Browsing by Subject "DENITRIFICATION"

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  • Salonen, Iines S.; Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Nomaki, Hidetaka; Langlet, Dewi; Tsuchiya, Masashi; Koho, Karoliina A. (2021)
    Foraminifera are unicellular eukaryotes that are an integral part of benthic fauna in many marine ecosystems, including the deep sea, with direct impacts on benthic biogeochemical cycles. In these systems, different foraminiferal species are known to have a distinct vertical distribution, i.e., microhabitat preference, which is tightly linked to the physico-chemical zonation of the sediment. Hence, foraminifera are well-adapted to thrive in various conditions, even under anoxia. However, despite the ecological and biogeochemical significance of foraminifera, their ecology remains poorly understood. This is especially true in terms of the composition and diversity of their microbiome, although foraminifera are known to harbor diverse endobionts, which may have a significant meaning to each species' survival strategy. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding to investigate the microbiomes of five different deep-sea benthic foraminiferal species representing differing microhabitat preferences. The microbiomes of these species were compared intra- and inter-specifically, as well as with the surrounding sediment bacterial community. Our analysis indicated that each species was characterized with a distinct, statistically different microbiome that also differed from the surrounding sediment community in terms of diversity and dominant bacterial groups. We were also able to distinguish specific bacterial groups that seemed to be strongly associated with particular foraminiferal species, such as the family Marinilabiliaceae for Chilostomella ovoidea and the family Hyphomicrobiaceae for Bulimina subornata and Bulimina striata. The presence of bacterial groups that are tightly associated to a certain foraminiferal species implies that there may exist unique, potentially symbiotic relationships between foraminifera and bacteria that have been previously overlooked. Furthermore, the foraminifera contained chloroplast reads originating from different sources, likely reflecting trophic preferences and ecological characteristics of the different species. This study demonstrates the potential of 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding in resolving the microbiome composition and diversity of eukaryotic unicellular organisms, providing unique in situ insights into enigmatic deep-sea ecosystems.
  • Kang, Zongjing; Li, Xiaolin; Li, Yan; Ye, Lei; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaoping; Penttinen, Petri; Gu, Yunfu (2022)
    Truffles (Tuber spp.) are edible ectomycorrhizal fungi with high economic value. Bacteria in ectomycorrhizosphere soils are considered to be associated with the nutrient uptake of truffles and hosts. Whether Tuber spp. inoculation can affect the growth of Quercus aliena, the ectomycorrhizosphere soil, and the rhizosphere nirK and nirS-denitrifier communities at the ectomycorrhizae formation stage is still unclear. Therefore, we inoculated Q. aliena with the black truffles Tuber melanosporum and Tuber indicum, determined the physiological activity and morphological indices of Q. aliena seedlings, analyzed the physicochemical properties of ectomycorrhizosphere soils, and applied DNA sequencing to assess the nirK and nirS- denitrifier community structure in ectomycorrhizosphere soils. Peroxidase activity was higher in the seedlings inoculated with T. melanosporum than in the T. indicum inoculation and uninoculated control treatments. The available phosphorus contents were lower and nitrate contents were higher in those with truffle inoculation, and T. melanosporum treatment differed more from the control than the T. indicum treatment. The richness of the nirK-community was highest in the T. indicum treatment and lowest in the uninoculated treatment. The differences in nirK-community composition across treatments were not statistically significant, but the nirS communities were different. The nirS-type bacteria correlated with three environmental factors (pH, available phosphorus, and nitrate contents), whereas the nirK-type bacteria were only associated with the nitrate contents. Generally, this work revealed that inoculation with Tuber spp. would change a few nutrient contents and richness of nirK-type bacteria and had little effects on growth of Q. aliena seedlings in the initial stage of inoculation. The results of this study may provide in-depth insights into the relationships between Tuber spp. and hosts, which should be taken into account when developing truffle production methods.
