Browsing by Subject "DECISION-MAKING"

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  • Barnieh, Lianne; Clement, Fiona; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden (2014)
  • Mobile Airways Sentinel Network M; Bousquet, Jean; Hellings, Peter W.; Agache, Ioana; Haahtela, T.; Toppila-Salmi, S.; Kuitunen, M.; Valovirta, E.; Salimäki, Johanna; Vasankari, Tuula; Eklund, P.; Karjalainen, J.; Zuberbier, Torsten (2019)
    Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) has evolved from a guideline by using the best approach to integrated care pathways using mobile technology in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma multimorbidity. The proposed next phase of ARIA is change management, with the aim of providing an active and healthy life to patients with rhinitis and to those with asthma multimorbidity across the lifecycle irrespective of their sex or socioeconomic status to reduce health and social inequities incurred by the disease. ARIA has followed the 8-step model of Kotter to assess and implement the effect of rhinitis on asthma multimorbidity and to propose multimorbid guidelines. A second change management strategy is proposed by ARIA Phase 4 to increase self-medication and shared decision making in rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity. An innovation of ARIA has been the development and validation of information technology evidence-based tools (Mobile Airways Sentinel Network [MASK]) that can inform patient decisions on the basis of a self-care plan proposed by the health care professional.
  • Oinio, Ville; Sundström, Mikko; Bäckström, Pia; Uhari-Väänänen, Johanna; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Raasmaja, Atso; Piepponen, Petteri (2018)
    Comorbidity with gambling disorder (GD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is well documented. The purpose of our study was to examine the influence of genetic alcohol drinking tendency on reward-guided decision making behavior of rats and the impact of dopamine releaser D-amphetamine on this behavior. In this study, Alko alcohol (AA) and Wistar rats went through long periods of operant lever pressing training where the task was to choose the profitable of two options. The lever choices were guided by different-sized sucrose rewards (one or three pellets), and the probability of gaining the larger reward was slowly changed to a level where choosing the smaller reward would be the most profitable in the long run. After training, rats were injected (s.c.) with dopamine releaser D-amphetamine (0.3, 1.0 mg/kg) to study the impact of rapid dopamine release on this learned decision making behavior. Administration of D-amphetamine promoted unprofitable decision making of AA rats more robustly when compared to Wistar rats. At the same time, D-amphetamine reduced lever pressing responses. Interestingly, we found that this reduction in lever pressing was significantly greater in Wistar rats than in AA rats and it was not linked to motivation to consume sucrose. Our results indicate that conditioning to the lever pressing in uncertain environments is more pronounced in AA than in Wistar rats and indicate that the reinforcing effects of a gambling-like environment act as a stronger conditioning factor for rats that exhibit a genetic tendency for high alcohol drinking.
  • Laakasuo, Michael; Sundvall, Jukka (2016)
    Utilitarian versus deontological inclinations have been studied extensively in the field of moral psychology. However, the field has been lacking a thorough psychometric evaluation of the most commonly used measures. In this paper, we examine the factorial structure of an often used set of 12 moral dilemmas purportedly measuring utilitarian/deontological moral inclinations. We ran three different studies (and a pilot) to investigate the issue. In Study 1, we used standard Exploratory Factor Analysis and Schmid-Leimann (g factor) analysis; results of which informed the a priori single-factor model for our second study. Results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis in Study 2 were replicated in Study 3. Finally, we ran a weak invariance analysis between the models of Study 2 and 3, concluding that there is no significant difference between factor loading in these studies. We find reason to support a single-factor model of utilitarian/deontological inclinations. In addition, certain dilemmas have consistent error covariance, suggesting that this should be taken into consideration in future studies. In conclusion, three studies, pilot and an invariance analysis, systematically suggest the following. (1) No item needs to be dropped from the scale. (2) There is a unidimensional structure for utilitarian/deontological preferences behind the most often used dilemmas in moral psychology, suggesting a single latent cognitive mechanism. (3) The most common set of dilemmas in moral psychology can be successfully used as a unidimensional measure of utilitarian/deontological moral inclinations, but would benefit from using weighted averages over simple averages. (4) Consideration should be given to dilemmas describing infants.
  • Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Maddalena, Chiara; Viscanti, Giovanna; Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Mangiulli, Ivan; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Bertolino, Alessandro; Curci, Antonietta (2016)
    The human ability of identifying, processing and regulating emotions from social stimuli is generally referred as Emotional Intelligence (EI). Within EI, Ability EI identifies a performance measure assessing individual skills at perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Previous models suggest that a brain "somatic marker circuitry" (SMC) sustains emotional sub-processes included in EI. Three primary brain regions are included: the amygdala, the insula and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Here, our aim was to investigate the relationship between Ability EI scores and SMC activity during social judgment of emotional faces. Sixty-three healthy subjects completed a test measuring Ability EI and underwent fMRI during a social decision task (i.e. approach or avoid) about emotional faces with different facial expressions. Imaging data revealed that EI scores are associated with left insula activity during social judgment of emotional faces as a function of facial expression. Specifically, higher EI scores are associated with greater left insula activity during social judgment of fearful faces but also with lower activity of this region during social judgment of angry faces. These findings indicate that the association between Ability EI and the SMC activity during social behavior is region- and emotionspecific.
  • Kaikkonen, Laura; Parviainen, Tuuli; Rahikainen, Mika; Uusitalo, Laura; Lehikoinen, Annukka (2021)
    ABSTRACT: Human activities both depend upon and have consequences on the environment. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) is a process of estimating the probability and consequences of human activities? and other stressors? adverse effects on the environment. Bayesian Networks (BNs) can synthesize different types of knowledge and explicitly account for the probabilities of different scenarios, therefore offering a useful tool for ERA. Their use in formal ERA practice has not been evaluated, however, despite their increasing popularity in environmental modelling. This paper reviews the use of BNs in ERA based on peer-reviewed publications. Following a systematic mapping protocol, we identified studies where BNs have been used in an environmental risk context and evaluated the scope, technical aspects, and use of the models and their results. The review shows that BNs have been applied in ERA particularly in recent years and that there is room to develop both the model implementation and participatory modeling practices. Based on this review and the authors? experience, we outline general guidelines and development ideas for using BNs in ERA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Weiste, Elina; Käpykangas, Sari; Uusitalo, Lise-Lotte; Stevanovic, Melisa (2020)
    Contemporary social and health care services exhibit a significant movement toward increasing client involvement in their own care and in the development of services. This major cultural change represents a marked shift in the client's role from a passive patient to an active empowered agent. We draw on interaction-oriented focus group research and conversation analysis to study workshop conversations in which social and health care clients and professionals discussed "client involvement". Our analysis focuses on the participants' mutually congruent or discrepant views on the topic. The professionals and clients both saw client involvement as an ideal that should be promoted. Although both participant groups considered the clients' experience of being heard a prerequisite of client involvement, the clients deviated from the professionals in that they also highlighted the need for actual decision-making power. However, when the professionals invoked the clients' responsibility for their own treatment, the clients were not eager to agree with their view. In addition, in analyzing problems of client involvement during the clients' and professionals' meta-talk about client involvement, the paper also shows how the "client involvement" rhetoric itself may, paradoxically, sometimes serve to hinder here-and-now client involvement.
  • Kunnari, Anton; Sundvall, Jukka R. I.; Laakasuo, Michael (2020)
    The process dissociation procedure (PDP) for moral cognition was created to separately measure two dispositions of moral judgment based on the dual-process theory of moral reasoning: deontological and utilitarian inclinations. In this paper we raise some concerns from a psychometrics perspective regarding the structure, reliability, and validity of the moral PDP as a measure of individual differences. Using two simulation studies as well as a real sample of N = 1,010, we investigate the psychometric properties of the moral PDP. We present novel evidence showing that (1) some correlations between PDP parameters are mathematical artifacts, and as such cannot be taken as evidence in support of a theory, (2) there are severe response inconsistencies within dilemma batteries, and (3) reliability estimates for these scores seem to be far below the accepted standards. We discuss some potential theoretical and content-related reasons for these statistical issues and their implications. We conclude that in their current form, PDP measures of utilitarian and deontological tendencies are sub-optimal for assessing individual differences.
