Browsing by Subject "DEMOGRAPHICS"

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  • Tandon, Anushree; Dhir, Amandeep; Kaur, Puneet; Kushwah, Shiksha; Salo, Jari (2020)
    Consumers' rising interest in organic food has drawn the attention of the academic community. The literature on the topic is growing, but it mostly focuses either on the acceptance of or resistance toward organic food. However, marketing scholars argue that the development of more in-depth insights into consumers' reasoning processes, and especially the roles of values and context-specific reasons are needed. The present study bridges this gap by utilizing the novel behavioral reasoning theory (BRT) framework. Cross-sectional data from 307 consumers and non-consumers from India were collected to investigate associations among attitudes, reasoning, value, and purchase intentions. This research studies the moderating role of food safety concerns and buying involvement. Additionally, the mediating role of reasons and attitudes is examined. The results suggest that value was positively associated with reasons (for and against), whereas attitude and reasons (for) resulted in favorable purchase intentions. Reasons (for and against) fully mediate the association between value and attitude. Furthermore, attitude partially mediates the association of reasons and purchase intentions. The moderation effect was not found for food safety concerns, but a limited effect among studied associations was observed for buying involvement. The findings raise significant implications for marketers and policymakers.
  • Hale, Jo Mhairi; Schneider, Daniel C.; Mehta, Neil K.; Myrskylä, Mikko (2020)
    Prior studies have analyzed the burden of cognitive impairment, but often use potentially biased prevalence-based methods or measure only years lived with impairment, without estimating other relevant metrics. We use the Health and Retirement Study (1998–2014; n = 29,304) and the preferred incidence-based Markov-chain models to assess three key measures of the burden of cognitive impairment: lifetime risk, mean age at onset, and number of years lived impaired. We analyze both mild and severe cognitive impairment (dementia) and gender, racial/ethnic, and educational variation in impairment. Our results paint a multi-dimensional picture of cognitive health, presenting the first comprehensive analysis of the burden of cognitive impairment for the U.S. population age 50 and older. Approximately two out of three Americans experience some level of cognitive impairment at an average age of approximately 70 years. For dementia, lifetime risk for women (men) is 37% (24%) and mean age at onset 83 (79) years. Women can expect to live 4.2 years with mild impairment and 3.2 with dementia, men 3.5 and 1.8 years. A critical finding is that for the most advantaged groups (i.e., White and/or higher educated), cognitive impairment is both delayed and compressed toward the very end of life. In contrast, despite the shorter lives of disadvantaged subgroups (Black and/or lower educated), they experience a younger age of onset, higher lifetime risk, and more years cognitively impaired. For example, men with at least an Associate degree have 21% lifetime dementia risk, compared to 35% among men with less than high school education. White women have 6 years of cognitively-impaired life expectancy, compared to 12 and 13 years among Black women and Latinas. These educational and racial/ethnic gradients highlight the very uneven burden of cognitive impairment. Further research is required to identify the mechanisms driving these disparities in cognitive impairment.
  • GEM Resopso; Grodner, C.; Beauchet, A.; Kluger, N.; Mahe, E. (2020)
    Background Tattooing is a widespread phenomenon, with an estimated prevalence of 10-30% in Western populations. For psoriasis patients, current recommendations are to avoid having a tattoo if the disease is active and they are receiving immunosuppressive treatments. Although scientific data supporting these recommendations are lacking, dermatologists are often reluctant to advocate tattooing in psoriasis patients. Objective We aimed to evaluate the frequency of tattoo complications in patients with psoriasis and determine whether the occurrence of complications was associated with psoriasis status and treatments received at the time of tattooing. Methods We performed a multicentre cross-sectional study. Adults with psoriasis were consecutively included and classified as tattooed or non-tattooed. Prevalence of complications associated with tattoos was then evaluated according to psoriasis onset and treatments. The study was divided into three parts, in which data were collected through a series of questionnaires filled in by the dermatologist. Complications included pruritus, oedema, allergic reaction/eczema, infection/superinfection, granuloma, lichenification, photosensitivity, Koebner phenomenon and psoriasis flare after tattooing. Diagnosis of complications was made retrospectively. Results We included 2053 psoriatic patients, 20.2% had 894 tattoos. Amongst non-tattooed patients, 15.4% had wished to be tattooed, with psoriasis being stated as a reason for not having a tattoo by 44.0% and 5.7% indicating that they planned to have a tattoo in the future. Local complications, such as oedema, pruritus, allergy and Koebner phenomenon, were reported in tattoos in 6.6%, most frequently in patients with psoriasis requiring treatment at the time of tattooing (P <0.0001). No severe complications were reported. Conclusions The rate of tattoo complications in psoriasis patients was low. Although the risk of complications was highest amongst patients with psoriasis requiring treatment at the time of tattooing, all the complications observed were benign. These results can be helpful for practitioners to give objective information to patients.