Browsing by Subject "DEMANDS"

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  • Nissinen, Terhi S; Maksniemi, Erika; Rothmann, Sebastiaan; Lonka, Kirsti (2022)
    The aim of this study was to investigate how job crafting, work engagement, and workaholism were related in public sector organizations. The participants (N = 213) were civil servants from three Finnish public organizations, representing different professions, such as school personnel, secretaries, directors, parking attendants, and ICT specialists. We duly operationalized job crafting, work engagement, and workaholism by using the Job Crafting Scale, the UWES-9, and the Work Addiction Risk Test. The current study focused on the Finnish public sector, since work engagement is recognized at the governmental level and has been shown to be strongly and positively associated with economic activity and productivity, while workaholism is associated with poor wellbeing. We analyzed the data by using structural equation modeling and found that three job crafting dimensions were strongly intertwined with one another. These dimensions were increasing structural job resources, increasing social job resources, and increasing challenging job demands. In the structural model, dimension "increasing structural job resources" was positively related to work engagement, whereas dimension "decreasing hindering job demands" was negatively associated with workaholism. This study highlighted the relevance of employees learning to balance their job resources and demands. We recommend that, in the public sector, employees be systematically encouraged to practice job crafting behavior by enabling them to increase structural job resources. These results are of high relevance, considering the heavy workload of public sector employees during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Salmi, Saara; Kumpulainen, Kristiina (2019)
    Despite vast research on school transitions, less attention has been paid to understanding children's own sense-making of their transition from preschool to first grade. Drawing on sociocultural and dialogic approaches, this study addresses this gap by investigating children's experiencing (perezhivanie) of their school transitioning nested in the interaction between their motives and perceived demands. The data are derived from an ethnographic research project with 19 first-graders aged six to seven years old attending a Finnish primary school. The children were invited to draw their transition experiences and narrate their drawings to their peers and the researchers. The visual narrations were videotaped, transcribed, and analysed. The findings highlight the children's dialogic sense-making processes of their educational transitioning. The study reveals that the children's motives were related to opportunities to engage in physical activities, play, make relationships, and make sense of their changing positions and identities in relation to transitioning to primary school. The results also illuminate how the children actively created subversive spaces for pushing the demands of school rules and routines to fulfil their subjective motives. Altogether, the study demonstrates the potential of visual narrative methods in contributing to a nuanced understanding of children's sense-making of their school transitioning, including the dialogic processes of what it entails to become a 'primary school child'.
  • Torppa, Martina Auri; Kuikka, Liisa; Nevalainen, Maarit; Pitkala, Kaisu Hannele (2016)
    Objective: To explore how work experiences, professional issues and social support at work are associated with a need for clinical supervision (CS) among family physicians (FP). Methods: Web-based survey to FPs in Finland 2011 (response rate 68%; n = 165). Results: Among FPs, 36% needed CS, 35% had experience with CS, and 29% did not need CS. Feeling emotionally drained from work was associated with both needing and experience with CS. FPs needing CS felt callous and had committed a medical error in the recent past more often than those with CS experience. FPs expressing a need for CS felt greater uncertainty regarding their professional knowledge and more alone at work than FPs not needing CS. Rewarding work experiences were common. Conclusions: A large proportion of FPs expressed a need for CS. Need for CS is associated with feeling alone at work, experiences of callousness and uncertainty regarding medical knowledge. Experience of emotional drainage was associated with experience of and need for CS. Practice implications: Emotional drainage may signal a need for CS among FPs. CS might enhance FPs' emotional well-being at work. It should be more widely available to FPs and could be integrated into continuing professional development. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kallioniemi, Marja; Kaseva, Janne; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Simola, Ahti; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta (2018)
    Objectives: The aims of this study were to examine job resources, work engagement and Finnish dairy farmers' preferences concerning methods to enhance overall well-being while working on farms.Methods: A postal survey yielded 265 completed questionnaires from 188 dairy farms. The sample was assessed as representative of Finnish dairy farmers. Exploratory factor analysis and a linear mixed model were utilized during the data analyzing process.Results: The variables lowering work engagement were stressors related to the workload and problems with health. Elevated work engagement was associated with the factors work with farm animals and family. The most important resource variables were child or children, own family, and animal health. Female dairy farmers considered resource variables related to the family, love, and work with cattle as significantly more important than male dairy farmers. Male dairy farmers experienced higher work engagement and, concerning the dimensions, especially higher dedication and absorption than male respondents in a reference sample of workers in difference occupations. A sustainable farm economy and the possibility to have a holiday period were the most important methods to improve overall well-being on dairy farms.Conclusion: The results indicate that the family, working with cattle, healthy farm animals, a reasonable workload, and a sustainable farm economy have the capacity to create positive impacts on well-being among dairy farmers. Well-being on farms is a part of sustainable food production.