  • Aalto, Sanni L.; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Arvola, Lauri; Tiirola, Marja; Huotari, Jussi; Rissanen, Antti (2019)
    Streams have an important role in regulating nitrogen (N) transportation from terrestrial ecosystems to downstream waters. Here, we examined how catchment land-use affects potential denitrification rates and the function and composition of denitrifier communities in boreal stream sediments, using stable isotope incubations and qPCR and 454-pyrosequencing targeted on nirS, nirK and nosZ genes. Although land-use influenced the water chemistry as higher nitrite+nitrate (NOx)-concentration at the agriculture-affected sampling point, sediment organic matter content was found to be the key factor in regulating potential denitrification rates. However, the abundance as well as the diversity and community composition of denitrifying microbes, and genetic N2O production potential (the ratio between nirS+nirK and nosZ gene abundances) were connected to both NOx- and sediment quality. Overall, our results suggest that catchment land-use-driven changes in N and carbon availability affect the denitrification rates, and possibly N-2:N2O production ratio, in boreal streams, through altering denitrifier abundance and community composition.
  • Lehtoranta, Jouni; Bendtsen, Jorgen; Lannergren, Christer; Saarijarvi, Erkki; Lindström, Magnus; Pitkanen, Heikki (2022)
    We studied the effects of pumping surface water down through the pycnocline (i.e. artificial ventilation) on hydrodynamics, oxygen concentrations, hydrogen sulfide, and nutrients in two anoxic coastal basins (Lannerstasundet and Sandofjarden). In addition, in a corresponding laboratory aquarium experiment, pumping of less saline surface water entrained dense bottom water with a mixing ratio of 6.8 and illustrated dispersal below the pycnocline. Oxygen saturation increased from 0 to 20%; oxygen penetrated poorly into the sediment of the aquarium. In the salinity-stratified Lannerstasundet basin, ventilation also oxidized the anoxic bottom water. The ventilation removed hydrogen sulfide and decreased the sub-pycnocline water pools of phosphorus and ammonium, which was not observed in a neighboring reference basin. The summertime ventilation warmed and made the sub-pycnocline water less saline. In the autumn, the inflows of cooled water from the surroundings with equal or higher salinity promoted its sinking in the relatively warm ventilated basin. The inflows maintained oxygen concentrations between 4 and 8 mg L-1 for months after the ventilation ended. In contrast to Lannerstasundet, ventilation did not prevent formation of anoxia and release of nutrients in the temperature stratified Sandofjarden. Here, the ventilation capacity was less than that in Lannerstasundet and ventilation expanded the sub-thermocline bottom area, warmed the bottom sediments, and probably displaced oxic water from the experimental area. The ventilation did not promote density conditions for inflows and no marked inflow-induced oxidation was observed after midsummer. We conclude that a significant amount of anoxic water was entrained into the ascending plume which reduced the oxygen content below the pycnocline ventilation in aquarium experiment. Additionally, summertime ventilation may improve the status of the salinity-stratified basins for further oxidation. The improvement occurs due to autumn cooling and favorable basin topography, which promote inflows of oxic water with larger density and thereby, renewal of bottom water in the pumped basin. The semi-enclosed and temperature-stratified basin cannot form such favorable density conditions for inflows and thus ventilation is less efficient.
  • Joensuu, Johanna; Raivonen, M.; Kieloaho, A. -J.; Altimir, N.; Kolari, P.; Sarjala, T.; Back, J. (2015)
  • Aserse, Aregu Amsalu; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Whitman, William B.; Lindstrom, Kristina (2017)
    The type strain of the prospective Bradyrhizobium shewense sp. nov. ERR11(T), was isolated from a nodule of the leguminous tree Erythrina brucei native to Ethiopia. The type strain Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071(T), was isolated from the nodules of Lespedeza cuneata in Beijing, China. The genomes of ERR11(T) and CCBAU 10071(T) were sequenced by DOE-JGI and deposited at the DOE-JGI genome portal as well as at the European Nucleotide Archive. The genome of ERR11(T) is 9,163,226 bp in length and has 102 scaffolds, containing 8548 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes. The CCBAU 10071(T) genome is arranged in 108 scaffolds and consists of 8,201,522 bp long and 7776 protein-coding and 85 RNA genes. Both genomes contain symbiotic genes, which are homologous to the genes found in the complete genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA110(T). The genes encoding for nodulation and nitrogen fixation in