Browsing by Subject "DELIMITATION"

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  • Acanski, Jelena; Vujic, Ante; Djan, Mihajla; Obreht Vidakovic, Dragana; Ståhls, Gunilla; Radenkovic, Snezana (2016)
    Several recent studies have detected and described complexes of cryptic and sibling species in the genus Merodon (Diptera, Syrphidae). One representative of these complexes is the Merodon avidus complex that contains four sibling species, which have proven difficult to distinguish using traditional morphological characters. In the present study, we use two geometric morphometric approaches, as well as molecular characters of the 5' -end of the mtDNA COI gene, to delimit sibling taxa. Analyses based on these data were used to strengthen species boundaries within the complex, and to validate the status of a previously-recognized cryptic taxon from Lesvos Island (Greece), here described as Merodon megavidus Vujic & Radenkovic sp. nov. Geometric morphometric results of both wing and surstylus shape confirm the present classification for three sibling species-M. avidus (Rossi, 1790), M. moenium Wiedemann in Meigen, 1822 and M. ibericus Vujic, 2015-and, importantly, clearly discriminate the newly-described taxon Merodon megavidus sp. nov. In addition to our geometric morphometric results, supporting characters were obtained from molecular analyses of mtDNA COI sequences, which clearly differentiated M. megavidus sp. nov. from the other members of the M. avidus complex. Molecular analyses revealed that the earliest divergence of M. ibericus occurred around 800 ky BP, while the most recent separation happened between M. avidus and M. moenium around 87 ky BP.
  • Kekkonen, Mari; Hebert, Paul D. N. (2014)
    The analysis of DNA barcode sequences with varying techniques for cluster recognition provides an efficient approach for recognizing putative species (operational taxonomic units, OTUs). This approach accelerates and improves taxonomic workflows by exposing cryptic species and decreasing the risk of synonymy. This study tested the congruence of OTUs resulting from the application of three analytical methods (ABGD, BIN, GMYC) to sequence data for Australian hypertrophine moths. OTUs supported by all three approaches were viewed as robust, but 20% of the OTUs were only recognized by one or two of the methods. These OTUs were examined for three criteria to clarify their status. Monophyly and diagnostic nucleotides were both uninformative, but information on ranges was useful as sympatric sister OTUs were viewed as distinct, while allopatric OTUs were merged. This approach revealed 124 OTUs of Hypertrophinae, a more than twofold increase from the currently recognized 51 species. Because this analytical protocol is both fast and repeatable, it provides a valuable tool for establishing a basic understanding of species boundaries that can be validated with subsequent studies.
  • Launis, Annina; Pykälä, Juha; van den Boom, Pieter; Serusiaux, Emmanuel; Myllys, Leena (2019)
    In this study we clarify the phylogeny and reassess the current taxonomy of the Micarea prasina group, focusing especially on the M. byssacea and M. micrococca complexes. The phylogeny was investigated using ITS, mtSSU and Mcm7 regions from 25 taxa belonging to the M. prasina group. A total of 107 new sequences were generated. Data were analyzed using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. The results reveal five undescribed well-supported lineages. Four of the lineages represent new species described as Micarea pseudomicrococca Launis & Myllys sp. nov., M. czarnotae Launis, van den Boom, Serusiaux & Myllys sp. nov., M. microareolata Launis, Pykala & Myllys sp. nov. and M. laeta Launis & Myllys sp. nov. In addition, a fifth lineage was revealed that requires further study. Micarea pseudomicrococca is characterized by an olive green granular thallus, small cream-white or brownish apothecia lacking the Sedifolia-grey pigment and two types of paraphyses up to 2 mu m wide. Micarea czarnotae forms a granular, densely granular or continuous olive green thallus, convex to hemispherical apothecia often with the Sedifolia-grey pigment and no crystalline granules in the thallus. Micarea microareolata is characterized by a +/- pale green areolate thallus (composed of goniocysts), cream-white apothecia lacking the Sedifolia-grey pigment and narrow spores. Micarea laeta has a vivid to olive green granular thallus, pale apothecia lacking the Sedifolia-grey pigment and wider spores compared to M. microareolata. Descriptions, images and a key are provided for the new species. Crystalline granules are introduced as a novel species-level character for Micarea.