  • Olaleye, Sunday; Sanusi, I.T.; Fanning, Stephen; Salo, Jari (2020)
  • Clarke, Angus J.; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina (2019)
    Difficult ethical issues arise for patients and professionals in medical genetics, and often relate to the patient’s family or their social context. Tackling these issues requires sensitivity to nuances of communication and a commitment to clarity and consistency. It also benefits from an awareness of different approaches to ethical theory. Many of the ethical problems encountered in genetics relate to tensions between the wishes or interests of different people, sometimes even people who do not (yet) exist or exist as embryos, either in an established pregnancy or in vitro. Concern for the long-term welfare of a child or young person, or possible future children, or for other members of the family, may lead to tensions felt by the patient (client) in genetic counselling. Differences in perspective may also arise between the patient and professional when the latter recommends disclosure of information to relatives and the patient finds that too difficult, or when the professional considers the genetic testing of a child, sought by parents, to be inappropriate. The expectations of a patient’s community may also lead to the differences in perspective between patient and counsellor. Recent developments of genetic technology permit genome-wide investigations. These have generated additional and more complex data that amplify and exacerbate some pre-existing ethical problems, including those presented by incidental (additional sought and secondary) findings and the recognition of variants currently of uncertain significance, so that reports of genomic investigations may often be provisional rather than definitive. Experience is being gained with these problems but substantial challenges are likely to persist in the long term.
  • Chen, An; Tenhunen, Henni; Torkki, Paulus; Peltokorpi, Antti; Heinonen, Seppo; Lillrank, Paul; Stefanovic, Vedran (2018)
    Background: Population-based prenatal screening has become a common and widely available obstetrical practice in majority of developed countries. Under the patient autonomy principle, women should understand the screening options, be able to take their personal preferences and situations into account, and be encouraged to make autonomous and intentional decisions. The majority of the current research focuses on the prenatal screening uptake rate, women's choice on screening tests, and the influential factors. However, little attention has been paid to women's choice-making processes and experiences in prenatal screening and their influences on choice satisfaction. Understanding women's choice-making processes and experiences in pregnancy and childbirth is the prerequisite for designing women-centered choice aids and delivering women-centered maternity care. This paper presents a pilot study that aims to investigate women's experiences when they make choices for screening tests, quantify the choice making experience, and identify the experiential factors that affect women's satisfaction on choices they made. Method: We conducted a mixed-method research at Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District (HUS) in Finland. First, the women's choice-making experiences were explored by semi-structured interviews. We interviewed 28 women who participated in prenatal screening. The interview data was processed by thematic analysis. Then, a cross-sectional self-completion survey was designed and implemented, assessing women's experiences in choice-making and identifying the experiential factors that influence choice satisfaction. Of 940 distributed questionnaires, 185 responses were received. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to detect the effects of the variables. Results: We developed a set of measurements for women's choice-making experiences in prenatal screening with seven variables: activeness, informedness, confidence, social pressure, difficulty, positive emotion and negative emotion. Regression revealed that activeness in choice-making (beta = 0.176; p = 0.023), confidence in choice-making (beta = 0.388; p <0.001), perceived social pressure (beta = -0.306; p <0.001) and perceived difficulty (beta = -0.274; p <0.001) significantly influenced women's choice satisfaction in prenatal screening. Conclusions: This study explores the experiential dimension of women's choice-making in prenatal screening. Our result will be useful for service providers to design women-centered choice environment. Women's willingness and capabilities of making active choices, their preferences, and social reliance should be well considered in order to facilitate autonomous, confident and satisfying choices.
  • Helve, Jaakko; Kramer, Anneke; Abad-Diez, Jose M.; Couchoud, Cecile; de Arriba, Gabriel; de Meester, Johan; Evans, Marie; Glaudet, Florence; Grönhagen-Riska, Carola; Heaf, James G.; Lezaic, Visnja; Nordio, Maurizio; Palsson, Runolfur; Pechter, Ülle; Resic, Halima; Santamaria, Rafael; Santiuste de Pablos, Carmen; Massy, Ziad A.; Zurriaga, Oscar; Jager, Kitty J.; Finne, Patrik (2018)
    Background. The incidence of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the general population >= 75 years of age varies considerably between countries and regions in Europe. Our aim was to study characteristics and survival of elderly RRT patients and to find explanations for differences in RRT incidence. Methods. Patients >= 75 years of age at the onset of RRT in 2010-2013 from 29 national or regional registries providing data to the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry were included. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to assess variation in patient characteristics and linear regression was used to study the association between RRT incidence and various factors. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were employed for survival analyses. Results. The mean annual incidence of RRT in the age group >= 75 years of age ranged from 157 to 924 per million age-related population. The median age at the start of RRT was higher and comorbidities were less common in areas with higher RRT incidence, but overall the association between patient characteristics and RRT incidence was weak. The unadjusted survival was lower in high-incidence areas due to an older age at onset of RRT, but the adjusted survival was similar [relative risk 1.00 (95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.03)] in patients from low- and high-incidence areas. Conclusions. Variation in the incidence of RRT among the elderly across European countries and regions is remarkable and could not be explained by the available data. However, the survival of patients in low-and high-incidence areas was remarkably similar.
