counters embedded in a polyethylene matrix. The analysis was based on the study of the beta- and neutron-growth-and-decay curves and the beta-one-neutron and beta-two-neutron time correlations which allowed us the determination of the neutron branching ratios. Results: The P-2n value of Sb-136 was found to be 0.14(3)% and the measured P-1n values for Sb-136 and Te-136 were found to be 32.2(15)% and 1.47(6)% respectively. Conclusions: The measured P-2n value is a factor 44 smaller than predicted by the finite-range droplet model plus the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (FRDM+QRPA) model used for r-process calculations.
  • Mukrimin, Mukrimin; Conrad, Anna O.; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Bonello, Pierluigi; Asiegbu, Fred O. (2019)
    Conifer trees, including Norway spruce, are threatened by fungi of the Heterobasidion annosum species complex, which severely affect timber quality and cause economic losses to forest owners. The timely detection of infected trees is complicated, as the pathogen resides within the heartwood and sapwood of infected trees. The presence of the disease and the extent of the wood decay often becomes evident only after tree felling. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a potential method for non-destructive sample analysis that may be useful for identifying infected trees in this pathosystem. We performed FT-IR analysis of 18 phloem, 18 xylem, and 18 needle samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic Norway spruce trees. FT-IR spectra from 1066 – 912 cm−1 could be used to distinguish phloem, xylem, and needle tissue extracts. FT-IR spectra collected from xylem and needle extracts could also be used to discriminate between asymptomatic and symptomatic trees using spectral bands from 1657 – 994 cm−1 and 1104 – 994 cm−1, respectively. A partial least squares regression model predicted the concentration of condensed tannins, a defense-related compound, in phloem of asymptomatic and symptomatic trees. This work is the first to show that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for the identification of Norway spruce trees naturally infected with Heterobasidion spp.
  • Cutting, Daniel; Hindmarsh, Mark; Weir, David J. (2018)
    We conduct large scale numerical simulations of gravitational wave production at a first-order vacuum phase transition. We find a power law for the gravitational wave power spectrum at high wave number which falls off as k(-1.5) rather than the k(-1) produced by the envelope approximation. The peak of the power spectrum is shifted to slightly lower wave numbers from that of the envelope approximation. The envelope approximation reproduces our results for the peak power less well, agreeing only to within an order of magnitude. After the bubbles finish colliding, the scalar field oscillates around the true vacuum. An additional feature is produced in the UV of the gravitational wave power spectrum, and this continues to grow linearly until the end of our simulation. The additional feature peaks at a length scale close to the bubble wall thickness and is shown to have a negligible contribution to the energy in gravitational waves, providing the scalar field mass is much smaller than the Planck mass.
  • Nesterenko, D. A.; Kankainen, A.; Canete, L.; Block, M.; Cox, D.; Eronen, T.; Fahlander, C.; Forsberg, U.; Gerl, J.; Golubev, P.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Koponen, J.; Lalovic, N.; Lorenz, Ch; Moore, I. D.; Papadakis, P.; Reinikainen, J.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rudolph, D.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Voss, A.; Äystö, J. (2017)
    Masses of Co-52, (52)Com, Fe-52, Fe-52(m), and Mn-52 have been measured with the JYFLTRAP double Penning trap mass spectrometer. The isobaric multiplet mass equation for the T = 2 quintet at A = 52 has been studied employing the new mass values. No significant breakdown (beyond the 3 sigma level) of the quadratic form of the IMME was observed (chi(2)/n = 2.4). The cubic coefficient was 6.0(32) keV (chi(2)/n = 1.1). The excitation energies for the isomer and the T = 2 isobaric analog state in Co-52 have been determined to be 374(13) keV and 2922(13) keV, respectively. The measured mass values for Co-52 and (52)Com are 29(10) keV and 16(15) keV higher, respectively, than obtained in a recent storage-ring experiment, and significantly lower than predicted by extrapolations. Consequently, this has an impact on the proton separation energies for Co-52 and Ni-53 relevant for the astrophysical rapid proton capture process. The Q value for the proton decay from the 19/2(-) isomer in Co-53 has been determined with an unprecedented precision, Q(p) = 1558.8(17) keV.
  • Konki, J.; Sulignano, B.; Greenlees, P. T.; Theisen, Ch.; Auranen, K.; Badran, H.; Briselet, R.; Cox, D. M.; Bisso, F. Defranchi; Dobaczewski, J.; Grahn, T.; Herzan, A.; Herzberg, R. -D.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Leino, M.; Lightfoot, A.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Partanen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Saren, J.; Scholey, C.; Shi, Y.; Smolen, M.; Sorri, J.; Stolze, S.; Uusitalo, J. (2018)
    The ground-state rotational band of the neutron-deficient californium (Z = 98) isotope 244Cf was identified for the first time and measured up to a tentative spin and parity of I I-pi = 20(+). The observation of the rotational band indicates that the nucleus is deformed. The kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia were deduced from the measured gamma-ray transition energies. The behavior of the dynamic moment of inertia revealed an up-bend due to a possible alignment of coupled nucleons in high-j orbitals starting at a rotational frequency of about (h) over bar (omega) = 0.20 MeV. The results were compared with the systematic behavior of the even-even N = 146 isotones as well as with available theoretical calculations that have been performed for nuclei in the region.