  • Sasic, Ljiljana; Acanski, Jelena; Vujic, Ante; Ståhls, Gunilla; Radenkovic, Snezana; Milic, Dubravka; Vidakovic, Dragana Obreht; Dan, Mihajla (2016)
    The Merodon aureus species group (Diptera: Syrphidae: Eristalinae) comprises a number of different sub-groups and species complexes. In this study we focus on resolving the taxonomic status of the entity previously identified as M. cinereus B, here identified as M. atratus species complex. We used an integrative approach based on morphological descriptions, combined with supporting characters that were obtained from molecular analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene as well as from geometric morphometry of wing and surstylus shapes and environmental niche comparisons. All applied data and methods distinguished and supported three morphologically cryptic species: M. atratus stat. nov., M. virgatus sp. nov. and M. balkanicus sp. nov., which constitute the M. atratus species complex. We present an identification key for the sub-groups and species complexes of the M. aureus species group occurring in Europe, describe the taxa and discuss the utility of the applied methods for species delimitation. The estimated divergence times for the species splits of these taxa coincide with the Pleistocene Gunz-Mindel interglaciation and the Great interglaciation (between the Ris and Mindel glacial periods).
  • Mutanen, Marko; Kekkonen, Mari; Prosser, Sean W. J.; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Kaila, Lauri (2015)
    Each holotype specimen provides the only objective link to a particular Linnean binomen. Sequence information from them is increasingly valuable due to the growing usage of DNA barcodes in taxonomy. As type specimens are often old, it may only be possible to recover fragmentary sequence information from them. We tested the efficacy of short sequences from type specimens in the resolution of a challenging taxonomic puzzle: the Elachista dispunctella complex which includes 64 described species with minuscule morphological differences. We applied a multistep procedure to resolve the taxonomy of this species complex. First, we sequenced a large number of newly collected specimens and as many holotypes as possible. Second, we used all >400 bp examine species boundaries. We employed three unsupervised methods (BIN, ABGD, GMYC) with specified criteria on how to handle discordant results and examined diagnostic bases from each delineated putative species (operational taxonomic units, OTUs). Third, we evaluated the morphological characters of each OTU. Finally, we associated short barcodes from types with the delineated OTUs. In this step, we employed various supervised methods, including distance-based, tree-based and character-based. We recovered 658 bp barcode sequences from 194 of 215 fresh specimens and recovered an average of 141bp from 33 of 42 holotypes. We observed strong congruence among all methods and good correspondence with morphology. We demonstrate potential pitfalls with tree-, distance- and character-based approaches when associating sequences of varied length. Our results suggest that sequences as short as 56bp can often provide valuable taxonomic information. The results support significant taxonomic oversplitting of species in the Elachista dispunctella complex.