ERR11(T) showed high sequence similarity with homologous genes found in the draft genome of peanut-nodulating Bradyrhizobium arachidis LMG 26795(T). The nodulation genes nolYAnodD2D1YABCSUIJ-nolO-nodZ of ERR11(T) and CCBAU 10071(T) are organized in a similar way to the homologous genes identified in the genomes of USDA110(T), Bradyrhizobium ottawaense USDA 4 and Bradyrhizobium liaoningense CCBAU 05525. The genomes harbor hupSLCFHK and hypBFDE genes that code the expression of hydrogenase, an enzyme that helps rhizobia to uptake hydrogen released by the N2-fixation process and genes encoding denitrification functions napEDABC and norCBQD for nitrate and nitric oxide reduction, respectively. The genome of ERR11(T) also contains nosRZDFYLX genes encoding nitrous oxide reductase. Based on multilocus sequence analysis of housekeeping genes, the novel species, which contains eight strains formed a unique group close to the B. ottawaense branch. Genome Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) calculated between the genome sequences of ERR11(T) and closely related sequences revealed that strains belonging to B. ottawaense branch (USDA4 and CCBAU15615), were the closest strains to the strain ERR11(T) with 95.2% ANI. Type strain ERR11(T) showed the highest DDH predicted value with CCBAU15615 (58.5%), followed by USDA 4 (53.1%). Nevertheless, the ANI and DDH values obtained between ERR11(T) and CCBAU 15615 or USDA 4 were below the cutoff values (ANI = 96.5%; DDH = 70%) for strains belonging to the same species, suggesting that ERR11(T) is a new species. Therefore, based on the phylogenetic analysis, ANI and DDH values, we formally propose the creation of B. shewense sp. nov. with strain ERR11(T) (HAMBI 3532(T)= LMG 30162(T)) as the type strain.
  • Holmroos, Heidi; Horppila, Jukka; Niemistö, Juha; Nurminen, Leena; Hietanen, Susanna (2015)
    Seasonally changing mechanisms affect the concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus, which differ between the stands of different macrophyte life forms and open water in a eutrophic lake. Macrophytes that take nutrients up for their growth also shelter sediments from resuspension that brings nutrients back to the water and affect denitrification, which removes nitrogen from the water ecosystem. In this study the changes in nutrient concentrations were observed during the open-water period from April to November, and also denitrification rates were measured at different phases of the open-water season. The study was conducted at a shallow eutrophic lake where the effect of macrophytes on water quality is remarkable. The concentration changes of different nitrogen forms during the summer were very similar at the open-water and floating-leaved macrophyte (Nuphar lutea L.) stations. Nitrate was depleted faster among the submerged macrophytes (Myriophyllum verticillatum L.) than among floating-leaved plants or in open water. The decrease in the concentration of nitrate was so significant during the summer that it also affected the total nitrogen concentration in the water. Denitrification was highest in sediments among floating-leaved macrophytes (average 4.3 mg N m(-2) d(-1)) and lowest in sediments of submerged plants (average 1.5 mg N m(-2) d(-1)). Denitrification among submerged macrophytes was limited by low nitrate availability.
  • Happel, Elisabeth M.; Trine, Markussen; Teikari, Jonna E.; Huchaiah, Vimala; Alneberg, Johannes; Andersson, Andres F.; Sivonen, Kaarina; Middelboe, Matthias; Kisand, Veljo; Riemann, Lasse (2019)
    Heterotrophic bacteria are important drivers of nitrogen (N) cycling and the processing of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Projected increases in precipitation will potentially cause increased loads of riverine DOM to the Baltic Sea and likely affect the composition and function of bacterioplankton communities. To investigate this, the effects of riverine DOM from two different catchment areas (agricultural and forest) on natural bacterioplankton assemblages from two contrasting sites in the Baltic Sea were examined. Two microcosm experiments were carried out, where the community composition (16S rRNA gene sequencing), the composition of a suite of N-cycling genes (metagenomics) and the abundance and transcription of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes involved in nitrification (quantitative PCR) were investigated. The river water treatments evoked a significant response in bacterial growth, but the effects on overall community composition and the representation of N-cycling genes were limited. Instead, treatment effects were reflected in the prevalence of specific taxonomic families, specific N-related functions and in the transcription of amoA genes. The study suggests that bacterioplankton responses to changes in the DOM pool are constrained to part of the bacterial community, whereas most taxa remain relatively unaffected.
