Browsing by Subject "DEGRADATION PATHWAY"

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  • Niemelä, Elina H.; Oghabian, Ali; Staals, Raymond H. J.; Greco, Dario; Pruijn, Ger J. M.; Frilander, Mikko J. (2014)
  • Elovaara, Heli; Huusko, Teija; Maksimow, Mikael; Elima, Kati; Yegutkin, Gennady G.; Skurnik, Mikael; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Siitonen, Anja; McPherson, Michael J.; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa (2015)
    Escherichia coli amine oxidase (ECAO), encoded by the tynA gene, catalyzes the oxidative deamination of aromatic amines into aldehydes through a well-established mechanism, but its exact biological role is unknown. We investigated the role of ECAO by screening environmental and human isolates for tynA and characterizing a tynA-deletion strain using microarray analysis and biochemical studies. The presence of tynA did not correlate with pathogenicity. In tynA+ Escherichia coli strains, ECAO enabled bacterial growth in phenylethylamine, and the resultant H2O2 was released into the growth medium. Some aminoglycoside antibiotics inhibited the enzymatic activity of ECAO, which could affect the growth of tynA+ bacteria. Our results suggest that tynA is a reserve gene used under stringent environmental conditions in which ECAO may, due to its production of H2O2, provide a growth advantage over other bacteria that are unable to manage high levels of this oxidant. In addition, ECAO, which resembles the human homolog hAOC3, is able to process an unknown substrate on human leukocytes.
  • Norppa, Antto J.; Frilander, Mikko J. (2021)
    Disruption of minor spliceosome functions underlies several genetic diseases with mutations in the minor spliceosome-specific small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) and proteins. Here, we define the molecular outcome of the U12 snRNA mutation (84C>U) resulting in an early-onset form of cerebellar ataxia. To understand the molecular consequences of the U12 snRNA mutation, we created cell lines harboring the 84C>T mutation in the U12 snRNA gene (RNU12). We show that the 84C>U mutation leads to accelerated decay of the snRNA, resulting in significantly reduced steady-state U12 snRNA levels. Additionally, the mutation leads to accumulation of 3 '-truncated forms of U12 snRNA, which have undergone the cytoplasmic steps of snRNP biogenesis. Our data suggests that the 84C>U-mutant snRNA is targeted for decay following reimport into the nucleus, and that the U12 snRNA fragments are decay intermediates that result from the stalling of a 3 '-to-5 ' exonuclease. Finally, we show that several other single-nucleotide variants in the 3 ' stem-loop of U12 snRNA that are segregating in the human population are also highly destabilizing. This suggests that the 3 ' stem-loop is important for the overall stability of the U12 snRNA and that additional disease-causing mutations are likely to exist in this region.