  • Virtanen, Mikko J.; Salmivaara, Saara (2021)
    In the present study, we examine socio-cultural and practical aspects of human papillomavirus vaccination (HPVV) through a multi-sited study of framings. We ask how HPVV is framed in the daily lives of vaccination-aged Finnish girls and in school nurses' everyday work. We then mirror these framings against both each other and Finland's official vaccination campaign. Based on analysis of interviews with 24 nurses and 12 girls and the campaign materials, we argue first that the campaign frames vaccination as an individual, knowledge-based decision reflecting the informed consent principle. Second, however, the vaccination is framed in the everyday lives of eligible girls through gendered social ties and as a gendered and cohort-specific event pivoting around the needle prick. Third, HPVV is not primarily framed in the school nurses' work as preparing the girls for the vaccination decision by sharing official information but through trust-based social relationships with the girls and their parents. We conclude that, as the vaccination is not an issue of individually reflected and knowledge-based decision-making for the two interviewed key groups, the official Finnish HPVV campaign and the undergirding informed consent principle drift into problems in their practical implementation.
  • Saarikoski, Heli; Primmer, Eeva; Saarela, Sanna-Riikka; Antunes, Paula; Aszalos, Reka; Baro, Francesc; Berry, Pam; Garcia Blanko, Gemma; Gomez-Baggethun, Erik; Carvalho, Laurence; Dick, Jan; Dunford, Robert; Hanzu, Mihail; Harrison, Paula A.; Izakovicova, Zita; Kertesz, Miklos; Kopperoinen, Leena; Kohler, Berit; Langemeyer, Johannes; Lapola, David; Liquete, Camino; Luque, Sandra; Mederly, Peter; Niemelä, Jari; Palomo, Ignacio; Martinez Pastur, Guillermo; Luis Peri, Pablo; Preda, Elena; Priess, Joerg A.; Santos, Rui; Schleyer, Christian; Turkelboom, Francis; Vadineanu, Angheluta; Verheyden, Wim; Vikstrom, Suvi; Young, Juliette (2018)
    The promise that ecosystem service assessments will contribute to better decision-making is not yet proven. We analyse how knowledge on ecosystem services is actually used to inform land and water management in 22 case studies covering different social-ecological systems in European and Latin American countries. None of the case studies reported instrumental use of knowledge in a sense that ecosystem service knowledge would have served as an impartial arbiter between policy options. Yet, in most cases, there was some evidence of conceptual learning as a result of close interaction between researchers, practitioners and stakeholders. We observed several factors that constrained knowledge uptake, including competing interests and political agendas, scientific disputes, professional norms and competencies, and lack of vertical and horizontal integration. Ecosystem knowledge played a small role particularly in those planning and policy-making situations where it challenged established interests and the current distribution of benefits from ecosystems. The factors that facilitated knowledge use included application of transparent participatory methods, social capital, policy champions and clear synergies between ecosystem services and human well-being. The results are aligned with previous studies which have emphasized the importance of building local capacity, ownership and trust for the long-term success of ecosystem service research. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Dunford, Rob; Harrison, Paula; Smith, Alison; Dick, Jan; Barton, David N.; Martín-López, Berta; Kelemen, Eszter; Jacobs, Sander; Saarikoski, Heli; Turkelboom, Francis; Verheyden, Wim; Hauck, Jennifer; Antunes, Paula; Aszalos, Reka; Badea, Ovidiu; Baro, Francesc; Berry, Pam; Carvalho, Laurence; Conte, Giulio; Czucz, Balint; Garcia Blanco, Gemma; Howard, Dave; Giuca, Relu; Gomez-Baggethun, Erik; Grizetti, Bruna; Izakovicova, Zita; Kopperoinen, Leena; Langemeyer, Johannes; Luque, Sandra; Lapola, David M.; Martinez Pastur, Guillermo J.; Mukhopadhyay, Raktima; Roy, S.B.; Niemelä, Jari Kalevi; Norton, Lisa; Ochieng, John; Odee, David; Palomo, Ignacio; Pinho, Patricia; Priess, Joerg; Rusch, Graciela; Saarela, Sanna-Riikka; Santos, Rui; Tjalling van der Wal, Jan; Vadineanu, Angheluta; Vari, Agnes; Woods, Helen; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa Johannes (2018)