  • Salonen, I. S.; Chronopoulou, P-M; Bird, C.; Reichart, G-J; Koho, K. A. (2019)
    Benthic foraminifera are known to play an important role in marine carbon and nitrogen cycles. Here, we report an enrichment of sulphur cycle -associated bacteria inside intertidal benthic foraminifera (Ammonia sp. (T6), Haynesina sp. (S16) and Elphidium sp. (S5)), using a meta barcoding approach targeting the 16S rRNA and aprA -genes. The most abundant intracellular bacterial groups included the genus Sulfurovum and the order Desulfobacterales. The bacterial 16S OTUs are likely to originate from the sediment bacterial communities, as the taxa found inside the foraminifera were also present in the sediment. The fact that 16S rRNA and aprA -gene derived intracellular bacterial OTUs were species-specific and significantly different from the ambient sediment community implies that bacterivory is an unlikely scenario, as benthic foraminifera are known to digest bacteria only randomly. Furthermore, these foraminiferal species are known to prefer other food sources than bacteria. The detection of sulphur-cycle related bacterial genes in this study suggests a putative role for these bacteria in the metabolism of the foraminiferal host. Future investigation into environmental conditions under which transcription of S-cycle genes are activated would enable assessment of their role and the potential foraminiferal/endobiont contribution to the sulphur-cycle.
  • Saarenheimo, Jatta; Rissanen, Antti J.; Arvola, Lauri; Nykänen, Hannu; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Tiirola, Marja (2015)
    We studied potential links between environmental factors, nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation, and genetic indicators of nitrite and N2O reducing bacteria in 12 boreal lakes. Denitrifying bacteria were investigated by quantifying genes encoding nitrite and N2O reductases (nirS/nirK and nosZ, respectively, including the two phylogenetically distinct clades nosZ(I) and nosZ(II)) in lake sediments. Summertime N2O accumulation and hypolimnetic nitrate concentrations were positively correlated both at the inter-lake scale and within a depth transect of an individual lake (Lake Vanajavesi). The variability in the individual nirS, nirK, nosZ(I), and nosZ(II) gene abundances was high (up to tenfold) among the lakes, which allowed us to study the expected links between the ecosystem's nir-vs-nos gene inventories and N2O accumulation. Inter-lake variation in N2O accumulation was indeed connected to the relative abundance of nitrite versus N2O reductase genes, i.e. the (nirS+nirK)/nosZ(I) gene ratio. In addition, the ratios of (nirS+ nirK)/nosZ(I) at the inter-lake scale and (nirS+ nirK)/nosZ(I+II) within Lake Vanajavesi correlated positively with nitrate availability. The results suggest that ambient nitrate concentration can be an important modulator of the N2O accumulation in lake ecosystems, either directly by increasing the overall rate of denitrification or indirectly by controlling the balance of nitrite versus N2O reductase carrying organisms.
  • Uusheimo, Sari Anneli; Huotari, Jussi Tapani; Tulonen, Tiina Valpuri; Aalto, Sanni L.; Rissanen, Antti J.; Arvola, Lauri Matti Juhani (2018)
    Constructed wetlands provide cost-efficient nutrient removal, with minimal input of human labor and energy, and their number is globally increasing. However, in northern latitudes, wetlands are rarely utilized, because their nutrient removal efficiency has been questioned due to the cold climate. Here, we studied nutrient retention and nitrogen removal in a boreal constructed wetland (4-ha) receiving treated nitrogen-rich wastewater. On a yearly basis, most of the inorganic nutrients were retained by the wetland. The highest retention efficiency was found during the ice-free period, being 79% for ammonium-nitrogen (NH4+-N), 71% for nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N), and 88% for phosphate-phosphorus (PO43--P). Wetland also acted as a buffer zone during the disturbed nitrification process of the wastewater treatment plant. Denitrification varied between 106 and 252 mg N m(-2) d(-1) during the ice-free period. During the ice-cover period, total gaseous nitrogen removal was 147 mg N m(-2) d(-1) from which 66% was removed as N-2, 28.5% as N2O through denitrification, and 5.5% as N-2 through anammox. Nearly 2600 kg N y(-1) was estimated to be removed through microbial gaseous N-production which equaled 72% of NO3--N and 60% of TN yearly retention in the wetland. The wetland retained nutrients even in winter, when good oxygen conditions prevailed under ice. The results suggest that constructed wetlands are an efficient option for wastewater nitrogen removal and nutrient retention also in cold climates.
  • Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J.; Bonsdorff, Erik; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Hietanen, Susanna; Janas, Urzsula; Jilbert, Tom; Maximov, Alexey; Norkko, Alf; Norkko, Joanna; Reed, Daniel C.; Slomp, Caroline P.; Timmermann, Karen; Voss, Maren (2014)
  • Gu Yunfu; Wang, Yingyan; Xiang, Quanju; Yu, Xiumei; Zhao, Ke; Zhang, Xiaoping; Lindstrom, Kristina; Hu Yufu; Liu, Songqing (2017)
    Alpine wetland in the Zoige Plateau has suffered from serious degradation during"the last 30 years due to global climate change and anthropogenic impact. Denitrification is a key nitrogen removal process which can be performed by different microorganisms, including bacteria harboring ttirS-genes. In this study, a degradation succession was used to study the effect on potential denitrification activity (PDA) and on bacterial communities harboring nirS genes. Based on the determination of the PDA, the abundance, structural diversity, and phylogenetic identity of the soil bacteria with nirS genes were further assessed by qPCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and DNA-sequencing, respectively. The results showed that soil PDA ranged from 8.78 to 52.77 ng N20-N g(-1) dry soil h(-1), being lowest in sandy soil and highest in swamp soil. The abundance of nirS genes (copies g(-1) soil) were also the lowest in the sandy soil while highest in the swamp soil. The average Shannon-Wiener diversity index of the nirS denitrifying bacterial structural ranged from 2.20 in the meadow soil to 3.07 in the swamp soil. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the nirS denitrifying bacterial community correlated with soil water content and available phosphorus, with water content as the major factor in shaping the nirS denitrifying bacterial community. The results of this study suggest that the wetland degradation would decrease soil PDA, and abundance and structural diversity of the denitrifying bacteria with nirS genes. These findings can contribute to support a theoretical foundation for predicting the potential influences of wetland degradation on soil denitrifying bacteria in alpine wetlands. (C) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Kortelainen, Pirkko; Larmola, Tuula; Rantakari, Miitta; Juutinen, Sari; Alm, Jukka; Martikainen, Pertti J. (2020)
    Abstract Estimates of regional and global freshwater N2O emissions have remained inaccurate due to scarce data and complexity of the multiple processes driving N2O fluxes the focus predominantly being on summer time measurements from emission hot spots, agricultural streams. Here we present four-season data of N2O concentrations in the water columns of randomly selected boreal lakes covering a large variation in latitude, lake type, area, depth, water chemistry and land use cover. Nitrate was the key driver for N2O dynamics, explaining as much as 78% of the variation of the seasonal mean N2O concentrations across all lakes. Nitrate concentrations varied among seasons being highest in winter and lowest in summer. Of the surface water samples 71% were oversaturated with N2O relative to the atmosphere. Largest oversaturation was measured in winter and lowest in summer stressing the importance to include full year N2O measurements in annual emission estimates. Including winter data resulted in four-fold annual N2O emission estimates compared to summer only measurements. Nutrient rich calcareous and large humic lakes had the highest annual N2O emissions. Our emission estimates for Finnish and boreal lakes are 0.6 Gg and 29 Gg N2O-N y-1, respectively. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) of N2O cannot be neglected in the boreal landscape, being 35% of that of diffusive CH4 emission in Finnish lakes.
  • Shurpali, Narasinha J.; Rannik, Ullar; Jokinen, Simo; Lind, Saara; Biasi, Christina; Mammarella, Ivan; Peltola, Olli; Pihlatie, Mari; Hyvonen, Niina; Raty, Mari; Haapanala, Sami; Zahniser, Mark; Virkajarvi, Perttu; Vesala, Timo; Martikainen, Pertti J. (2016)
    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas produced in soil and aquatic ecosystems. Its warming potential is 296 times higher than that of CO2. Most N2O emission measurements made so far are limited in temporal and spatial resolution causing uncertainties in the global N2O budget. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques provide an excellent tool for area-integrated, direct and continuous field measurements of N2O fluxes using the eddy covariance method. By employing this technique on an agricultural site with four laser-based analysers, we show here that N2O exchange exhibits contrasting diurnal behaviour depending upon soil nitrogen availability. When soil N was high due to fertilizer application, N2O emissions were higher during daytime than during the night. However, when soil N became limited, emissions were higher during the night than during the day. These reverse diurnal patterns supported by isotopic analyses may indicate a dominant role of plants on microbial processes associated with N2O exchange. This study highlights the potential of new technologies in improving estimates of global N2O sources.