  • Vujic, Ante; Likov, Laura; Radenkovic, Snezana; Tubic, Natasa Kocis; Djan, Mihajla; Sebic, Anja; Perez-Banon, Celeste; Barkalov, Anatolij; Hayat, Rustem; Rojo, Santos; Andric, Andrijana; Stahls, Gunilla (2020)
    The phytophagous hoverfly genus Merodon Meigen, 1803 (Diptera, Syrphidae), which comprises more than 160 species distributed in Palaearctic and Afrotropical regions, can be differentiated into multiple groups of species that harbor high levels of hidden diversity. In this work, the serrulatus species group of Merodon is revised, providing an illustrated key to species, a detailed discussion on the taxonomic characters and a morphological diagnosis, including also the first data about the preimaginal morphology of this species group. The study includes characteristics of the 13 species of the M. serrulatus group, along with the available distributional data. Moreover, descriptions are provided for seven new species, namely M. defectus Vujic, Likov & Radenkovic sp. nov., M. disjunctus Vujic, Likov & Radenkovic sp. nov., M. medium Vujic, Likov & Radenkovic sp. nov., M. nigrocapillatus Vujic, Likov & Radenkovk sp. nov., M. nigropunctum Vujic, Likov & Radenkovic sp. nov., M. opacus Vujic, Likov & Radenkovk sp. nov., and M. trianguloculus Vujic, Likov & Radenkovk sp. nov. In addition, the taxa M. serrulatus (Wiedemann in Meigen, 1822), M. bequaerti Hurkmans, 1993, M. birsutus Sack, 1913, M. kawamurae Matsumura, 1916, M. sacki (Paramonov, 1936) and M. sophron Hurkmans, 1993 are redefined and redescribed. Following a detailed study of the type material sourced from different entomological collections, the status of all available taxa related to M. serrulatus is revised and a new synonymy is proposed: M. tener Sack, 1913 syn. nov. (junior synonym of M. serrulatus). The identity of M. trizonus (Szilady, 1940) could not be assessed as the type specimens are lost. Thus, the name M. trizonus is considered as nomen dubium. The monophyly and composition of this species group are assessed through Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood analyses of the mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rRNA gene sequences.
  • Pino-Bodas, Raquel; Rosa Burgaz, Ana; Ahti, Teuvo; Stenroos, Soili (2018)
    The lichen species Cladonia angustiloba is characterized by a well-developed primary thallus and narrow squamules which show deep incisions, and the presence of usnic and fumarprotocetraric acids. Morphologically it is similar to C. foliacea and C. convoluta, from which it can be distiguished by the squamule size and morphology. Since similar characters were used to distinguish C. foliacea from C. convoluta which do not represent different lineages, it is necessary to examine the taxonomic status of C. angustiloba by means of DNA sequences. In this study, the species delimitation within the C. foliacea complex was studied by sequencing three loci, ITS rDNA, cox1 and RPB2. The data were analyzed by means of phylogenetic and species delimitation methods (GMYC, PTP, ABGD and BPP). Our results show that none of the three species is monophyletic. Most of the species delimitation methods did not support the current species as evolutionary lineages. Only some of the BPP analyses supported C. angustiloba as a species distinct from C. foliacea and C. convoluta. However, the hypothesis that considers the C. foliacea complex as constituted by a unique species obtained the best Bayes Factor value. Therefore, C. angustiloba and C. convoluta are synonymized with C. foliacea. A new, thoroughly checked synonymy with typifications of the whole C. foliacea complex is presented. An updated survey of the world distribution data is compiled.
  • Domènech, Marc; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Enguídanos, Alba; Múrria, Cesc; Arnedo, Miquel A. (2022)
    1. The current rate of species loss calls for immediate actions to preserve biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Cataloguing species richness and composition, and revealing how diversity is geographically distributed are the first steps towards designing efficient conservation strategies. 2. Here, we aim to determine diversity patterns and potential drivers of taxonomic and genetic diversity and population structure of Iberian spiders. We used a community level perspective, analysing more than 3000 DNA barcode sequences representing similar to 370 spider species dwelling in white-oak forest habitats across the Spanish National Park network. 3. By combining and comparing morphological and DNA barcode-based species delimitation methods, we assessed their performance and identified putative factors behind cases of incongruence. Our findings uncovered potential overlooked diversity as suggested by the geographic patterns of genetic variation and put a red flag on those taxa that may be undergoing overlooked evolutionary or ecological processes. 4. Spider functional traits associated with foraging strategy, microhabitat preference, ballooning ability and circadian activity explained the observed patterns of population structure across species but did not explain variation in genetic diversity. Overall, our study represents a major step forward in the understanding of large-scale diversity patterns in Iberian spiders at the community level and provides relevant information to guide future conservation strategies of the so-far largely overlooked invertebrate diversity.