    The Ecosystem Services (ES) concept highlights the varied contributions the environment provides to humans and there are a wide range of methods/tools available to assess ES. However, in real-world decision contexts a single tool is rarely sufficient and methods must be combined to meet practitioner needs. Here, results from the OpenNESS project are presented to illustrate the methods selected to meet the needs of 24 real-world case studies and better understand why and how methods are combined to meet practical needs. Results showed that within the cases methods were combined to: i) address a range of ES; ii) assess both supply and demand of ES; iii) assess a range of value types; iv) reach different stake-holder groups v) cover weaknesses in other methods used and vi) to meet specific decision context needs. Methods were linked in a variety of ways: i) as input-output chains of methods; ii) through learning; iii) through method development and iv) through comparison/triangulation of results. The paper synthesises these case study-based experiences to provide insight to others working in practical contexts as to where, and in what contexts, different methods can be combined and how this can add value to case study analyses. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Jarvela, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti (2016)
    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion communicative expression and physiological state to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence.
  • Svedholm-Hakkinen, Annika M.; Lindeman, Marjaana (2017)
    ObjectiveRecent findings suggest there may be some overlap between individual differences in orientations for intuitive thinking and empathizing, and between deliberative thinking and systemizing. This overlap is surprising, given that intuitive and deliberative thinking derive from dual-process theories that concern domain-general types of processing, whereas theoretically, empathizing and systemizing are domain-specific orientations for understanding people and lawful physical phenomena. MethodThe present studies (Study 1: N=2,789, Study 2: N=87; Finnish volunteers ages 15-69, 65% females) analyzed each of these four constructs using self-report as well as performance measures. ResultsConfirmatory factor analysis showed that systemizing was strongly and positively related to deliberative thinking and negatively related to intuitive thinking. Empathizing was negatively related to deliberative thinking, whereas no association between empathizing and intuition was found. However, some deliberative aspects and some intuitive aspects were involved in empathizing. ConclusionsThe findings indicate that a distinction between intuitive empathizing and deliberative systemizing is not warranted.
  • Madsen, I. E. H.; Nyberg, S. T.; Hanson, L. L. Magnusson; Ferrie, J. E.; Ahola, K.; Alfredsson, L.; Batty, G. D.; Bjorner, J. B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Chastang, J. -F.; de Graaf, R.; Dragano, N.; Hamer, M.; Jokela, M.; Knutsson, A.; Koskenvuo, M.; Koskinen, A.; Leineweber, C.; Niedhammer, I.; Nielsen, M. L.; Nordin, M.; Oksanen, T.; Pejtersen, J. H.; Pentti, J.; Plaisier, I.; Salo, P.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Suominen, S.; ten Have, M.; Theorell, T.; Toppinen-Tanner, S.; Vahtera, J.; Vaananen, A.; Westerholm, P. J. M.; Westerlund, H.; Fransson, E. I.; Heikkila, K.; Virtanen, M.; Rugulies, R.; Kivimaki, M.; IPD-Work Consortium (2017)
    Background. Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression. Method. We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol. Results. We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47-2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94-1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.32). Conclusions. Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.
  • Leisti, Tuomas; Häkkinen, Jukka (2018)
    Certain experiments have shown that reasoning may weaken the stability of people's preferences, especially with regard to well-learned perceptual judgment and decision-making tasks, while learning has an opposite, consistency-enhancing effect on preferences. We examined the effects of these factors in a visual multi-attribute decision-making task where reasoning, in contrast, has been found to benefit judgments by making them more stable. The initial assumption in this study was that this benefit would be typical for novel tasks, like the one employed here, and that it would decrease when the task is thoroughly learned. This assumption was examined in three experiments by contrasting it with an alternative assumption that this previously obtained beneficial effect is caused solely by learning, not by reasoning. It was found that learning indeed makes preferences more stable by consolidating the weights of the attributes. Reasoning, however, does not benefit this task when it is completely novel but facilitates learning and stability of the preferences long run, therefore increasing the consistency of the participants in the macrolevel. Copyright (c) 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.