  • Maes, Alexandre; Gracia, Celine; Innocenti, Nicolas; Zhang, Kaiyang; Aurell, Erik; Hajnsdorf, Eliane (2017)
    Polyadenylation is thought to be involved in the degradation and quality control of bacterial RNAs but relatively few examples have been investigated. We used a combination of 5 '-tagRACE and RNA-seq to analyze the total RNA content from a wild-type strain and from a poly(A) polymerase deleted Mutant. A total of 178 transcripts were either up- or down-regulated in the mutant when compared to the wild-type strain. Poly(A) polymerase up-regulates the expression of all genes related to the FliA regulon and several previously unknown transcripts, including numerous transporters. Notable down-regulation of genes in the expression of antigen 43 and components of the type 1 fimbriae was detected. The major consequence of the absence of poly(A) polymerase was the accumulation of numerous sRNAs, antisense transcripts, REP sequences and RNA fragments resulting from the processing of entire transcripts. A new algorithm to analyze the position and composition of post-transcriptional modifications based on the sequence of unencoded 3 '-ends, was developed to identify polyadenylated molecules. Overall our results shed new light on the broad spectrum of action of polyadenylation on gene expression and demonstrate the importance of poly(A) dependent degradation to remove structured RNA fragments.
  • Mali, Tuulia; Laine, Tiina Anna Karoliina; Hamberg, Leena; Lundell, Taina (2023)
    Basidiomycota brown rot fungus (Fomitopsis pinicola) and two white rot fungi (Phlebia radiata, Trichaptum abietinum) were cultivated on thin slices of spruce wood individually and in interspecies combinations. Within 12 months, F. pinicola substantially decomposed spruce wood observed as mass loss, also in three-species combinations. However, white rot fungi through hyphal interactions negatively affected the brown-rot indicative iron reduction capacity of F. pinicola. Decay-signature gene expression in mycelial interaction zones indicated suppression of brown rot mechanism but stimulation of enzymatic white-rot lignin attack by P. radiata. Wood ultrastructure imaging showed white-rot dominance in the fungal combinations, whereas destructive brown-rot was evident with F. pinicola alone. Our results confirm the dynamic pattern of enzyme production in fungal combinations, and transition from brown to white rot decomposition metabolism during the late stage of wood decay after one year of interspecific interactions.
  • The CMS collaboration; Eerola, P.; Forthomme, L.; Kirschenmann, H.; Osterberg, K.; Voutilainen, M.; Garcia, F.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkila, J. K.; Jarvinen, T.; Kim, M. S.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampen, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.; Maenpaa, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Viinikainen, J.; Pekkanen, J.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Tuuva, T. (2020)
    The standard model (SM) production of four top quarks (tt over bar tt over ba in proton-proton collisions is studied by the CMS Collaboration. The data sample, collected during the 2016-2018 data taking of the LHC, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 137fb-1 at a center-of-mass energy of 13TeV. The events are required to contain two same-sign charged leptons (electrons or muons) or at least three leptons, and jets. The observed and expected significances for the tt over bar tt over bar signal are respectively 2.6 and 2.7 standard deviations, and the tt over bar tt over bar cross section is measured to be 12.6-5.2+5.8fb. The results are used to constrain the Yukawa coupling of the top quark to the Higgs boson, yielding a limit of <1. 7 is the SM value of yt. They are also used to constrain the oblique parameter of the Higgs boson in an effective field theory framework, H. Limits are set on the production of a heavy scalar or pseudoscalar boson in Type-II two-Higgs-doublet and simplified dark matter models, with exclusion limits reaching 350-470GeV and 350-550GeV for scalar and pseudoscalar bosons, respectively. Upper bounds are also set on couplings of the top quark to new light particles.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2019)
    A search for a heavy resonance decaying into a top quark and antiquark (tt) pair is performed using proton-proton collisions at p s = 13TeV. The search uses the data set collected with the CMS detector in 2016, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb. The analysis considers three exclusive fi nal states and uses reconstruction techniques that are optimized for top quarks with high Lorentz boosts, which requires the use of nonisolated leptons and jet substructure techniques. No signi fi cant excess of events relative to the expected yield from standard model processes is observed. Upper limits on the production cross section of heavy resonances decaying to a tt pair are calculated. Limits are derived for a leptophobic topcolor Z 0 resonance with widths of 1, 10, and 30%, relative to the mass of the resonance, and exclude masses up to 3.80, 5.25, and 6.65TeV, respectively. Kaluza-Klein excitations of the gluon in the Randall-Sundrum model are excluded up to 4.55TeV. To date, these are the most stringent limits on tt resonances.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A search for standard model production of four top quarks (t (t) over bart (t) over bar) is reported using events containing at least three leptons (e, mu) or a same-sign lepton pair. The events are produced in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeVat the LHC, and the data sample, recorded in 2016, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). Jet multiplicity and flavor are used to enhance signal sensitivity, and dedicated control regions are used to constrain the dominant backgrounds. The observed and expected signal significances are, respectively, 1.6 and 1.0 standard deviations, and the t (t) over bart (t) over bar cross section ismeasured to be 16.9(-11.4)(+13.8) fb, in agreement with next-to-leading-order standard model predictions. These results are also used to constrain the Yukawa coupling between the top quark and the Higgs boson to be less than 2.1 times its expected standard model value at 95% confidence level.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A search is presented for the associated production of a Higgs boson with a top quark pair in the all-jet final state. Events containing seven or more jets are selected from a sample of proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeV collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2016, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). To separate the t (t) over barH signal from the irreducible t (t) over bar + b (b) over bar background, the analysis assigns leading order matrix element signal and background probability densities to each event. A likelihood-ratio statistic based on these probability densities is used to extract the signal. The results are provided in terms of an observed t (t) over barH signal strength relative to the standard model production cross section mu = sigma/sigma(SM), assuming a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV. The best fit value is (mu) over cap = 0.9 +/- 0.7(stat) +/- 1.3(syst) = 0.9 +/- 1.5 (tot), and the observed and expected upper limits are, respectively, mu <3.8 and <3.1 at 95% confidence levels.