  • Jäntti, Anne Helena; Ward, Bess; Dippner, Joachim; Hietanen, Siru Susanna (2018)
    The redoxclines that form between the oxic and anoxic water layers in the central Baltic Sea are sites of intensive nitrogen cycling. To gain better understanding of nitrification, we measured the biogeochemical properties along with potential nitrification rates and analyzed the assemblages of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea using functional gene microarrays. To estimate nitrification in the entire water column, we constructed a regression model for the nitrification rates and applied it to the conditions prevailing in the area in 2008-2012. The highest ammonia oxidation rates were found in a thin layer at the top of the redoxcline and the rates quickly decreased below detection limit when oxygen was exhausted. This is probably because extensive suboxic layers, which are known to harbor pelagic nitrification, are formed only for short periods after inflows in the Baltic Sea. The nitrification rates were some of the highest measured in the water columns, but the thickness of the layer where conditions were favorable for nitrification, was very small and it remained fairly stable between years. However, the depth of the nitrification layer varied substantially between years, particularly in the eastern Gotland Basin (EGB) due to turbulence in the water column. The ammonia oxidizer communities clustered differently between the eastern and western Gotland Basin (WGB) and the composition of ammonia oxidizing assemblages correlated with the environmental variables. The ammonia oxidizer community composition was more even in the EGB, which may be related to physical instability of the redoxcline that does not allow predominance of a single archetype, whereas in the WGB, where the position of the redoxcline is more constant, the ammonia-oxidizing community was less even. Overall the ammonia oxidizing communities in the Baltic Sea redoxclines were very evenly distributed compared to other marine environments where microarrays have been applied previously. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Yli-Halla, Markku; Virtanen, Seija; Regina, Kristiina; Österholm, Peter; Ehnvall, Betty; Uusi-Kämppä, Jaana (2020)
    Besides causing acidification, acid sulfate (AS) soils contain large nitrogen (N) stocks and are a potential source of N loading to waters and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. We quantified the stocks and flows of N, including crop yields, N leaching, and N2O emissions, in a cultivated AS soil in western Finland. We also investigated whether controlled drainage (CD) and sub-irrigation (CDI) to keep the sulfidic horizons inundated can alleviate N losses. Total N stock at 0-100 cm (19.5 Mg ha(-1)) was smaller than at 100-200 cm (26.6 Mg ha(-1)), and the mineral N stock was largest below 170 cm. Annual N leaching (31-91 kg N ha(-1)) plus N in harvested grain (74-122 kg N ha(-1)) was 148% (range 118-189%) of N applied in fertilizers (90-125 kg N ha(-1)) in 2011-2017, suggesting substantial N supply from soil reserves. Annual emissions of N2O measured during 2 years were 8-28 kg N ha(-1). The most probable reasons for high N2O emission rates in AS soils are concomitant large mineral N pools with fluctuating redox conditions and low pH in the oxidized subsoil, all favoring formation of N2O in nitrification and denitrification. Although the groundwater level was higher in CD and CDI than in conventional drainage, N load and crop offtake did not differ between the drainage methods, but there were differences in emissions. Nitrogen flows to the atmosphere and drainage water were clearly larger than those in non-AS mineral soils indicating that AS soils are potential hotspots of environmental impacts.
  • Kaarakka, Lilli; Smolander, Aino; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Nojd, Pekka; Korpela, Leila; Nieminen, Tiina M.; Helmisaari, Helja-Sisko (2019)
    The artificial recharge of groundwater by infiltrating surface water through forest soil has been introduced as a groundwater producing practice in Finland. As a result, the forest soil, as well as the whole ecosystem, is subjected to extremely high inputs of carbon and nutrient rich lake water. The effects of sprinkling infiltration on forest soil, tree growth and understory vegetation and their respective recovery were studied on a forested esker in central Finland. The Scots pine-dominated experimental plots were sprinkled with lake water in 1998-2001 and sampled after a 12-15-year recovery period. Soil pH and base cation concentration, as well as the rate of net N mineralization were significantly higher at the plots that had been infiltrated. The concentrations of base cations calcium and magnesium were thousands of times higher in the infiltrated soil than in the untreated soil. In addition, sprinkling infiltration had favored early-successional herbs, grasses and forbs and negatively affected late successional, slow-growing mosses and lichens. Sprinkling infiltration had significantly increased tree radial growth. Sprinkling infiltration is an environment altering soil treatment method which, based on the findings of this study, can have long-term effects on tree growth, soil processes and understory vegetation.