  • Ervasti, Jenni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Kouvonen, Anne; Lallukka, Tea; Mänty, Minna (2019)
    PurposeWe developed a job exposure matrix (JEM) to study the association between long-term exposure to heavy physical effort or heavy lifting and carrying at work with disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders and premature all-cause mortality.MethodsExposure to heavy physical effort at work during 1996-2005 was estimated with JEM developed for this study population, where the exposure was based on occupational titles of the participants. We included all employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, who had annual data of exposure for 8-10years (1996-2005, n=18387). The outcome variables were register-based, and the follow-up was from 2006 until 2015. The risk estimates were evaluated using competing risk survival analysis.ResultsThere were 530 (3%) disability pension events due to musculoskeletal disorders during the 10-year follow-up. After adjustment for sex, age, education and chronic diseases, employees in the second (SHR=1.46, 95% CI 1.05-2.05), third (SHR=2.73, 95% CI 2.00-2.29), and the highest exposure quartile (SHR=2.56, 95% CI 1.88-3.50) had a higher risk of musculoskeletal disability pension than employees in the lowest quartile. A total of 110 (4%) men and 266 (2%) women died during the follow-up. Men in the third quartile (SHR=2.29, 95% CI 1.23-4.24), and women in the highest exposure quartile (SHR=1.54, 95% CI 0.99-2.41) had a higher risk of premature mortality than those in the lowest quartile.ConclusionsEight to ten years of exposure to heavy physical effort at work is strongly associated with disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders. This exposure also increases the risk of premature mortality, particularly among men.
  • Kita, Yosuke; Yasuda, Shoko; Gherghel, Claudia (2022)
    While the negative impact of the pandemic on students' mental health has been studied around the world, very little is known about the mental health of faculty and staff. This research aims to examine mental health among Japanese faculty members who taught online courses during the COVID-19 pandemic. We recruited 537 university faculty members and assessed their mental health using the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5), both retrospectively (during the academic year before the onset of the pandemic) and during the pandemic. We also evaluated workload (number of online lectures taught and preparation time per class), difficulty in using information technology (IT) for online classes, and satisfaction with the university support service for online education. As a result, the WHO-5 score during the COVID-19 pandemic was significantly lower than before, and 33.5% of the faculty members were recognized as being at risk for mental illness during the COVID-19 pandemic. A binomial logistic regression analysis revealed two significant risk factors for mental illness-faculty members were more at risk for mental illness when they experienced difficulty in using IT for online classes, and were unsatisfied with the administrative support for online education. The deterioration of mental health during the COVID-19 was not predicted by workload, such as the number of online lectures and preparation time. These results suggest the importance of improving workplace support services, especially IT support, to prevent mental health deterioration among faculty teaching online.
  • Kaihlanen, Anu-Marja; Elovainio, Marko; Haavisto, Elina; Salminen, Leena; Sinervo, Timo (2020)
    The final clinical practicum before graduation prepares nursing students for the transition from a student to a nurse, but the essential elements of the final clinical practicum that enhance successful transition are not known. We examined the associations of five elements of the final clinical practicum with four indicators of the transition experience in new nurses. We also tested whether psychosocial work characteristics modified these associations. The study sample comprised 712 Finnish nurses who had graduated within the previous two years before the data collection (response rate: 18%). The data were collected using a questionnaire survey in 2018. The elements of the final clinical practicum included (1) the systematicness of the practicum, (2) teacher involvement, (3) the quality of supervision, (4) preparing for the demands of a nurses work and (5) being part of a professional team. Our results, based on linear regression analysis, showed that all the elements except the quality of supervision were associated with indicators of the transition experience (beta range: from 0.08 to 0.35). Job demands modified several of these associations. The findings of this study highlight the potential for well-implemented final clinical practicums to promote a smoother transition for new nurses.
  • Heponiemi, Tarja; Kouvonen, Anne; Virtanen, Marianna; Vanska, Jukka; Elovainio, Marko (2014)
  • Sakakibara, Keiko; Shimazu, Akihito; Toyama, Hiroyuki; Schaufeli, Wilmar B. (2020)
    The current study aimed to validate the Japanese version of the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT-J), a new burnout measure. We conducted an Internet survey to confirm the validity and reliability of the BAT-J, using registered monitors from a Japanese survey company. The first-wave survey was conducted in May 2018, with 1,032 monitors. Of these, 498 participated in the second-wave survey in June 2018 to confirm 1-month test-retest reliability. We examined the factorial validity of the BAT-J core symptoms (BAT-JC) and BAT-J secondary symptoms (BAT-JS), as well as their reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability) and construct validity. Factorial validity was examined using confirmatory factor analyses and exploratory structural equation modeling bifactor analyses. Convergent and discriminant validity were examined using multitrait-multimethod frameworks well as the average variance explained. Exploratory structural equation modeling bifactor solutions for the BAT-JC, BAT-JS, and BAT-J demonstrated the best fit to the data. They also indicated that the general factor accounted for over two-thirds of the common variance explained. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were confirmed. Convergent and internal discriminant validity of the BAT-JC were confirmed vis-vis burnout, as assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey. Moreover, external discriminant validity of the BAT-J was demonstrated for work engagement and workaholism. Finally, both BAT scales showed significant positive relationships with job demands and turnover intention. All validity results were in line with the job demands-resources model. The results of the current study provide the first evidence for the BAT-J's reliability and factorial and construct validity.
  • Virtanen, Viivi; Taina, Juha; Pyhältö, Kirsi (2017)
    This study explored the causes of student disengagement from their doctoral studies in the biological and environmental sciences. The data came from interviews of 40 doctoral students (male = 15, female = 25) and underwent qualitative analysis for content. Our results showed that doctoral studies provide multiple contexts for disengagement, such as the scholarly community and supervision, while doctoral students’ sense of distress, cynicism and inefficacy emerged as central components of disengagement. The study identified isolation, indifference, and lack of support and constructive feedback as sources of cynicism, while distress and inefficacy were more often related to failure or lack of progress in research. Our findings indicate that the source of disengagement can vary not only between individuals, but also between the academic activities at hand. Thus, while promoting an engaging doctoral experience, awareness of what typically triggers disengagement in the doctoral journey is vital.