  • Hindmarsh, Mark; Huber, Stephan J.; Rummukainen, Kari; Weir, David J. (2017)
    We present results from large-scale numerical simulations of a first order thermal phase transition in the early Universe, in order to explore the shape of the acoustic gravitational wave and the velocity power spectra. We compare the results with the predictions of the recently proposed sound shell model. For the gravitational wave power spectrum, we find that the predicted k(-3) behavior, where k is the wave number, emerges clearly for detonations. The power spectra from deflagrations show similar features, but exhibit a steeper high-k decay and an extra feature not accounted for in the model. There are two independent length scales: the mean bubble separation and the thickness of the sound shell around the expanding bubble of the low temperature phase. It is the sound shell thickness which sets the position of the peak of the power spectrum. The low wave number behavior of the velocity power spectrum is consistent with a causal k(3), except for the thinnest sound shell, where it is steeper. We present parameters for a simple broken power law fit to the gravitational wave power spectrum for wall speeds well away from the speed of sound where this form can be usefully applied. We examine the prospects for the detection, showing that a LISA-like mission has the sensitivity to detect a gravitational wave signal from sound waves with an RMS fluid velocity of about 0.05c, produced from bubbles with a mean separation of about 10(-2) of the Hubble radius. The shape of the gravitational wave power spectrum depends on the bubble wall speed, and it may be possible to estimate the wall speed, and constrain other phase transition parameters, with an accurate measurement of a stochastic gravitational wave background.
  • COSINUS Collaboration; Angloher, G.; Dafinei, I.; Heikinheimo, M.; Huitu, K.; Stendahl, A. (2022)
    The COSINUS (Cryogenic Observatory for SIgnatures seen in Next-generation Underground Searches) experiment aims at the detection of dark matter-induced recoils in sodium iodide (NaI) crystals operated as scintillating cryogenic calorimeters. The detection of both scintillation light and phonons allows performing an event-by-event signal to background discrimination, thus enhancing the sensitivity of the experiment. The choice of using NaI crystals is motivated by the goal of probing the long-standing DAMA/LIBRA results using the same target material. The construction of the experimental facility is foreseen to start by 2021 at the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy. It consists of a cryostat housing the target crystals shielded from the external radioactivity by a water tank acting, at the same time, as an active veto against cosmic ray-induced events. Taking into account both environmental radioactivity and intrinsic contamination of materials used for cryostat, shielding and infrastructure, we performed a careful background budget estimation. The goal is to evaluate the number of events that could mimic or interfere with signal detection while optimising the geometry of the experimental setup. In this paper we present the results of the detailed Monte Carlo simulations we performed, together with the final design of the setup that minimises the residual amount of background particles reaching the detector volume.
  • Semmler, Tido; Cheng, Bin; Yang, Yu; Rontu, Laura (2012)
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Novitzky, Norbert; Onnerstad, B.S.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, Jan; Rytkönen, Heidi Maria; Räsänen, Sami; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H. (2021)
    The production of Upsilon mesons in Pb-Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair root S-NN = 5.02 TeV is measured with the muon spectrometer of the ALICE detector at the LHC. The yields as well as the nuclear modification factors are determined in the forward rapidity region 2.5 < y < 4.0, as a function of rapidity, transverse momentum and collision centrality. The results show that the production of the Upsilon(1S) meson is suppressed by a factor of about three with respect to the production in proton-proton collisions. For the first time, a significant signal for the Upsilon(2S) meson is observed at forward rapidity, indicating a suppression stronger by about a factor 2-3 with respect to the ground state. The measurements are compared with transport, hydrodynamic, comover and statistical hadronisation model calculations. (C) 2021 European Organization for Nuclear Research, ALICE. Published by Elsevier B.V.